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The provisioning of foraging opportunities to primates has been shown to be an effective means of enriching the laboratory environment. In this study artificial turf was used as the substrate for a particulate food given to the subjects as an environmental enrichment technique. Eight rhesus monkeys exhibited a significant reduction in behavioural pathology when allowed to extend the amount of time they spent in consummatory activities. An increasing trend in time spent foraging with a concomitant decline in aberrant behaviour over a period of six months was particularly noteworthy. No significant difference in preference for particulate monkey chow or more flavourful particulate food treats was expressed by the primates.
Despite increased focus on ascertaining the status of elasmobranch fish, the stock units for many species are uncertain. Data from mark-recapture tagging studies undertaken from 1959–2017 were analysed for 13 batoid species. Data were most comprehensive for skates (Rajidae), with 22,374 released and 3342 (14.9%) returned. Most data related to thornback ray Raja clavata, blonde ray R. brachyura and spotted ray R. montagui. Tags were generally returned from areas less than 50 km from their release, and usually from the ICES Division in which they were released. However, straight-line distances travelled of up to 910 km (R. brachyura) and 772 km (R. clavata) were recorded, highlighting that individual skates are capable of longer-distance movements. The maximum time at liberty was 16.6 years (R. clavata). Whilst mark-recapture data indicated that the current stock units used by ICES are broadly appropriate, southward movements of several skate species tagged off Northern Ireland (Division 6.a) to the Irish Sea (Division 7.a) were observed. In contrast, skates tagged in the Irish Sea and Bristol Channel (Division 7.f) generally remained in that area, with only occasional recaptures from Division 6.a.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Embolisms in the vessels of maize axile roots of different types
were observed directly after rapid freezing of intact,
functioning roots in the field, by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.
Quantification of the degree of embolization
in each root was made by counting empty and full vessels of both the
late and early metaxylem (LMX & EMX),
and expressed as percent embolized vessels of the LMX, and %EMX poles
containing embolized vessels.
Contents of the connecting xylem (CX) at branch root junctions, and
of xylem in branch roots were observed also,
but not systematically quantified. Records of % embolized vessels were
made from dawn to dusk on summer days
in Ottawa under moderate irradiance, and in Canberra under high irradiance.
Measurements in Canberra were
supported by estimates of irradiance, of stomatal conductance, and of
chamber balance pressure of bagged and
unbagged leaves. Soon after sunrise embolisms appeared in all types of
vessel, at balance pressures c. 300–400 kPa,
and increased rapidly with increasing irradiance. During the middle of
day % embolized vessels reached a
maximum (LMX ≈70% in Ottawa, and ≈80% in Canberra). At all times
EMX vessels were less embolized.
The midday maximum was brief in Ottawa, and % embolized vessels fell to
low value during the afternoon. In
Canberra the maximum was prolonged into late afternoon. By dusk nearly
all vessels were once again filled with
sap. The balance pressures measured during vessel refilling in Canberra
ranged from 500 kPa to 1200 kPa. At all
times of the day sap was seen entering some embolized vessels. Almost
all were refilling by mid- to late-afternoon.
Such refilling was especially frequent at junctions of branch roots with
the axile roots. X-ray microanalysis of the
sap entering the vessels, and of the liquid filling or partly
filling vessels, showed the concentration of mineral
solutes present in the sap was below the threshold of detection
(≈12 mM). These results are discussed in relation
to current opinions about embolisms and vessel refilling.
The phenomenon of stress in Old English (OE) has been the subject of thorough and extensive study for well over a century. Indeed the foundation for any modern study remains the work of Eduard Sievers (1885, 1893a, b), well summarized in Campbell (1959). The present paper is not concerned with a revision of the ‘facts’ of Sievers' account, although we shall note below instances where we disagree with those facts, but rather with a linguistic explanation of those facts. Sievers' account is essentially a statistical presentation of varying stress patterns, and he made little attempt to provide explanations of either frequent patterns, or non-existent ones. The framework in which we shall operate is that of lexicalist metrical phonology. Within that framework we shall attempt to demonstrate that Old English stress was organized in a way very different from that in Modern English. Most particularly we shall suggest that there is a central rule (the Old English Stress Rule = OESR) which, in contrast to the central rule for present-day English (PDE), operated from left-to-right. This, we shall suggest, has direct implications for the operation of other features of stress derivations, such as Destressing. Further, we shall argue that it is probable that level-ordering has no role to play in the stress phonology of Old English.
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