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Replacing intake of SFA with PUFA reduces serum cholesterol levels and CVD risk. The effect on glycaemic regulation is, however, less clear. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the short-term effect of replacing dietary SFA with PUFA on glycaemic regulation. Seventeen healthy, normal-weight participants completed a 25-d double-blind, randomised and controlled two-period crossover study. Participants were allocated to either interventions with PUFA products or SFA products (control) in a random order for three consecutive days, separated by a 1·5-week washout period between the intervention periods. Glucose, insulin and TAG were measured before and after an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, fasting total cholesterol, NEFA and plasma total fatty acid profile were measured before and after the 3-d interventions. Fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and TAG levels and fasting levels of NEFA and plasma fatty acid profile did not differ between the groups. However, replacing dietary SFA with PUFA significantly reduced total cholesterol levels by 8 % after 3 d (P = 0·002). Replacing dietary SFA with PUFA for only 3 d has beneficial cardio-metabolic effects by reducing cholesterol levels in healthy individuals.
Little evidence exists to support pharmacotherapeutic strategies for heart failure management in paediatrics. A recent Europe-wide survey suggests that this translates into substantial variability in clinical practice.
To conduct a formal discussion among an expert group of paediatric cardiology physicians on controversial aspects regarding the pharmacotherapy of children heart failure, facilitate consensus, and highlight areas of agreement and disagreement.
A two-round modified Delphi process was conducted between July and August 2015. Topics addressed were predominantly selected from the results of a previous Europe-wide survey. Fourteen statements were presented for discussion grouped under three categories; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors: Considerations for optimal dosage; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors for the management of CHDs; Neurohumoral antagonists for the management of dilated cardiomyopathy-related heart failure.
A total of 13 paediatricians dedicated to cardiology from across Europe and the United States of America completed the study; of them, 92% had a working experience in the field of more than 10 years and were working in a specific paediatric cardiology unit. Agreement on the acceptance/rejection of 11 statements was achieved. Results show agreement on the importance of a set of topics relevant to the standardisation of the therapy as well as consensus upon specific therapeutic attitudes.
We have found areas of common thinking and motivation, which can provide a means of triggering scientific collaboration. Our results might also contribute to disseminate available paediatric evidence and promote reducing unjustified variability in everyday practice. Until solid evidence is available, other research methods can contribute to advancing the goal of safe and effective paediatric heart failure pharmacotherapy.
Efficacious resource harvesting constitutes new modes of conceptualizing the interactions of buildings with surrounding environmental conditions. The internal logic of a biotechnical paradigm in architectural design allows for the potential of fluid exchanges between medium and material to be realized with correlated metabolism. Such concepts avert existing mechanical paradigms based upon linear conservation of energy processes and approach entropic integrated design interactions of nonlinear dynamical processes. Through a physiological analogy that informs architectural anatomy, the genetic code of hydrogels embeds emergent morphological responses to discrete interactions with environmental phenomena. In contrast to the static hard tissue of the skeletal system, viscoelastic soft tissue provides significant environmental impact by means of integrating spatiotemporal adaptation in building systems.
This framework provides an interscalar perspective for integrating biopolymeric membranes within building-envelope systems and informs the microstate design of the polymer chains for optimized mechanical performance. Hydrogels are a translucent three-dimensional water-swollen polymer, which exhibit mechanical work upon interaction with water vapor. In effect, this interaction provides for a variant index of refraction, a variant heat capacitance, and a physical shift in surface morphology. Characteristic changes in material thermal and mechanical properties parallel diurnal climate profiles for circadian biorhythmic membrane designs. The macrostates of temperature, pressure, and volume reciprocally inform the potential microscopic properties, including position and velocity of each molecule within the material system. The viscoelastic molecular entropy (Maxwell model) of hydrogels is established as a fundamental basis for situating a dynamic material logic influencing a high efficacy architectural physiology. The Maxwell model is translated as an algorithmic framework for mechanical control through tetra-functional polymer chain development of biopolymeric hydrogels. In contrast to polyacrylamide hydrogels, the chemistry of biopolymeric polysaccharide hydrogels is well suited for renewable sourcing and down cycling to achieve sustainable material life cycles. However, these biopolymers do not inherently exhibit robust structural properties necessary for influencing morphological shifts of the membranes for intelligent passive design strategies such as self-actuating ventilation apertures or self-shading surface geometries. The research encompassed in this work engages the development of a more acute framework for the trajectory of biopolymeric hydrogel dynamics based upon a necessity for controlled morphological modulations in response to specific environmental conditions.
Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest management on two forests in Tanzania was evaluated using a mixed method approach. Current forest condition, forest increment and forest use patterns were assessed through forest inventories, and changes in forest disturbance levels before and after the implementation of decentralized forest management were assessed on the basis of analyses of Landsat images. This biophysical evidence was then linked to changes in actual management practices, assessed through records, interviews and participatory observations, to provide a measure of the conservation impact of the policy change. Both forests in the study were found to be in good condition, and extraction was lower than overall forest increment. Divergent changes in forest disturbance levels were in evidence following the implementation of decentralized forest management. The evidence from records, interviews and participatory observations indicated that decentralized management had led to increased control of forest use and the observed divergence in forest disturbance levels appeared to be linked to differences in the way that village-level forest managers prioritized conservation objectives and forest-based livelihood strategies. The study illustrates that a mixed methods approach comprises a valid and promising way to evaluate impacts of conservation policies, even in the absence of control sites. By carefully linking policy outcomes to policy outputs, such an approach not only identifies whether such policies work as intended, but also potential mechanisms.
Carbon nanotube ﬁeld effect transistors (CNT FETs) have many possible applications in future nano-electronics due to their excellent electrical properties. However, one of the major challenges regarding their performance is the noticeable gate hysteresis which is often displayed in their transfer characteristics. The hysteresis phenomenon is often attributed to water-mediated charge transfer between the CNT and the dielectric layer or the CNT and the water layer itself. In this study, we implement three different experimental techniques and provide evidence that the hysteresis phenomenon of suspended CNT FETs, as well as of on-surface CNT FETs which operate at low gate voltage regimes (| Vg | < 3V), is based on gate-induced, water-assisted redistribution of mobile charge on the SiO2 surface, and it is not related to charge injection from the CNT itself. Two techniques are based on the current measurements through the CNT and the third utilizes electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) setup. In addition, the applied external gate voltage affect the relaxation time of the current. This change arises from the modification of the amount of water layers which adsorb onto the dielectric surface, which caused by dielectrophoresis attraction between the water molecules and the substrate. It is found that the relaxation time, and hence the surface conductivity, are very sensitive for the first few layers, and saturates above three monolayers of water molecules.
Improved understanding of the pattern of white matter changes in early and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) states such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is necessary to support earlier preclinical detection of AD, and debate remains whether white matter changes in MCI are secondary to gray matter changes. We applied neuropsychologically based MCI criteria to a sample of normally aging older adults; 32 participants met criteria for MCI and 81 participants were classified as normal control (NC) subjects. Whole-head high resolution T1 and diffusion tensor imaging scans were completed. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was applied and a priori selected regions of interest were extracted. Hippocampal volume and cortical thickness averaged across regions with known vulnerability to AD were derived. Controlling for cortical thickness, the MCI group showed decreased average fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased FA in parietal white matter and in white matter underlying the entorhinal and posterior cingulate cortices relative to the NC group. Statistically controlling for cortical thickness, medial temporal FA was related to memory and parietal FA was related to executive functioning. These results provide further support for the potential role of white matter integrity as an early biomarker for individuals at risk for AD and highlight that changes in white matter may be independent of gray matter changes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–13)
Genome-wide association analysis on monozygotic twin-pairs offers a route to discovery of gene–environment interactions through testing for variability loci associated with sensitivity to individual environment/lifestyle. We present a genome-wide scan of loci associated with intra-pair differences in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, rs2483058 in an intron of SRGAP2, where twins carrying the C allele are more sensitive to environmental factors (P = 3.98 × 10−8). We followed up the association in further genotyped monozygotic twins (N = 1,261), which showed a moderate association for the variant (P = 0.200, same direction of an effect). In addition, we report a new association on the level of apolipoprotein A-II (P = 4.03 × 10−8).
Rapid and recent lineage radiations pose challenges to systematists. Using members of the highly diverse Simulium arcticum Malloch complex, we tested whether the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene can differentiate black fly sibling species. Members of the S. arcticum complex were monophyletic in relation to two morphospecies and two cryptic species of the Simulium malyschevi Dorogostaisky et al. and Simulium noelleri Friederichs species-groups, respectively. Of five S. arcticum sibling species analysed, only Simulium negativum Adler et al. was monophyletic. No other members of the complex could be distinguished using COI barcodes. The inability to resolve S. arcticum sibling species resulted because (1) haplotypes were shared between species and (2) the distribution of interspecific genetic distances completely overlapped the range of variation within species. Potential sources of incongruence between barcode data and species boundaries include imperfect taxonomy, inadequate genetic information, incomplete lineage sorting, and/or introgressive hybridization. We ruled out imperfect taxonomy because chromosomal, ecological, and distributional evidence support the validity of S. arcticum sibling species. Therefore, current nomenclature should be maintained pending further study. We conclude that one or more of the latter three sources of incongruence could be responsible for the lack of reciprocal monophyly among species of the S. arcticum complex.
We ask if Earth-like planets (terrestrial mass and habitable-zone orbit) can be detected in multi-planet systems, using astrometric and radial velocity observations. We report here the preliminary results of double-blind calculations designed to answer this question.
Directional information should play a significant role
for a firm detection of the galactic dark matter.
We developed a prototype three-dimensional gaseous tracking device
for a direction-sensitive dark matter direct detection.
We investigated the performance of the prototype detector and demonstrated
a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment in a
We set the first limit
on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross s
ection by a direction-sensitive method.
Here we discuss the effects of type-I migration of protoplanetary embryos on mass and semimajor axis distributions of extrasolar planets. We summarize the results of Ida & Lin (2008a, 2008b), in which Monte Carlo simulations with a deterministic planet-formation model were carried out. The strength of type-I migration regulates the distribution of extrasolar gas giant planets as well as terrestrial planets. To be consistent with the existing observational data of extrasolar gas giants, the type-I migration speed has to be an order of magnitude slower than that given by the linear theory. The introduction of type-I migration inhibits in situ formation of gas giants in habitable zones (HZs) and reduces the probability of passage of gas giants through HZs, both of which facilitate retention of terrestrial planets in HZs. We also point out that the effect of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) could lead to trapping of migrating protoplanetary embryos in the regions near an ice line in the disk and it significantly enhances formation/retention probability of gas giants against type-I migration.
A stalagmite from northern Norway is dated with 12 thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Th dates, and at least four separate growth periods are identified that correspond with marine isotope stages 9, 11, 13, and probably 15. The calcite is tested for isotopic equilibrium with the Hendy test. Oxygen isotope measurements on 231 subsamples on a vertical transect are used as a paleotemperature proxy. The detailed isotopic record from MIS 9 show apparent similarities to a Holocene record from the same cave, both in the climatic evolution and the overall temperatures: both show temperature oscillations changing from high-frequency, low-amplitude cycles in the beginning of the interglacial period to lower frequency, higher amplitude cycles in the later part of the interglacial period. The isotope record from MIS 11 shows a distinct isotopic event toward heavier values. The isotopic record together with the porous, humus-rich calcite are interpreted as indicating a warmer than present interglacial period with several episodes of heavy rainfall.
The complexities of modern post-industrial society have forced upon governments, regardless of their political structure or ideology, a large measure of planning, and of active intervention in the operations of the economy and the organization of community services. If such planning is to be effective, it requires an information base, continuing analysis of trends and relationships, and evaluation of results or ‘outcomes’. A question of growing importance is what forms of research organization can best meet these needs. At issue are the relation between basic or theoretical and applied or task-oriented research, the links between data collection, analysis and research, the modes of interaction between research and policy-making, the balancing of immediate relevance and the long-term view, and the safeguarding of objectivity and independence in matters of vital importance to the political process.
Tonal analysis has revealed many functions, grammatical as well as semantic, which tone performs in West African languages. Here we confine ourselves to one aspect, the incidence of tone in verbs, and in particular we examine the tonal patterns of verbal forms.
This short sketch of Wolof (or Jolof) is based upon an examination of the speech of John C. Faye and Elliman Bah, both of Bathurst, Gambia, and on work with four or five Wolof speakers from French territories at the Paris Exhibition in 1937. A comparison of the two types from a phonetic point of view is interesting.
The Bamum language is spoken in theFrench mandated territory of the Cameroons around the town of Famboun by about 55,000 speakers.
The observations set out here are based upon a short but intensive period of investigation at the Paris Exhibition in 1937, when, through the kind offices of Professor Henri Labouret, I was able to work with a native craftsman (an embroiderer) from Famboun, Andre Njoya.
A six-months' tour in Southern Nigeria has afforded a valuable opportunity for review of certain questions about the chief languages of this part of West Africa and for a re-statement of the problems connected with them. The main questions are:
1. With what success can one dialect be used as a literary medium?
2. Is the new orthography suggested by the Institute suitable for the purposes for which it was designed?
3. Are educated Africans interested in their own language and its development?
4. Can Europeans learn to speak these languages with any degree of accuracy ?
5. What are the present needs, and what lines should future work take?
I can here express on these points only my own views, based on the experience of my tour and my work previous and subsequent to it. The two districts with which this article is mainly concerned are the Efik and Ibo speaking areas in Southern Nigeria.
La langue mandé ou mandingue est une des plus importantes de l'Afrique Occidentale Française. Les estimations faites il y a dix ans permettent de penser qu'elle était alors parlée comme idiome maternel par environ trois millions de Soudanais, tandis que deux millions d'autres s'en servaient comme de seconde langue. II est probable qu'une révision sérieuse de ces chiffres accuserait une augmentation assez forte des Nègres qui en usent, car elle a une tendance marquée à s'imposer, sous l'influence de la circulation commerciale, dans des régions qui étaient encore fermées au trafic il y a peu d'années, comme par exemple le pays des Bobo au Soudan Français et en Haute Volta, celui des Agni ou des Bété à la Côte d'lvoire.