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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Understanding dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of the aging population may help address concerns and dietary guidelines regarding their nutritional needs. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in the oldest old (aged 80 years and older) is related to greater compliance with dietary recommendations and better nutrient intake profiles. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 122 participants aged 82 to 97 years old from the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort in rural Pennsylvania (n = 56 men and 66 women). The main outcome measures of the investigation were the daily nutrient intakes and food group intakes evaluated from the average of three 24-hour dietary recalls. The dietary patterns were determined by cluster analysis from 28 food groups. Diet quality and adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and the Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Recommended intakes were determined by the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Less than 50% of participants met the dietary recommended intakes for vitamins D, E, K, B6, dietary fiber, zinc, potassium, and calcium. The more-nutrient-dense cluster was characterized by higher intakes of fruits and vegetables. The less-nutrient-dense cluster was characterized by higher intakes of foods including desserts and sweets. After adjusting for age, sex, and energy intake, participants in the more-nutrient-dense dietary pattern had a higher intake of vitamins A, D, K, C, fiber, and potassium (p < 0.05 for all). After adjusting for age and sex, participants in the more-nutrient-dense pattern had better diet quality assessed by the (HEI)-2015 (p < 0.001) and DST (p = 0.006). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Among the oldest old, many participants were found to have nutrient intakes lower than the recommended levels for fundamental nutrients suggesting that dietary guidance in addition to a dietary pattern more aligned with dietary guidelines may be beneficial for supporting healthy aging.
Chronic suppurative otitis media is a major cause of disabling childhood hearing loss, especially in low-income countries. Estimates on its prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa range from the lowest to the highest in the world (less than one per cent to more than five per cent). However, the prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media in Zimbabwe is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of paediatric chronic suppurative otitis media and other middle-ear pathology in rural Zimbabwe.
A cross-sectional study was performed in primary school children aged 4–13 years from the rural province of Mashonaland East. Participants underwent video otoscopy and tympanometry.
Out of 451 examined children, two (0.4 per cent) had chronic suppurative otitis media. Acute otitis media was present in one (0.2 per cent), otitis media with effusion was present in five (1.1 per cent) and scarring was present in 69 (15.3 per cent).
Chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis media sequelae were surprisingly uncommon in this sample of rural primary school children in Zimbabwe. More studies, preferably population-based, are needed to enable more precise estimates of chronic suppurative otitis media prevalence in Zimbabwe.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ethical dilemma of prioritising financial resources to expensive biological therapies. For this purpose, the four principles of biomedical ethics formulated by ethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress were used as a theoretical framework. Based on arguments of justice, Beauchamp and Childress advocate for a health care system organised in line with the Danish system. Notably, our study was carried out in a Danish setting.
Germination experiments are becoming increasingly complex and they are now routinely involving several experimental factors. Recently, a two-step approach utilizing meta-analysis methodology has been proposed for the estimation of hierarchical models suitable for describing data from such complex experiments. Step 1 involves fitting models to data from each sub-experiment, whereas Step 2 involves combination estimates from all model fits obtained in Step 1. However, one shortcoming of this approach was that visualization of resulting fitted germination curves was difficult. Here, we describe in detail an improved two-step analysis that allows visualization of cumulated data together with fitted curves and confidence bands. Also, we demonstrate in detail, through two examples, how to carry out the statistical analysis in practice.
Our aim was to develop a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocol to augment treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). This protocol focused specifically upon fear of positive evaluation (FPE). To our knowledge, this is the first protocol that has been designed to systematically target FPE.
To test the feasibility of a brief (two-session) CBT protocol for FPE and report proof-of-principle data in the form of effect sizes.
Seven patients with a principal diagnosis of SAD were recruited to participate. Following a pre-treatment assessment, patients were randomized to either (a) an immediate CBT condition (n = 3), or (b) a comparable wait-list (WL) period (2 weeks; n = 4). Two WL patients also completed the CBT protocol following the WL period (delayed CBT condition). Patients completed follow-up assessments 1 week after completing the protocol.
A total of five patients completed the brief, FPE-specific CBT protocol (two of the seven patients were wait-listed only and did not complete delayed CBT). All five patients completed the protocol and provided 1-week follow-up data. CBT patients demonstrated large reductions in FPE-related concerns as well as overall social anxiety symptoms, whereas WL patients demonstrated an increase in FPE-related concerns.
Our brief FPE-specific CBT protocol is feasible to use and was associated with large FPE-specific and social anxiety symptom reductions. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment report that has focused on systematic treatment of FPE in patients with SAD. Our protocol warrants further controlled evaluation.
In a single-center review of antibiotic prescribing in COVID-19 patients, 10% of patients received antimicrobials, and inpatients encounters had the highest rate and spectrum of prescribing. Prescribing rate, spectrum, and duration appeared to increase with disease severity in inpatients. Antimicrobial prescribing in patients managed in ambulatory encounters was less common.
Prototyping is an essential activity in product development, but novice designers lack awareness and purpose when they prototype. To foster prototyping mindsets in novice designers, we introduce a prototyping support tool that structures prototyping activities. This paper outlines the Prototyping Planner's development, evolution, and evaluation by 125 novice designers. The majority of novice designers’ experienced that the Prototyping Planner helped them create purposeful prototypes and evaluate results from prototyping.
In London, Ontario, discharges from psychiatric wards to shelters or NFA occurred 194 times per year. This discovery led to the creation of a pilot project that provided immediate access to a housing advocate and changed normal policies related to housing and start-up fees for a select group of income support recipients. The intervention was successful; seven participants who received this additional assistance were still housed six months later, whereas 6 of 7 who received usual care were still homeless. The goal of the current study was to determine the strengths and areas for improvement of a method to prevent discharge from hospital to NFA and suggest improvements in preparation for wider implementation.
Phase 2: intervention to all acute psychiatric patients within a general hospital.
Phase 3: intervention to all patients within a specialized tertiary care psychiatric hospital. Intervention included on-ward access to a housing advocate and income support staff which was facilitated through computer linkages to housing and income databases.
Findings revealed the success of the intervention across both acute and tertiary sites. All hypotheses were supported: the rate of discharge to homelessness decreased; those accessing the service were poor; and the cost savings from the program exceeded the cost of implementation. Advantages of the approach included: accessibility and convenience of services on site, positive influence on overall treatment plan and feelings of independence and support. Results reveal the positive influence a cross-sectoral approach has on preventing discharge from psychiatric wards to the streets and shelters.
The number of immigrants using health services has increased across Europe. For assessing and improving the quality of care provided for immigrants, information is required on how many immigrants use services, what interpreting services are provided and whether staff members are from immigrant groups.
Structured interviews were conducted with 15 health services (9 primary care, 3 emergency departments, 3 mental health) located in areas with high immigrant populations in each of 16 European countries (n = 240). Responses were collected on the availability of data on service use by immigrant patients, the provision of interpreting services and immigrant staff members.
Data on service use by immigrants were recorded by only 15% of services. More than 40% of services did not provide any form of interpreting service and 54% of the services reported having no immigrant staff. Mental health services were more likely to use direct interpreting services, and both mental health and emergency services were more likely to have immigrant staff members.
For assessing and improving the quality of care provided for immigrants, there is a need to improve the availability of data on service use by immigrants in health services throughout Europe and to provide more consistent access to interpreting services.
US primary care clinicians (PCCs) are increasingly assuming the medical management for psychiatric disorders. Clinical practice guidelines (PCGs) remain gold standard for professional care, yet physician adoption is not universal. We sought identification of methods to increase evidence-based mental health practices for the most commonly diagnosed pediatric behavioral condition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Test two psychiatric interventions of different intensity levels, both designed to increase primary care clinicians’ use of PCGs for managing ADHD.
Increase PCCs’ use of PCGs for managing ADHD.
Participants: 70 North Carolina (NC) PCCs ; 70 case managers; 35 to 40 pediatric resident physicians; 420 pediatric government-insured patients ages 6-18 years (chart abstraction only).
Procedures: PCCs were randomized to:
(1) PCC training and follow-up support only; or
(2) PCC, case manager, and office staff training (collaborative) and follow-up support interventions.
Differences in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and ADHD assessment and treatment practices assessed by participant selfcompleted surveys at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Six of their patient charts were abstracted to determine the extent they followed American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) treatment guidelines. NC Medicaid (government insurance) claims for children and adolescents of participating practices and a group of control practices were reviewed for diagnostic documentation.
For collaborative trained PCCs:
(1) increased use of ADHD symptom screeners and greater frequency of F/U visits;
(2) greater identification of children with ADHD, but decrease in the probability of receiving an ADHD medication
(3) lower rate of prescribing above dosing guidelines.
To validate the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry (DPCRR) for children and adolescents aged 4 to 15 given in the years 1995 to 2005.
From a total of 4568 participants, a representative random subsample of n = 387 patients were used to validate the diagnosis. Patient files were systematically scored for the presence of ICD-10 criteria for HD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD; F91). Further to this, an inter-rater reliability study was also conducted, whereby two experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists who were blind to patients discharge diagnoses, rated a random subsample of n = 101 participants.
Information was available for 372 out of 387 patients. Out of n = 372 available files, n = 324 (86.8%) were evaluated to fulfil diagnostic criteria for HD. Due to missing information it was not possible to reach a conclusion for 5.1% of the cases, 3.8% of the diagnoses were registration errors, and in 4.3% of the files the diagnosis had to be rejected. Inter-rater agreement was high (κ = 0.83, z = 10.9, P < .001). The validity of hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified (F90.9) was lower and comorbid CD/ODD were under-diagnosed in the sample. All participants fulfilling HD criteria also fulfilled DSM-5-criteria for ADHD.
The risk of misclassification of patients with HD in the DPCRR is relatively low, with the exception of the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified (F90.9).
Early Intervention services with team-based intensive case management and family involvement are superior to standard treatment in reducing psychotic and negative symptoms and comorbid substance abuse and improving social functioning and user satisfaction. The results of the OPUS-trial will be presented together with meta-analyses based on similar trials. The implementation of OPUS all over Denmark will be presented together with the Danish OPUS-fidelity study. Specialized elements are being are being developed such as inclusion of new methods in CBT for psychotic and negative symptoms, neurocognitive and social cognitive training programs, interventions for supported employment and focus on physical health. Results of long term follow-up studies indicate that the prognosis of first episode psychosis is very diverse with the extremes represented by one group being well functioning and able to quit medication without relapse; and another group having a long term chronic course of illness with a need for support to maintain daily activities. The Danish TAILOR-trial–testing dose reduction versus maintenance therapy will be presented. It will be of immense value to be able to intervene in risk groups identified in the premorbid phase, and there are few examples of ongoing trial for children of parent with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Early changes in biomarker levels probably occur before bloodstream infection (BSI) is diagnosed. However, this issue has not been fully addressed. We aimed at evaluating the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma albumin (PA) in the 30 days before community-acquired (CA) BSI diagnosis. From a population-based BSI database we identified 658 patients with at least one measurement of CRP or PA from day −30 (D–30) through day −1 (D–1) before the day of CA-BSI (D0) and a measurement of the same biomarker at D0 or D1. Amongst these, 502 had both CRP and PA measurements which fitted these criteria. CRP and PA concentrations began to change inversely some days before CA-BSI diagnosis, CRP increasing by day −3.1 and PA decreasing by day −1.3. From D–30 to D–4, CRP kinetics (expressed as slopes – rate of concentration change per day) was −1.5 mg/l/day. From D–3 to D1, the CRP slope increased to 36.3 mg/l/day. For albumin, the slope between D–30 to D–2 was 0.1 g/l/day and changed to −1.8 g/l/day between D–1 and D1. We showed that biomarker levels begin to change some days before the CA-BSI diagnosis, CRP 3.1 days and PA 1.3 days before.
Three new cestode species are described from the crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) in Ecuador. All three were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The unique combination of morphological features in one of the new species prompted formal investigation of the non-monophyly of Paraorygmatobothrium relative to the morphologically similar genera Doliobothrium, Guidus, Marsupiobothrium, Nandocestus, Orectolobicestus, Ruhnkecestus and Scyphophyllidium. Sequence data generated for part of the 28S rDNA gene were subjected to maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The resulting tree led to the synonymization of six of these seven genera with Scyphophyllidium, and transfer of their species to the latter genus. With the new species, the number of described members of Scyphophyllidium is now 45. The diagnosis of Scyphophyllidium is revised to accommodate these species. In addition, to expedite future descriptions, eight categories of Scyphophyllidium species are circumscribed, based largely on bothridial features. Scyphophyllidium timvickiorum n. sp. is a category 1 species. Beyond being the smallest category 1 species, it bears, rather than lacks, apical suckers and lacks, rather than bears, strobilar scutes. The two other new species are members of Clistobothrium. Clistobothrium amyae n. sp. differs from its congeners in bothridial shape, elongate cephalic peduncle and tiny size. Clistobothrium gabywalterorum n. sp. differs from the two of its congeners that also possess foliose bothridia in overall size and testis number. Despite their substantial morphological differences, the ML tree indicates they are sister taxa. Both are unique among their congeners in possessing cephalic peduncle spinitriches. The diagnosis of Clistobothrium is revised accordingly.
Tail biting is a welfare and economical concern in modern pig production. One common preventive measure used throughout the world is tail docking, which is generally considered one of the most effective methods for limiting tail biting. However, tail docking is a painful mutilation and systematic tail docking is not allowed in the EU. Therefore, the aim was to compare pig behaviour and the prevalence of tail biting in finishing pigs with intact tails housed in two different pen designs under Danish commercial conditions. PEN1 was a traditional Danish pen and PEN2 was inspired by Swedish finisher pen design and had a larger proportion of solid floor area (PEN1: 1/3 and PEN2: 2/3), reduced group size (PEN1: 15 and PEN2: 12), increased space allowance per head (PEN1: 0.7 m2 and PEN2: 0.89 m2) and straw allocated on the floor (PEN2) whereas straw was provided in a straw rack in PEN1. Tail damage observations were carried out daily by the stockperson and every 2 weeks one trained research technician assessed tail damages according to a tail scoring system. Tail lesions were observed in 51% of PEN1 and in 11% of PEN2 (P < 0.001). PEN1 had higher prevalence of tail damages than PEN2 (23% v. 5%, P < 0.001). Behavioural observations were carried out by the use of video recordings. Pigs in PEN2 tended to spend more time on tail-directed behaviour than pigs in PEN1 (P = 0.07), whereas pigs in PEN1 tended to spend more time on ear-directed behaviour (P = 0.08). Pigs in PEN2 spent more time on straw-directed behaviour compared to pigs in PEN1 (P < 0.001). Pen design did not affect time spent on other penmate-directed behaviour. In addition, the level of welfare between the two pen designs was compared using the Welfare Quality® protocol. PEN2 received an overall score of ‘excellent’ while PEN1 scored ‘enhanced’. PEN2 scored higher on all principles besides ‘good health’, where PEN1 scored better on lameness and wounds. The main measurements accounting for the differences were water supply, huddling, tail biting, social behaviour and fear of humans. In conclusion, the combination of increased space allowance, increased area of solid flooring, straw allocated onto the floor and reduced group size (PEN2) resulted in fewer tail damaged pigs and a better overall welfare assessment, despite a tendency for more tail-directed behaviour.
It has become clear that disaster relief needs to transition from good intentions or a charity-based approach to a professional, outcome-oriented response. The practice of medicine in disaster and conflict is a profession practiced in environments where lack of resources, chaos, and unpredictability are the norm rather than the exception. With this consideration in mind, the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) and its partners set out to improve the disaster response systems. The resulting Emergency Medical Team (EMT) classification system requires that teams planning on engaging in disaster response follow common standards for the delivery of care in resource-constraint environments. In order to clarify these standards, the WHO EMT Secretariat collaborated with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; Geneva, Switzerland) and leading experts from other stakeholder non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to produce a guide to the management of limb injuries in disaster and conflict.
The resulting text is a free and open-access resource to provide guidance for national and international EMTs caring for patients in disasters and conflicts. The content is a result of expert consensus, literature review, and an iterative process designed to encourage debate and resolution of existing open questions within the field of disaster and conflict medical response.
The end result of this process is a text providing guidance to providers seeking to deliver safe, effective care within the EMT framework that is now part of the EMT training and verification system and is being distributed to ICRC teams deploying to the field.
This work seeks to encourage professionalization of the field of disaster and conflict response, and to contribute to the existing EMT framework, in order to provide for better care for future victims of disaster and conflict.
Jensen G, Bar-On E, Wiedler JT, Hautz SC, Veen H, Kay AR, Norton I, Gosselin RA, von Schreeb J. Improving management of limb injuries in disasters and conflicts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(3):330–334.
There are increasing efforts aiming to utilise endophytes as biological control agents (BCAs) to improve crop production. However, reliability remains a major practical constraint for the development of novel BCAs. Many organisms are adapted to their specific habitat; it is optimistic to expect that a new organism added can find a niche or even out-compete those adapted and already present. Our approach for isolating novel BCAs for specific plant diseases is therefore to look in healthy plants in a habitat where disease is a problem, since we predict that it is more likely to find competitive strains among those present and adapted. In vitro inhibitory activities often do not correlate with in planta efficacy, especially since endophytes rely on intimate plant contact. They can, however, be useful to indicate modes of action. We therefore screen for in planta biological activity as early as possible in the process in order to minimise the risk of discarding valuable strains. Finally, some fungi are endophytic in one situation and pathogenic in another (the mutualism–parasitism continuum). This depends on their biology, environmental conditions, the formulation of inoculum, the health, developmental stage and cultivar of the host plant, and the structure of the plant microbiome.
Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a major zoonosis of public health significance in the Patagonian region of Argentina. This investigation sought to test the hypothesis that the persistence and dispersion of the parasite eggs can be explained by physical and meteorological parameters along with final host infection and behaviour. This observational study was carried out over a five-year period within an enclosure where two dogs harbouring a worm burden ranging from 100 to 1000 mature adult E. granulosus, as well as two uninfected dogs, had previously been kept for six months. Environmental canine faeces, topsoil, pond water, and sediment samples were examined to control for the presence of eggs and coproantigens of the parasite using microscope-based techniques and copro-ELISA plus copro-Western Blot tests. The parasite eggs were detected up to 41 months later in faeces from infected dogs, soil and sediment, and coproantigen tests remained positive for up to 70 months in faeces. Overall, parasite eggs were found within a maximum distance of 115 m from the contaminated dog faeces deposition site. Our findings indicate that under Patagonian environmental conditions, egg persistence and dispersion seem to be related to the worm burden and habits of the infected dog, to prevailing wind direction and to the existence of low bushes as well as natural bodies of water. The present study is the first to provide direct evidence of interaction between bioclimatic conditions and E. granulosus egg dispersion under Patagonian field conditions.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.