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Junglerice is becoming more prevalent in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi row crop fields. The evolution of glyphosate-resistant (GR) junglerice populations is one reason for the increase. Another possible explanation is that glyphosate and clethodim grass activity is being antagonized by dicamba. This question has led to research to examine whether sequential applications alleviate antagonism observed with dicamba plus glyphosate and/or clethodim mixtures and determine whether sequential treatments with those herbicides at 24 h, 72 h, or 168 h can improve junglerice control. Glyphosate + clethodim applications provided >90% junglerice control. The observed levels of antagonism varied by whether the location of the test was in the greenhouse or the field, and the timing of applications. In the greenhouse, clethodim + dicamba provided excellent control, whereas in the field, the same treatment showed a greater than 30% reduction in junglerice control compared with clethodim alone. However, control was restored by using a mixture of glyphosate + clethodim without dicamba. The environment at the time of application and relative GR level of the junglerice influenced the overall control of these sequential applications. When clethodim applied first followed by dicamba at 72 h or 168 h, better control was observed compared with applying dicamba followed by clethodim. Overall, mixing glyphosate + clethodim provided the most complete junglerice control regardless of timing. These data confirm that leaving dicamba out of the spray tank will mitigate herbicide antagonism on junglerice control. These data would also indicate that avoiding dicamba and glyphosate mixtures will also improve the consistency of control with glyphosate-susceptible junglerice.
Junglerice has become a major weed in the mid-south and other areas of the United States. Glyphosate resistance has been documented in junglerice populations and is part of the reason for the increase in its prevalence. However, reduced junglerice control with glyphosate + dicamba and clethodim + dicamba mixtures has been observed in many production fields where glyphosate resistance has not yet evolved. Therefore, research was conducted to assess reduced junglerice control with glyphosate and clethodim when applied with dicamba. Adding dicamba to the spray tank with glyphosate reduced junglerice control by 27%. Adding dicamba to the spray tank with clethodim reduced junglerice control by 11%. The use of Turbo Teejet Induction (TTI) nozzles reduced junglerice control an additional 8% compared to applications with an air induction extended range (AIXR) nozzle. When a drift reduction agent (DRA) was added to dicamba mixtures with glyphosate or clethodim, junglerice control was reduced 36%. Junglerice control was similar with the glyphosate + dicamba treatment compared to the glyphosate + 2,4-D mixture. There was no interaction between nozzles and herbicide treatment. Regardless of herbicide treatment junglerice control was always lower when applied with the ultracourse TTI nozzle. Many applicators in Tennessee prefer to make one application of glyphosate + dicamba in a mixture to save time (authors’ personal experience). These results show that the addition of dicamba to glyphosate or clethodim applied with labeled nozzles and a DRA results in reduced junglerice control and should be avoided.
Junglerice has become a major weed in Tennessee cotton and soybean fields. Glyphosate has been relied on to control these accessions over the past two decades, but in recent years cotton and soybean producers have reported junglerice escapes after glyphosate + dicamba and/or clethodim applications. In the growing seasons of 2018 and 2019, a survey was conducted of weed escapes in dicamba-resistant (DR) crops. Junglerice was the most prevalent weed escape in these DR (Roundup Ready Xtend®) cotton and soybean fields in both years of the study. In 2018 and 2019, junglerice was found 76% and 64% of the time in DR cotton and soybean fields, respectively. Progeny from junglerice seeds collected during this survey was screened for glyphosate and clethodim resistance. Seventy percent of the junglerice accessions tested had an effective relative resistance factor to glyphosate of 3.1 to 8.5. In all, 13% of the junglerice accessions could no longer be effectively controlled with glyphosate. This research also showed that all sampled accessions could still be controlled with clethodim in a greenhouse environment, but less control was observed in the field. These data also suggest that another cause for the poor junglerice control is dicamba antagonism of glyphosate and clethodim activity.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Atrazine applied at planting is commonly used for weed control in corn. With global climate change causing an increase in river flooding in the United States over the past decade, producers need information to determine the best course of action in flooded fields treated with atrazine into which they wish to immediately plant soybean. Studies were designed to understand the effect of flooding on atrazine residual activity including atrazine concentration, soybean injury, and soybean yield. In 2012, soybean yield in flooded treatments was reduced by prior atrazine application. In 2014, soybean injury was <10% in all plots, and nonflooded, atrazine-treated soils had yields equal to the nontreated. Findings from this research indicated that it is possible for producers to consider replanting soybean after atrazine application, with appropriate changes to product labeling.
The evolution and widespread distribution of glyphosate-resistant broadleaf weed species catalyzed the introduction of dicamba-resistant crops that allow this herbicide to be applied POST to soybean and cotton. Applications of dicamba that are most cited for off-target movement have occurred in June and July in many states when weeds are often in high densities and at least 10 cm or taller at the time of application. For registration purposes, most field studies examining pesticide emissions are conducted using bare ground or very small plants. Research was conducted in Knoxville, TN, in the summer of 2017, 2018, and 2019 to examine the effect of application surface (tilled soil, dead plants, green plants) on dicamba emissions under field conditions. Dicamba emissions after application were affected by the treated surface in all years, with the order from least to most emissions being dead plants < tilled soil < green plant material. In fact, dicamba emissions were >300% when applied to green plants compared to other surfaces. These findings suggest that dicamba applications made to bare ground will likely underestimate what may occur under normal field use conditions when POST applications are made and the crop canopy or weed groundcover is nearly 100% green material. A potential change to enhance the accuracy of current environmental simulation models would be to increase the theoretical findings to allow for the effect of green plant material on dicamba emissions under field conditions.
There are various strategies to control complexity and variety growth in ETO businesses. Such portfolio rationalization initiatives sometimes stall. This paper elaborates on the challenges that cause this. Challenges described in literature and challenges seen in five different industry cases are consolidated. The challenges are combined into groups and presented in the ADKAR change management model. The authors intend this list to be used for guidance In industry and expect the collection to be extended with future industry cases and challenges.
Engineer-To-Order (ETO) companies develop complex one-of-a-kind products based on specific customer demands. Given the product uniqueness, the commissioning plays an important role in the product development process. However, the project variety and low data availability hinder the analysis of the commissioning processes. This paper proposes a framework for the structured analysis of commissioning processes in ETO companies by analysing the impacts from product requirements and design on the commissioning performance. A case study presents the practical application of the developed framework.
It is important to be able to compare and evaluate different solutions early in development. This paper proposes a method for structuring historical data into a data model that can support the evaluation of new design concepts. The data is contextualized by linking it to a hierarchical decomposition of existing products. Two case studies were conducted to evaluate the value of using historical data when evaluating new concepts. The cases confirm that the proposed method is useful for evaluation of new concepts.
Schizophrenics differ in their outcome mainly because different response and side effects to treatment, and clinicians do not have good instruments to choose the best antipsychotic (AP) for each individual. Weight gain is a frequently observed side effect with many AP treatments and seems to be underreported and under-recognized in many patients.
The potential effect of the Trp64Arg variant in beta3 adrenergic receptor gene on weight gain and obesity was investigated applying meta-analytic techniques, combining all published data while restricting our analysis to studies investigating the Trp64Arg in antipsychotic-induced weight gain and obesity. We also investigated whether ancestry (Caucasian versus African-American) and clinical factors moderated any association.
We found no evidence for association of the Arg64 allele with weight gain and obesity (z= 0.49 p = 0.626) but without significant between studies heterogeneity (chi-squared = 0.17 (d.f. = 1) p = 0.678).
Our meta-analysis does not provide support for the association of Trp64Arg in weight gain but indicates that firmly establishing the role of pharmacogenetics in clinical psychiatry requires much larger sample sizes that have been hitherto reported. On the other hand, the number of the studies employing psychotic patients is too small compared to the number of studies that have investigated this polymorphism in obesity.
Some studies have shown that alexithymic patients respond poorly to pharmacotherapy and that alexithymia may have a negative impact on the naturalistic course of psychiatric illnesses. The view that alexithymic patients are also less responsive to psychotherapy is often described in the literature, but few empirical studies have examined this issue, with inconsistent results.
We conducted two prospective studies (pre/post/follow-up) with patients with panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, to evaluate alexithymia as a potential predictor of the outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) including exposure response management. A further aim was to examine the absolute and relative stability of alexithymia.
Regression analyses revealed that alexithymia, as measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, was related neither to the post-treatment nor to the follow-up outcome. The repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant decrease of alexithymia over time, even after controlling for depression. The high test-retest correlations of alexithymia total and factor scores indicated relative stability of this construct, suggesting that it is a stable personality trait rather than a state-dependent phenomenon in these patients.
The results are encouraging for cognitive-behavior therapists working with alexithymic patients with panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, since the CBT outcome of these patients does not appear to be negatively affected by alexithymia. Furthermore, some alexithymic characteristics may decrease during CBT, even when the therapy program is not specifically directed to alexithymia. Future controlled studies should examine whether these improvements of alexithymia are due to psychotherapeutic interventions, in particular exposure therapy.
Data about quality of life (QoL) are important to estimate the impact of diseases on functioning and well-being. The present study was designed to assess the association of different aspects of panic disorder (PD) with QoL and to examine the relationship between QoL and symptomatic outcome following brief cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT).
The sample consisted of 55 consecutively recruited outpatients suffering from PD who underwent CBGT. QoL was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline, post-treatment and six months follow-up. SF-36 baseline scores were compared with normative data obtained from a large German population sample.
Agoraphobia, disability, and worries about health were significantly associated with decreased QoL, whereas frequency, severity and duration of panic attacks were not. Treatment responders showed significantly better QoL than non-responders. PD symptom reduction following CBGT was associated with considerable improvement in emotional and physical aspects of QoL. However, the vitality subscale of the SF-36 remained largely unchanged over time.
Our results are encouraging for cognitive-behavior therapists who treat patients suffering from PD in groups, since decrease of PD symptoms appears to be associated with considerable improvements in QoL. Nevertheless, additional interventions designed to target specific aspects of QoL, in particular vitality, may be useful to enhance patients’ well-being.
Under naturalistic conditions the influence of monotherapy versus combined therapy on the outcome of psychoeducation was to be investigated. As amisulpride has a very positive receptor profile and causes no sedation, it was of interest to which degree amisulpride has a positive influence on knowledge gain in comparison to other atypicals.
In-patients with schizophrenia (ICD -10: F2) under therapy with atypicals. 8 psychoeducational group sessions; indication for groups independent of psychopathology, insight and compliance. Medication with atypicals non restricted.
94 patients (47% female, 35 years), 40 % (38 of 94) were treated at discharge with a monotherapy and 60 % with a combination of atypicals. PANSS monotherapy at admission: 74; at discharge: 49. Patients with combination therapy had significantly higher values: 92 at admission and 66 at discharge (p<0.001). Knowledge-gain was comparable; monotherapy group: Mean= 6,0 (SD 6,5); combination therapy: Mean=6,9 (SD 12,4) (n.s.). 23 % (22 of 94) got amisulpride (5 in monotherapy and 17 in combination). Concerning safety profile and therapeutic effectiveness the non-inferior hypothesis could be confirmed. Patients with monotherapy of amisulpride at discharge had a mean knowledge gain of 10.7; that was higher than the mean knowledge gain of 6.5 of all patients (n.s.).
Monotherapy with atypicals was only possible among 40 %. Psychoeducation is efficient for severely ill patients with combined therapy as well. Amisulpride monotherapy showed a knowledge-gain higher than the average atypicals. For patients with high expectations concerning rehabilitation, a monotherapy with amisulpride seems to be useful.
Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the capacity to attribute certain independent mental states, contents and processes to others - such as desires, concepts, intentions, beliefs and emotions (Wimmer & Perner, 1983). As there is a body of research with respect to the development of ToM in children, much less is known about adult mentalizing abilities, especially regarding the relationship between cognitive functioning and ToM. The present study aims to investigate a new instrument, called ToM-Stories and its relationship to the established ToM-Picture-Test (Bruene et al. 2005) and to cognitive functioning by using the Trail Making Test. Our ToM-Stories consist of brief stories, each describing a real life situation of various degree of complexity. All of them involve unintended misleadings in the sense of a false belief. Their comprehension requires mindreading at different levels of intentionality. The sample was composed of 79 adults, 45 (57%) women and 34 (43%) men, ranging in age from 18 to 88. Reliability analyses of the ToM-Stories yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.79 (false belief-first order), 0.74 (false belief-second order), and 0.65 (false belief-third order). Correlation analyses showed moderate values between ToM-Stories and the Tom-Picture-Test (r = 0.496; p ≤ 0.0001) as well as the Trail Making Test B-A (r = −0.481; p ≤ 0.0001). The findings of the current study provide evidence that cognitive flexibility is an important competence in promoting representational understanding of the mind.
The Hayling Sentence Competion Test (HSCT) consists of two sections and measures response initiation and inhibitory control. In the first section subjects are instructed to produce a single word to complete a sentence and in the response inhibition condition subjects are instructed to produce a contextually unconnected word. Several studies evidence that these abilities, which are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and dysexecutive symptoms in evereyday life (Burgess & Shallice, 1996b), are impaired in psychiatric patients particularly in patients with schizophenia and major depression (Gohier et al., 2009; Chan et al., 2010; Joshua et al., 2009). The present study aims to examine the adapted German version of the HSCT by Willinger and Diendorfer (2009) upon a non-clinical sample and its relationship to Stroop-Test. The sample was composed of 74 adults (36 women and 38 men) ranging in age from 19 to 66. Reliability analyses of the HSCT yielded a Cronbachs's alpha of 0.45 (response initiation), and 0.92 (response inhibition). Correlation analyses between Stroop Cards 1 and 2 and HSCT initiation condition showed a medium effect (r = 0.378; p = 0.001), further correlation analyses indicated no assocation between Stroop Card 3 and HSCT inhibition condition (r = 0.070; p = 0.560). The high reliability regarding response inhibition seems to be promising. Further investigations considering executive functions such as word fluency are necessary.
The course of depression during therapy in studies is usually monitored by scales like HAMD. Also the course of single items of the HAMD during therapy might be of specific interest as some symptoms are of highly predictive value. Furthermore early improvement during antidepressive therapy is a new aspect which came into the focus.
The objectives of this study were to reanalyze clinical data regarding early improvement as well as specific symptoms or symptom cluster – like sleep disturbances.
The aim of this study was to get deeper insight into the data structure of 2 RCTs (n = 398, 42 days treatment) comparing the efficacy of a hypericum extract (STW3-VI/900 mg once daily) to Placebo.
Data structure was evaluated by comparing the total scores of the HAMD-17 to a single item analysis and by calculating the factorial structure of the end of treatment data. The treatment potential was evaluated by calculating a positive predictive value from day 7 to the end of treatment. ANCOVA, factor analysis and regression methods were used.
The single item analyses were widely comparable to the highly significant treatment differences of the total scores as it were the calculated subscales. The positive predictive value of the treatment was about 75%.
The results underline the elsewhere proven treatment efficacy of STW3-VI regarding several new subscale aspects.
Disclosure of interest
COI: The authors are employees of Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany.
Several lines of evidence suggest that children born via Cesarean section (C-section) are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes including allergies, asthma and obesity. Vaginal seeding is a medical procedure in which infants born by C-section are swabbed immediately after birth with vaginal secretions from the mother. This procedure has been proposed as a way to transfer the mother's vaginal microbiome to the child, thereby restoring the natural exposure that occurs during vaginal birth that is interrupted in the case of babies born via C-section. Preliminary evidence indicates partial restoration of microbes. However, there is insufficient evidence to determine the health benefits of the procedure. Several studies, including trial, are currently underway. At the same time, in the clinic setting, doctors are increasingly being asked to by expectant mothers to have their babies seeded. This article reports on the current research on this procedure and the issues it raises for regulators, researchers, physicians, and patients.
Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
The pH of spray mixtures is an important attribute that affects dicamba volatility under field conditions. This report examined the effect of different components added to water sources that ranged in initial pH from 4.6 to 8.4. Commercial products were used, which include formulations of dicamba, glyphosate, the drift retardant Intact, ammonium sulfate (AMS), and several pH modifiers. Adding BAPMA salt of dicamba always increased the mixture pH, whereas diglycolamine + VaporGrip® (DGA+VG) had a mixed response. The addition of AMS decreased pH slightly (usually <0.5 pH unit), whereas the addition of potassium salt of glyphosate (GLY-K) always decreased the measured pH (from 1.0 to 2.1 pH units). A substantial pH change could have profound effects on dicamba volatility. Moreover, the 1.0 to 2.1 pH units would not be consistent with the registrant’s report stating that GLY-K decreased mixtures with DGA+VG pH by only 0.2 to 0.3 units. The drift retardant Intact had no effect on pH. There was no difference in resultant pH when comparing K salt and isopropylamine (IPA) salts of glyphosate. Spray carrier volume, ranging from 94 to 187 L ha–1, had only a minor effect on measured pH after the addition of various spray components. The addition of selected pH modifiers raised the pH above 5.0, which is a critical value according to the latest dicamba application labels. The order of mixing of various pH modifiers, including AMS, had only limited effect on measured spray solution pH.