To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Patients with schizophrenia have a four-fold increased all-cause and a doubled cardiovascular mortality rate as compared to the general population.
The study overall investigates the point-prevalence and prospective changes in cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, with baseline demographics of participants presented here.
A prospective study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia divided into two subpopulations consisting of newly diagnosed (≤2 years from baseline in study (group A)) or chronic (diagnosed ≥10 years from baseline in study (group B)).
A total of 199 patients (57 diagnosed ≤2 years preceding baseline and 142 diagnosed ≥10 years ago) were included. Group A had been diagnosed for an average of 1.13±0.58 years and 21.19±7.62 years in group B. The majority (n=135 (67.8%)) were diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. At baseline PANSS total (median[Q1;Q3]) for group A was 61.0[51.0;76.0] and 60.0[48.0;76.0] for group B, with PANNS Positive being 17.0[13.0;20.0] and 15.0[12;19], PANSS Negative being 16.0[11.0;20.0] and 14.5[10.0;20.0], and PANSS General being 28.0[22.0;35.0] and30.0 [25.0;37.0], respectively. No difference in Clinical Global Impression was observed between groups ((median[Q1;Q3): 4.0[3.0;4.0] in both groups). Lastly, global assessment of function was similar between groups ((median[Q1;Q3): group A symptom: 38.5[37.0;46.0] and group B 41.0[37.0;52.0], and with function being 48.0[44.5;53.5] in group A and 45.5[41.0;53.0] in group B).
Prospective studies investigating prevalence of and prospective changes in cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia are essential to understand the increased all-cause and cardiovascular specific mortality. Demographic descriptions of participants are essential to estimate generalizability in different treatment settings.
Patients with schizophrenia have a reduced life expectancy compared to the general population, and cardiovascular diseases contribute to this. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with excess all-cause mortality and specifically with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for PAD, such as diabetes, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity, are more common among patients with schizophrenia which could contribute to a possibly higher prevalence of PAD among patients with schizophrenia.
To investigate PAD utilizing toe brachial index (TBI) in a population of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia with the purpose of establishing prevalence rates amongst newly diagnosed as well as more chronic patients.
A cross-sectional study of patients with schizophrenia (ICD10-diagnosis F20 or F25) with a study population of 57 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia within the last 2 years, psychiatric healthy controls matched by age, sex and smoking status and 142 patients with a schizophrenia diagnosis more than 10 years ago. The primary outcome is TBI in patients with schizophrenia stratified to the two subpopulations. The TBI will be calculated from the arm and toe systolic pressures. The toe pressures were measured using photoplethysmography (SysToe®, Atys Medical).
No results are available yet. The cohort will be described by age, sex, smoking status, body fat percentage and physical comorbidities. The TBI of the two subpopulations will be compared with psychiatrically healthy controls using paired t-tests if data is normally distributed. If transformation is unsuitable, Wilcoxon test will be carried out instead.
No results are available yet. Results will be presented at the EPA’s congress 2021.
Se analizan las redes de tráfico de la Quebrada de Humahuaca en tiempos del “fenómeno Isla”, evaluando críticamente el protagonismo atribuido a Tiwanaku en su organización. Con este fin se presentan las investigaciones realizadas en Muyuna —uno de los principales sitios de la época en la Quebrada— ofreciendo información novedosa sobre contextos domésticos y funerarios, economía y modo de vida. Un análisis bayesiano de todas las dataciones disponibles para el componente Isla lo ubican entre fines del siglo once y comienzos del siglo catorce dC. Estos resultados, junto con el probable origen de los bienes presentes en estos contextos, llevan a concluir que las interacciones con otras regiones de los Andes circumpuneños fueron más importantes para los procesos de diferenciación social en las comunidades Isla que las relaciones con el estado Tiwanaku. En este marco, cobran especial relevancia la relación con el Río Grande de San Juan y la gravitación de ciertos colectivos supra-regionales (pastores, consumidores de alucinógenos) que podrían introducir una dimensión heterárquica en la organización de las redes sur andinas.
Donkeys have been used as working animals for transport and farm activities worldwide. Recently, in European countries, there has been an increasing interest in donkeys due to their use as pets, onotherapy or milk production. During 2014–2016, a countrywide survey was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of principal helminth infections in 1775 donkeys in 77 Italian farms. A questionnaire on management and parasite control practices was filled out for each farm. Faecal samples were examined using a modified McMaster technique, a centrifugation/flotation method and a sedimentation technique. Pooled coprocultures were performed for differentiation of strongylid eggs. Strongyles were the most common parasites detected (84.9%), followed by Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (6.9%), Oxyuris equi (5.8%), Parascaris spp. (3.6%), Anoplocephala spp. (1.0%), Strongyloides westeri (0.3%). Coprocultures revealed an omnipresence of cyathostomins (100%), followed by Strongylus vulgaris (31.0%), Poteriostomum spp. (25.0%), Triodontophorus spp. (9.0%), Strongylus edentatus (7.0%), Strongylus equinus (5.0%). Logistic regression analysis identified breed, co-pasture with horses, living area, herd size and number of treatments as significantly associated with strongyles. Sex, age, living area and herd size were significantly associated with Parascaris spp. Dictyocaulus arnfieldi was significantly associated with sex, grass, co-pasture with horses, living area and herd size. Strongylus vulgaris was significantly associated with living area and herd size. The mean number of anthelmintic treatments/year was 1.4; most of the donkeys (71.8%) were dewormed using an ivermectin drug. It is important to design parasite programs to specifically address both D. arnfieldi and S. vulgaris in donkeys, and this is especially important if donkeys co-graze with horses.
Behavioural design is a critical means to address challenges surrounding human behaviour. However, practitioners and researcher face difficulties in synthesising relevant perspectives from across fields as behavioural challenges are complex and multi-dimensional. Taking a theory-building approach, this study explore how expert behavioural designers navigate in this complex design space by examining the creative outcome of their current ideation practice. The findings reveal that the designers favour ‘holding’ out of the four identified ideation patterns: holding, shifting, pairing, and mixing.
Use of antimicrobials for food-producing animals is a major public concern due to the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Although dairy production has a relatively low usage of antimicrobials, the potential for further reduction should be explored. The objective of the study was to estimate the current differences in antimicrobial use in Danish organic and conventional dairy herds and to describe the differences between them. Based on data from three different sources, 2604 herds (306 organic and 2298 conventional) were identified for the study. These herds had been either organic or conventional for the entire period from 2015 to 2018. Antimicrobial use was calculated as the treatment incidence in Animal Daily Doses (ADDs)/100 animals/day for three age groups: adult cattle, young stock and calves. For adult cattle, the ratio of median treatment incidence between conventional and organic production ranged from 2.8 : 1 to 3.4 : 1, depending on the specific year. For cows, 25% of the organic herds had a higher treatment incidence than the 25% of conventional herds with the lowest treatment incidence. Antimicrobial use for young stock was low and at a similar level in both the organic and conventional production systems. For calves, the median treatment incidence was 1.2 times higher in conventional herds and 1.6 times higher for the 75th percentile. Analyses of treatment incidence in adult cattle showed an overall decrease from 2015 to 2018 in both organic and conventional herds. The decrease was greater for the conventional herds (0.12 ADD/100 animals/day) compared to the organic herds (0.04 ADD/100 animals/day) over the 4-year period. In addition, herd size was an important risk factor for treatment incidence in conventional herds, increasing by 0.07 ADD/100 animals/day per 100 cows, whereas herd size had a minor influence on the treatment incidence in organic herds. The results of this study demonstrate the large variation in antimicrobial use within both organic and conventional herds, suggesting that further reduction is possible. Furthermore, herd size appears to be a risk factor in conventional herds but not in organic herds – an aspect that should be studied in more detail.
Current sea-level rise partly stems from increased surface melting and meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet. Multi-year snow, also known as firn, covers about 80% of the ice sheet and retains part of the surface meltwater. Since the firn cold content integrates its physical and thermal characteristics, it is a valuable tool for determining the meltwater-retention potential of firn. We use gap-filled climatological data from nine automatic weather stations in the ice-sheet accumulation area to drive a surface-energy-budget and firn model, validated against firn density and temperature observations, over the 1998–2017 period. Our results show a stable top 20 m firn cold content (CC20) at most sites. Only at the lower-elevation Dye-2 site did CC20 decrease, by 24% in 2012, before recovering to its original value by 2017. Heat conduction towards the surface is the main process feeding CC20 at all nine sites, while CC20 reduction occurs through low-cold-content fresh-snow addition at the surface during snowfall and latent-heat release when meltwater refreezes. Our simulations suggest that firn densification, while reducing pore space for meltwater retention, increases the firn cold content, enhances near-surface meltwater refreezing and potentially sets favourable conditions for ice-slab formation.
This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.
Recent developments of the Danish Health Care Sector have created new, large scale specialised units with standardized trajectories for patients undergoing diagnostic assessment. In the present study, the assessment process is defined as the psychosocial process through which clinical knowledge about the patients’ illness is collected and evaluated.
A group of patients, the complex patients, present diffuse symptoms and may have rivalling illnesses and needs help from various specialised functions. This group of patients can have problems getting their diffuse symptoms categorised and legitimised.
The aim of the study is to gain knowledge about how complex patients are diagnostically assessed in specialised units. The focus will be on organizational, professionals and patient perspectives. Knowledge about diagnostic assessment is important because it is a great individual, social and economic problem that complex patients are circulated in the health care system without a proper diagnosis and treatment.
The diagnostic process will be examined in two specialised units, a sclerosis unit and a mental health unit. Both clinics are specialised in assessment of patients who have complex problems. The clinical experience is that these units often get patients referred, which have not been possible to assess anywhere else in the system.
The sample will consist of 20 patients, who are categorized as complex patients, as well as the healthcare professionals who are affiliated with the patients. Data will be collected by means of ethnographic fieldwork, interviews, audio recordings of consultations, collection of journals and written material from the units.
Exercise addiction is characterized by compulsive and excessive exercise patterns that eventually can lead to musculoskeletal injury. While exercise leads to increased self-esteem and is a useful tool for emotional regulation, the level of psychosocial distress may be negatively affected by such injuries.
The prevalence proportions of post-injury depression and emotional stress in athletes with exercise addiction have not previously been explored and compared to non-addicted athletes.
We wanted to test the hypothesis that athletes with addiction profiles react to injury with higher levels of emotional and social distress compared to athletes without addiction.
A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total of 1167 athletes (673 with diagnosed musculoskeletal injuries and 494 without present injury) responded to the following questionnaires: The Exercise Addiction Inventory, The Major Depression Inventory, The Perceived Stress Scale and EQ-5D to assess quality of life.
We found that 26% of the injured athletes with exercise addiction had symptoms of major depression and 53% reported emotional distress. These proportions were significantly greater compared with the injured non-addicted athletes where 11% had symptoms of major depression and 28% reported stress. Quality of life was also significantly reduced in the addiction group.
Injured athletes with exercise addiction report more post-injury psychosocial distress compared with injured non-addicted exercisers. Future trials need to investigate the effect of emotional assessment and support as a complement intervention to somatic injury treatment. Injured athletes should be examined for exercise addiction as they are at risk of depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The western societies have a rapidly aging population and an increasing number of elderly with alcohol use disorders.
The purpose of the elderly study is to develop and test an outpatient behavior therapy program for people with an alcohol use disorders.
Aim of this abstract
To investigate the association between ages, gender, drinking pattern and psychology distress.
The study is a randomized study expected to enroll and treat 1000 participants aged 60+ years before April 2017; 200 in USA; 400 in Germany and 400 in Denmark. To be included in the study the participants have to fulfil the DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder. All participants are examined at baseline, and at four follow up interviews. After the baseline interview all participants are randomized to Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET); or MET followed by 8 weeks of counseling based on the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) with a module added to address problems relevants to elderly people.
The presentation will include baseline characteristics of the Danish participants including demographics, expectations to treatment, history of drinking in the last 90 days before baseline and their psychological distress. We have now enrolled 259 participants in the Danish database. We expect to present results from 320 patients.
The data will present information about the profile of 60+ years’ individuals seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, and thereby provide knowledge about which characteristics that may be important when planning treatment for this age group.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Tail biting is a welfare and economical concern in modern pig production. One common preventive measure used throughout the world is tail docking, which is generally considered one of the most effective methods for limiting tail biting. However, tail docking is a painful mutilation and systematic tail docking is not allowed in the EU. Therefore, the aim was to compare pig behaviour and the prevalence of tail biting in finishing pigs with intact tails housed in two different pen designs under Danish commercial conditions. PEN1 was a traditional Danish pen and PEN2 was inspired by Swedish finisher pen design and had a larger proportion of solid floor area (PEN1: 1/3 and PEN2: 2/3), reduced group size (PEN1: 15 and PEN2: 12), increased space allowance per head (PEN1: 0.7 m2 and PEN2: 0.89 m2) and straw allocated on the floor (PEN2) whereas straw was provided in a straw rack in PEN1. Tail damage observations were carried out daily by the stockperson and every 2 weeks one trained research technician assessed tail damages according to a tail scoring system. Tail lesions were observed in 51% of PEN1 and in 11% of PEN2 (P < 0.001). PEN1 had higher prevalence of tail damages than PEN2 (23% v. 5%, P < 0.001). Behavioural observations were carried out by the use of video recordings. Pigs in PEN2 tended to spend more time on tail-directed behaviour than pigs in PEN1 (P = 0.07), whereas pigs in PEN1 tended to spend more time on ear-directed behaviour (P = 0.08). Pigs in PEN2 spent more time on straw-directed behaviour compared to pigs in PEN1 (P < 0.001). Pen design did not affect time spent on other penmate-directed behaviour. In addition, the level of welfare between the two pen designs was compared using the Welfare Quality® protocol. PEN2 received an overall score of ‘excellent’ while PEN1 scored ‘enhanced’. PEN2 scored higher on all principles besides ‘good health’, where PEN1 scored better on lameness and wounds. The main measurements accounting for the differences were water supply, huddling, tail biting, social behaviour and fear of humans. In conclusion, the combination of increased space allowance, increased area of solid flooring, straw allocated onto the floor and reduced group size (PEN2) resulted in fewer tail damaged pigs and a better overall welfare assessment, despite a tendency for more tail-directed behaviour.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
In vitro maintenance of helminth parasites enables a variety of molecular, pharmaceutical and immunological analyses. Currently, the nutritional and environmental in vitro requirements of the equine ascarid parasite, Parascaris spp., have not been determined. Additionally, an objective method for assessing viability of Parascaris spp. intestinal stages does not exist. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the in vitro requirements of intestinal stages of Parascaris spp., and to develop a viability assessment method. A total of 1045 worms were maintained in a total of 212 cultures. Worms obtained from naturally infected foals at necropsy were immediately placed in culture flasks containing 200 mL of culture media. A variety of media types, nutrient supplementation and environmental conditions were examined. A motility-based scoring system was used to assess worm viability. Worms maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 had significantly better viability than any other media (P < 0.0001) and all media types supplemented with any of the nutrients examined (P < 0.0001). The use of a platform rocker also significantly improved viability (P = 0.0305). This is the first study to examine the requirements for maintaining Parascaris spp. intestinal stages in vitro and to evaluate their viability based on movement using an objective scoring system.
A wealth of clinical studies have identified objective biomarkers, which separate schizophrenia patients from healthy controls on a group level, but current diagnostic systems solely include clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate if machine learning algorithms on multimodal data can serve as a framework for clinical translation.
Forty-six antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 58 controls underwent neurocognitive tests, electrophysiology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients underwent clinical assessments before and after 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. Nine configurations of different supervised machine learning algorithms were applied to first estimate the unimodal diagnostic accuracy, and next to estimate the multimodal diagnostic accuracy. Finally, we explored the predictability of symptom remission.
Cognitive data significantly classified patients from controls (accuracies = 60–69%; p values = 0.0001–0.009). Accuracies of electrophysiology, structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging did not exceed chance level. Multimodal analyses with cognition plus any combination of one or more of the remaining three modalities did not outperform cognition alone. None of the modalities predicted symptom remission.
In this multivariate and multimodal study in antipsychotic-naïve patients, only cognition significantly discriminated patients from controls, and no modality appeared to predict short-term symptom remission. Overall, these findings add to the increasing call for cognition to be included in the definition of schizophrenia. To bring about the full potential of machine learning algorithms in first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients, careful a priori variable selection based on independent data as well as inclusion of other modalities may be required.
Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44% smallholder (<3 ha), 26% medium (3–5 ha) and 30% large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56%) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95%), sowing rate (98%) and insect and pest management (75%) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3%) and production technologies (14%) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100% of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.
The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010–2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.
Infield route planning is used to optimise field operations in order to decrease operational costs and environmental impacts. Route planners must be able to plan operations within real fields and account for real situations such as irregular shapes and obstacles. Therefore, a representative set of fields is required to robustly test the route planner. Instead of choosing randomly, which may result in a non-representative sample of the diversity of fields; a stratification strategy was used to separate the field dataset into strata. Proportional sampling from each stratum provided a representative sample of 217 fields, out of the original set of 603,218 from the Danish field database.
Methyl isonicotinate is one of several patented 4-pyridyl carbonyl compounds being investigated for a variety of uses in thrips pest management. It is probably the most extensively studied thrips non-pheromone semiochemical, with field and glasshouse trapping experiments, and wind tunnel and Y-tube olfactometer studies in several countries demonstrating a behavioural response that results in increased trap capture of at least 12 thrips species, including the cosmopolitan virus vectors such as western flower thrips and onion thrips. Methyl isonicotinate has several of the characteristics that are required for an effective semiochemical tool and is being mainly used as a lure in combination with coloured sticky traps for enhanced monitoring of thrips in greenhouses. Research indicates that this non-pheromone semiochemical has the potential to be used for other thrips management strategies such as mass trapping, lure and kill, lure and infect, and as a behavioural synergist in conjunction with insecticides, in a range of indoor and outdoor crops.
In 2015, Denmark launched an automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections, the Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA).
To describe the algorithm used in HAIBA, to determine its concordance with point prevalence surveys (PPSs), and to present trends for hospital-acquired bacteremia
Private and public hospitals in Denmark
A hospital-acquired bacteremia case was defined as at least 1 positive blood culture with at least 1 pathogen (bacterium or fungus) taken between 48 hours after admission and 48 hours after discharge, using the Danish Microbiology Database and the Danish National Patient Registry. PPSs performed in 2012 and 2013 were used for comparison.
National trends showed an increase in HA bacteremia cases between 2010 and 2014. Incidence was higher for men than women (9.6 vs 5.4 per 10,000 risk days) and was highest for those aged 61–80 years (9.5 per 10,000 risk days). The median daily prevalence was 3.1% (range, 2.1%–4.7%). Regional incidence varied from 6.1 to 8.1 per 10,000 risk days. The microorganisms identified were typical for HA bacteremia. Comparison of HAIBA with PPS showed a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 99%. HAIBA was less sensitive for patients in hematology departments and intensive care units. Excluding these departments improved the sensitivity of HAIBA to 44%.
Although the estimated sensitivity of HAIBA compared with PPS is low, a PPS is not a gold standard. Given the many advantages of automated surveillance, HAIBA allows monitoring of HA bacteremia across the healthcare system, supports prioritizing preventive measures, and holds promise for evaluating interventions.