To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The crystal structure of fulvestrant hydrate (ethyl acetate) has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory techniques. This solvate of fulvestrant crystallizes in space group R3 (#146) with a = 23.39188(16), c = 16.50885(13) Å, V = 7823.08(7) Å3, and Z = 9. The crystal structure is composed of triangular hydrogen-bonded chains of molecules around one of the threefold axes. The fluorinated ends of the molecules cluster around another threefold axis. Voids around a threefold axis occupy 8.1% of the unit cell volume, and are partially occupied by the water and ethyl acetate molecules. Both hydroxyl groups act as donors in O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds. These H-bonds form a large ring. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD® for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™ (PDF®).
In this chapter, we examine how creativity, intelligence, and wisdom are related in theoretical frameworks and empirical studies. First, definitions of the three constructs are discussed. Although all of them are complex and multifaceted, the relationship between creativity and intelligence has been extensively studied based on their working definitions and models. However, wisdom research remains sparse, and there is a gap between people’s common beliefs and explicit theories of how wisdom is related to intelligence and creativity. Regardless, some common elements of wisdom have been distilled. These include self-awareness, knowledge, and strategies to cope with uncertainty, which can lead to contributions to social goodness. Second, several empirical studies are reviewed. They show some relationships among the three constructs, but the results have been inconsistent. Third, the WICS model, as a cognitive framework, is used to understand the relationships among the three constructs. The model integrated intelligence, creativity, and wisdom, and has also been tested in some fields. Finally, we argue that wisdom, as a distinguishable component of ability, can help determine whether our intelligence and creativity will be harnessed toward benevolence or malevolence.
The Homa Peninsula has been known to science since 1911, and fossil specimens from the area comprise many type specimens for common African mammalian paleospecies. Here we discuss the fauna and the paleoenvironmental information from the Homa Peninsula. The Homa Peninsula is a 200 km2 area in Homa Bay County, situated on the southern margin of the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria in Kenya (Figure 29.1). Lake Victoria is estimated to be the third largest lake in the world, with a surface area of 68,900 km2 and a maximum length of approximately 616 km. Although its catchment is extensive, it is relatively shallow compared to any other lake of similar size, with a maximum depth of 84 m. Lake Victoria is located in a depression formed by the western and eastern branches of the East African Rift System (EARS), and is at an average elevation of 1135 m a.s.l. (Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters, 2017).
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.
Background: There is presently no cure for locomotor deficits after spinal cord injury (SCI). Very few therapies effectively target the brain due to poor understanding of the brain’s role post-SCI. Newly developed tissue clearing techniques have permitted unbiased three-dimensional circuit analysis, opening new opportunities for SCI-related brain interrogation. Methods: We established a novel brain interrogation pipeline by optimizing mouse brain clearing, imaging, and atlas registration. We leveraged a spontaneous recovery lateral hemisection model to analyze whole brain cell activity and connectivity with the lumbar cord using cFos immunolabelling and virus-mediated projection tracing. We identified a functionally and anatomically dynamic region correlating with recovery and interrogated its locomotor role with optogenetics. We assessed deep brain electrical stimulation (DBS) of this region in a more clinically relevant rat contusion SCI using an established bipedal robotic interface. Results: We unexpectedly uncovered the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to functionally and anatomically correlate with recovery. LHVglut2 optogenetic stimulation significantly augmented locomotor function. LH DBS in rats acutely robustly augmented bipedal locomotion post-SCI. Conclusions: This is the first demonstration of the LH’s role in locomotion post-SCI and is a novel DBS target that robustly augmented locomotor function, dependent on LH glutamatergic cells. LH DBS may be a promising intervention in humans.
Ethical decision making has long been recognized as critical for industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists in the variety of roles they fill in education, research, and practice. Decisions with ethical implications are not always readily apparent and often require consideration of competing concerns. The American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct are the principles and standards to which all Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) members are held accountable, and these principles serve to aid in decision making. To this end, the primary focus of this article is the presentation and application of an integrative ethical decision-making framework rooted in and inspired by empirical, philosophical, and practical considerations of professional ethics. The purpose of this framework is to provide a generalizable model that can be used to identify, evaluate, resolve, and engage in discourse about topics involving ethical issues. To demonstrate the efficacy of this general framework to contexts germane to I-O psychologists, we subsequently present and apply this framework to five scenarios, each involving an ethical situation relevant to academia, practice, or graduate education in I-O psychology. With this article, we hope to stimulate the refinement of this ethical decision-making model, illustrate its application in our profession, and, most importantly, advance conversations about ethical decision making in I-O psychology.
Two new eurypterids, a pterygotid Erettopterus qujingensis n. sp., and a slimoniid, Slimonia sp., are described from the upper Silurian (Pridolian) Yulongsi Formation of Yunnan Province, China. Erettopterus qujingensis n. sp. is characterized by several inversely curved ramus denticles and a metastoma with a deep notch in the center. The discovery not only extends the geographic extent of the genus Erettopterus and Slimonia from Euramerica to southwest China, but also gives insight into the similarity of ecosystem structures across the Silurian world.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused substantial changes to healthcare delivery and antibiotic prescribing beginning in March 2020. To assess pandemic impact on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates, we described patients and trends in facility-level incidence, testing rates, and percent positivity during 2019–2020 in a large cohort of US hospitals.
We estimated and compared rates of community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) per 10,000 discharges, hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) per 10,000 patient days, and C. difficile testing rates per 10,000 discharges in 2019 and 2020. We calculated percent positivity as the number of inpatients diagnosed with CDI over the total number of discharges with a test for C. difficile. We used an interrupted time series (ITS) design with negative binomial and logistic regression models to describe level and trend changes in rates and percent positivity before and after March 2020.
In pairwise comparisons, overall CO-CDI rates decreased from 20.0 to 15.8 between 2019 and 2020 (P < .0001). HO-CDI rates did not change. Using ITS, we detected decreasing monthly trends in CO-CDI (−1% per month, P = .0036) and HO-CDI incidence (−1% per month, P < .0001) during the baseline period, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic declaration. We detected no change in monthly trends for CO-CDI or HO-CDI incidence or percent positivity after March 2020 compared with the baseline period.
While there was a slight downward trajectory in CDI trends prior to March 2020, no significant change in CDI trends occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic despite changes in infection control practices, antibiotic use, and healthcare delivery.
Background: Healthcare facilities have experienced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including limited personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies. Healthcare personnel (HCP) rely on PPE, vaccines, and other infection control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. We describe PPE concerns reported by HCP who had close contact with COVID-19 patients in the workplace and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Method: The CDC collaborated with Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites in 10 states to conduct surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 infections in HCP. EIP staff interviewed HCP with positive SARS-CoV-2 viral tests (ie, cases) to collect data on demographics, healthcare roles, exposures, PPE use, and concerns about their PPE use during COVID-19 patient care in the 14 days before the HCP’s SARS-CoV-2 positive test. PPE concerns were qualitatively coded as being related to supply (eg, low quality, shortages); use (eg, extended use, reuse, lack of fit test); or facility policy (eg, lack of guidance). We calculated and compared the percentages of cases reporting each concern type during the initial phase of the pandemic (April–May 2020), during the first US peak of daily COVID-19 cases (June–August 2020), and during the second US peak (September 2020–January 2021). We compared percentages using mid-P or Fisher exact tests (α = 0.05). Results: Among 1,998 HCP cases occurring during April 2020–January 2021 who had close contact with COVID-19 patients, 613 (30.7%) reported ≥1 PPE concern (Table 1). The percentage of cases reporting supply or use concerns was higher during the first peak period than the second peak period (supply concerns: 12.5% vs 7.5%; use concerns: 25.5% vs 18.2%; p Conclusions: Although lower percentages of HCP cases overall reported PPE concerns after the first US peak, our results highlight the importance of developing capacity to produce and distribute PPE during times of increased demand. The difference we observed among selected groups of cases may indicate that PPE access and use were more challenging for some, such as nonphysicians and nursing home HCP. These findings underscore the need to ensure that PPE is accessible and used correctly by HCP for whom use is recommended.
To compare 2 methods of communicating polymerase chain reaction (PCR) blood-culture results: active approach utilizing on-call personnel versus passive approach utilizing notifications in the electronic health record (EHR).
Retrospective observational study.
A tertiary-care academic medical center.
Adult patients hospitalized with ≥1 positive blood culture containing a gram-positive organism identified by PCR between October 2014 and January 2018.
The standard protocol for reporting PCR results at baseline included a laboratory technician calling the patient’s nurse, who would report the critical result to the medical provider. The active intervention group consisted of an on-call pager system utilizing trained pharmacy residents, whereas the passive intervention group combined standard protocol with real-time in-basket notifications to pharmacists in the EHR.
Of 209 patients, 105, 61, and 43 patients were in the control, active, and passive groups, respectively. Median time to optimal therapy was shorter in the active group compared to the passive group and control (23.4 hours vs 42.2 hours vs 45.9 hours, respectively; P = .028). De-escalation occurred 12 hours sooner in the active group. In the contaminant group, empiric antibiotics were discontinued faster in the active group (0 hours) than in the control group and the passive group (17.7 vs 7.2 hours; P = .007). Time to active therapy and days of therapy were similar.
A passive, electronic method of reporting PCR results to pharmacists was not as effective in optimizing stewardship metrics as an active, real-time method utilizing pharmacy residents. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal method of communicating time-sensitive information.
The Mayo Normative Studies (MNS) represents a robust dataset that provides demographically corrected norms for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. We report MNS application to an independent cohort to evaluate whether MNS norms accurately adjust for age, sex, and education differences in subjects from a different geographic region of the country. As secondary goals, we examined item-level patterns, recognition benefit compared to delayed free recall, and derived Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) confidence intervals (CIs) to facilitate clinical performance characterization.
Participants from the Emory Healthy Brain Study (463 women, 200 men) who were administered the AVLT were analyzed to demonstrate expected demographic group differences. AVLT scores were transformed using MNS normative correction to characterize the success of MNS demographic adjustment.
Expected demographic effects were observed across all primary raw AVLT scores. Depending on sample size, MNS normative adjustment either eliminated or minimized all observed statistically significant AVLT differences. Estimated CIs yielded broad CI ranges exceeding the standard deviation of each measure. The recognition performance benefit across age ranged from 2.7 words (SD = 2.3) in the 50–54-year-old group to 4.7 words (SD = 2.7) in the 70–75-year-old group.
These findings demonstrate generalizability of MNS normative correction to an independent sample from a different geographic region, with demographic adjusted performance differences close to overall performance levels near the expected value of T = 50. A large recognition performance benefit is commonly observed in the normal aging process and by itself does not necessarily suggest a pathological retrieval deficit.
Virtual reality has emerged as a unique educational modality for medical trainees. However, incorporation of virtual reality curricula into formal training programmes has been limited. We describe a multi-centre effort to develop, implement, and evaluate the efficacy of a virtual reality curriculum for residents participating in paediatric cardiology rotations.
A virtual reality software program (“The Stanford Virtual Heart”) was utilised. Users are placed “inside the heart” and explore non-traditional views of cardiac anatomy. Modules for six common congenital heart lesions were developed, including narrative scripts. A prospective case–control study was performed involving three large paediatric residency programmes. From July 2018 to June 2019, trainees participating in an outpatient cardiology rotation completed a 27-question, validated assessment tool. From July 2019 to February 2020, trainees completed the virtual reality curriculum and assessment tool during their cardiology rotation. Qualitative feedback on the virtual reality experience was also gathered. Intervention and control group performances were compared using univariate analyses.
There were 80 trainees in the control group and 52 in the intervention group. Trainees in the intervention group achieved higher scores on the assessment (20.4 ± 2.9 versus 18.8 ± 3.8 out of 27 questions answered correctly, p = 0.01). Further analysis showed significant improvement in the intervention group for questions specifically testing visuospatial concepts. In total, 100% of users recommended integration of the programme into the residency curriculum.
Virtual reality is an effective and well-received adjunct to clinical curricula for residents participating in paediatric cardiology rotations. Our results support continued virtual reality use and expansion to include other trainees.
Understanding how cardiovascular structure and physiology guide management is critically important in paediatric cardiology. However, few validated educational tools are available to assess trainee knowledge. To address this deficit, paediatric cardiologists and fellows from four institutions collaborated to develop a multimedia assessment tool for use with medical students and paediatric residents. This tool was developed in support of a novel 3-dimensional virtual reality curriculum created by our group.
Educational domains were identified, and questions were iteratively developed by a group of clinicians from multiple centres to assess understanding of key concepts. To evaluate content validity, content experts completed the assessment and reviewed items, rating item relevance to educational domains using a 4-point Likert scale. An item-level content validity index was calculated for each question, and a scale-level content validity index was calculated for the assessment tool, with scores of ≥0.78 and ≥0.90, respectively, representing excellent content validity.
The mean content expert assessment score was 92% (range 88–97%). Two questions yielded ≤50% correct content expert answers. The item-level content validity index for 29 out of 32 questions was ≥0.78, and the scale-level content validity index was 0.92. Qualitative feedback included suggestions for future improvement. Questions with ≤50% content expert agreement and item-level content validity index scores <0.78 were removed, yielding a 27-question assessment tool.
We describe a multi-centre effort to create and validate a multimedia assessment tool which may be implemented within paediatric trainee cardiology curricula. Future efforts may focus on content refinement and expansion to include additional educational domains.
Deliberation is widely believed to enhance democracy by helping to refine the ‘public will’, moving its participants' policy attitudes closer to their ‘full-consideration’ policy attitudes – those they would hypothetically hold with unlimited information, to which they gave unlimited reflection. Yet there have also been claims that the social dynamics involved generally ‘homogenize’ attitudes (decreasing their variance), ‘polarize’ them (moving their means toward the nearer extreme), or engender ‘domination’ (moving their overall means toward those of the attitudes held by the socially advantaged) – attitude changes that may often be away from the participants' full-consideration attitudes and may thus distort rather than refine the public will. This article uses 2,601 group-issue pairs in twenty-one Deliberative Polls to examine these claims. Reassuringly, the results show no routine or strong homogenization, polarization, or domination. What little pattern there is suggests some faint homogenization, but also some faint moderation (as opposed to polarization) and opposition (as opposed to domination) – all as is to be expected when the outside-world forces shaping pre-deliberation attitudes are slightly more centrifugal than centripetal. The authors lay out a theoretical basis for these expectations and interpretations and probe the study's results, highlighting, among other things, deliberation's role in undoing outside-world effects on pre-deliberation attitudes and the observed homogenization's, polarization's, and domination's dependence on deliberative design.
Prescription opioid dispensing patterns over time were assessed for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) vs matched controls.
Health insurance claims data from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database and Multi-State Medicaid Database were analyzed. Individuals aged 18 to 64 with ≥1 inpatient or ≥2 outpatient claims for BD during the year preceding the analysis year (2015-2019) were included, with age- and sex-matched controls. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated. Opioid dispensing during each analysis year was defined as either chronic (coverage for ≥70 days in any 90-day period, or ≥6 prescriptions dispensed during analysis year) or nonchronic (≥1 prescription dispensed, not meeting chronic definition).
BD patients had a higher prevalence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities, including pain diagnoses, vs controls. Among patients with BD in the Commercial database, chronic opioid dispensing decreased from 11% (controls: 3%) in 2015 to 6% (controls: 2%) in 2019, and in the Medicaid database, from 27% (controls: 12%) to 12% (controls: 5%). Among patients with BD in the Commercial database, nonchronic dispensing decreased from 26% (controls: 17%) in 2015 to 20% (controls: 12%) in 2019, and from 32% (controls: 26%) to 25% (controls: 14%) in the Medicaid database.
Between 2015 and 2019, there was a significant decrease in chronic and nonchronic prescription opioid dispensing among BD patients and controls across both the Commercial and Medicaid databases. Despite this finding, it is important to note that both chronic and nonchronic opioid dispensing was consistently higher for BD patients vs controls over time, across both databases.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical condition that notably affects the lives of patients in rural areas. The partnering of a rural satellite hospital with an urban academic medical center may provide geographically underrepresented populations with HF an opportunity to access controlled clinical trials (CCTs). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We report our experience in screening, consenting and enrolling subjects at the VCU Health Community Memorial Hospital (VCU-CMH) in rural South Hill, Virginia, that is part of the larger VCU Health network, with the lead institution being VCU Health Medical College of Virginia Hospitals (VCU-MCV), Richmond, VA. Subjects were enrolled in a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03797001) and assigned to treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug for HF or placebo. We used the electronic health record and remote guidance and oversight from the VCU-MCV resources using a closed-loop communication network to work with local resources at the facility to perform screening, consenting and enrollment. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: One hundred subjects with recently decompensated HF were screened between January 2019 and August 2021, of these 61 are enrolled to date: 52 (85 %) at VCU-MCV and 9 (15%) at VCU-CMH. Of the subjects enrolled at VCU-CMH, 33% were female, 77% Black, with a mean age of 52ï‚±10 years. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a combination of virtual/remote monitoring and guidance of local resources in this trial provides an opportunity for decentralization and access of CCTs for potential novel treatment of HF to underrepresented individuals from rural areas.
We honour a great man and a true giant. Lodewyk H.S. van Mierop (March 31, 1927 – October 17, 2021), known as Bob, was not only a Paediatric Cardiologist but also a dedicated Scientist. He made many significant and ground-breaking contributions to the fields of cardiac anatomy and embryology. He was devoted as a teacher, spending many hours with medical students, Residents, and Fellows, all of whom appreciated his regularly scheduled educational sessions. Those of us who were fortunate to know and spend time with him will always remember his great mind, his willingness to share his knowledge, and his ability to encourage spirited and fruitful discussions. His life was most productive, and he will long be remembered by many through his awesome and exemplary scientific contributions.
His legacy continues to influence the current and future generations of surgeons and all providers of paediatric and congenital cardiac care through the invaluable archive he established at University of Florida in Gainesville: The University of Florida van Mierop Heart Archive. Undoubtedly, with these extraordinary contributions to the fields of cardiac anatomy and embryology, which were way ahead of his time, Professor van Mierop was a true giant in Paediatric Cardiology. The invaluable archive he established at University of Florida in Gainesville, The University of Florida van Mierop Heart Archive, has been instrumental in teaching medical students, Residents, Medical Fellows, and Surgical Fellows. Only a handful of similar archives exist across the globe, and these archives are the true legacy of giants such as Dr. van Mierop. We have an important obligation to leave no stone unturned to continue to preserve these archives for the future generations of surgeons, physicians, all providers of paediatric and congenital cardiac care, and, most importantly, our patients.
The opioid epidemic in the United States is getting worse: in 2020 opioid overdose deaths hit an all-time high of 92,183. This underscored the need for more effective and readily available treatments for patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Prescription digital therapeutics (PDTs) are FDA-authorized treatments delivered via mobile devices (eg, smartphones). A real-world pilot study was conducted in an outpatient addiction treatment program to evaluate patient engagement and use of a PDT for patients with OUD. The objective was to assess the ability of the PDT to improve engagement and care for patients receiving buprenorphine medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD).
Patients with OUD treated at an ambulatory addiction treatment clinic were invited to participate in the pilot. The reSET-O PDT is comprised of 31 core therapy lessons plus 36 supplementary lessons, plus contingency management rewards. Patients were asked to complete at least 4 lessons per week, for 12-weeks. Engagement and use data were collected via the PDT and rates of emergency room data were obtained from patient medical records. Data were compared to a similar group of 158 OUD patients treated at the same clinic who did not use the PDT. Abstinence data were obtained from deidentified medical records.
Pilot participants (N = 40) completed a median of 24 lessons: 73.2% completed at least 8 lessons and 42.5% completed all 31 core lessons. Pilot participants had significantly higher rates of abstinence from opioids in the 30 days prior to discharge from the program than the comparison group: 77.5% vs 51.9% (P < .01). Clinician-reported treatment retention for pilot participants vs the comparison group was 100% vs 70.9% 30 days after treatment initiation (P < .01), 87.5% vs 55.1% at 90 days post-initiation (P < .01), and 45.0% vs 38.6% at 180 days post-initiation (P = .46). Emergency room visits within 90 days of discharge from the addiction program were significantly reduced in pilot participants compared to the comparison group (17.3% vs 31.7%, P < .01).
These results demonstrate substantial engagement with a PDT in a real-world population of patients with OUD being treated with buprenorphine. Abstinence and retention outcomes were high compared to patients not using the PDT. These results demonstrate the potential value of PDTs to improve outcomes among patients with OUD, a population for which a significant need for improved treatments exists.
Trinity Health Innovation and Pear Therapeutics Inc.
We describe the scientific goals and survey design of the First Large Absorption Survey in H i (FLASH), a wide field survey for 21-cm line absorption in neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) at intermediate cosmological redshifts. FLASH will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope and is planned to cover the sky south of
$\delta \approx +40\,\deg$
at frequencies between 711.5 and 999.5 MHz. At redshifts between
$z = 0.4$
(look-back times of 4 – 8 Gyr), the H i content of the Universe has been poorly explored due to the difficulty of carrying out radio surveys for faint 21-cm line emission and, at ultra-violet wavelengths, space-borne searches for Damped Lyman-
absorption in quasar spectra. The ASKAP wide field of view and large spectral bandwidth, in combination with a radio-quiet site, will enable a search for absorption lines in the radio spectra of bright continuum sources over 80% of the sky. This survey is expected to detect at least several hundred intervening 21-cm absorbers and will produce an H i-absorption-selected catalogue of galaxies rich in cool, star-forming gas, some of which may be concealed from optical surveys. Likewise, at least several hundred associated 21-cm absorbers are expected to be detected within the host galaxies of radio sources at
$0.4 < z < 1.0$
, providing valuable kinematical information for models of gas accretion and jet-driven feedback in radio-loud active galactic nuclei. FLASH will also detect OH 18-cm absorbers in diffuse molecular gas, megamaser OH emission, radio recombination lines, and stacked H i emission.