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ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work will inform the ongoing development of adaptive capacity and preparedness of the CTSA Program and other clinical and translational research organizations in their quest of improving processes that drive outcomes and impacts, shaping effective programs and services, and strengthening their emergency readiness and sustainability. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: -Share the progress and preliminary findings of an ‘Adaptive Capacity and Preparedness of CTSA Hubs’ CTSA Working Group; -Improve our awareness and understanding of the efficient and effective changes helping CTSA hubs build robust capacity to address METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A multi-case study including: - Triangulating multiple sources of information and mixed methods (survey/interviews of research administrators, researchers, evaluators, and other key stakeholders), literature review, document and M&E system information analysis, and expert review; - Describing CTSA hubs’ experiences as related to research implementation, translation, and support during the time of emergency; - Administering a comprehensive survey of the CTSAs addressing their challenges, lessons learned, and practices that work in various program components/areas. Data collection includes aggregate and cross-sectional data, with representation based on CTSA size, maturity, and population density. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The described approach shows sound promise to investigate and share strategies and best practices for building adaptive capacity and preparedness of CTSAs -- across various scientific sectors, translational research spectrum, and the goals outlined by NCATS for the CTSA program. The anticipated results of this research will include the identified/shared innovative solutions and lessons learned for this rapidly emerging, high-priority clinical and translational science issue. ‘High-quality lessons learned’ are those that represent principles extrapolated from multiple sources and triangulated to increase transferability to new contexts and situations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The project provides useful knowledge and tools to research organizations and stakeholders across multiple disciplines -- for mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 disaster via effective adjusting programs, practices, and processes, and building capacity for future successful, ‘emergency ready and responsive’ research and training.
Advances in analytical methods have made it possible to obtain high-resolution water isotopic data from ice cores. Their spectral signature contains information on the diffusion process that attenuated the isotopic signal during the firn densification process. Here, we provide a tool for estimating firn-diffusion rates that builds on the Community Firn Model. Our model requires two main inputs, temperature and accumulation, and it calculates the diffusion lengths for δ17O, δ18O and δD. Prior information on the isotopic signal of the precipitation is not a requirement. In combination with deconvolution techniques, diffusion lengths can be used in order reconstruct the pre-diffusion isotopic signal. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the isotope diffusion and firn densification makes the diffusion length an interesting candidate as a temperature proxy. We test the model under steady state and transient scenarios and compare four densification models. Comparisons with ice core data provide an evaluation of the four models and indicate that there are differences in their performance. Combining data-based diffusion length estimates with information on past accumulation rates and ice flow thinning, we reconstruct absolute temperatures from three Antarctic ice core sites.
This study examined longitudinal associations between performance on the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure–Developmental Scoring System (ROCF-DSS) at 8 years of age and academic outcomes at 16 years of age in 133 children with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA).
The ROCF-DSS was administered at the age of 8 and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, First and Second Edition (WIAT/WIAT-II) at the ages of 8 and 16, respectively. ROCF-DSS protocols were classified by Organization (Organized/Disorganized) and Style (Part-oriented/Holistic). Two-way univariate (ROCF-DSS Organization × Style) ANCOVAs were computed with 16-year academic outcomes as the dependent variables and socioeconomic status (SES) as the covariate.
The Organization × Style interaction was not statistically significant. However, ROCF-DSS Organization at 8 years was significantly associated with Reading, Math, Associative, and Assembled academic skills at 16 years, with better organization predicting better academic performance.
Performance on the ROCF-DSS, a complex visual-spatial problem-solving task, in children with d-TGA can forecast academic performance in both reading and mathematics nearly a decade later. These findings may have implications for identifying risk in children with other medical and neurodevelopmental disorders affecting brain development.
Studies that reveal detailed information about trilobite growth, particularly early developmental stages, are crucial for improving our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within this iconic group of fossil arthropods. Here we document an essentially complete ontogeny of the trilobite Redlichia cf. versabunda from the Cambrian Series 2 (late Stage 4) Ramsay Limestone of Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, including some of the best-preserved protaspides (the earliest biomineralized trilobite larval stage) known for any Cambrian trilobite. These protaspid stages exhibit similar morphological characteristics to many other taxa within the Suborder Redlichiina, especially to closely related species such as Metaredlichia cylindrica from the early Cambrian period of China. Morphological patterns observed across early developmental stages of different groups within the Order Redlichiida are discussed. Although redlichiine protaspides exhibit similar overall morphologies, certain ontogenetic characters within this suborder have potential phylogenetic signal, with different superfamilies characterized by unique trait combinations in these early growth stages.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
This work investigated the photophysical pathways for light absorption, charge generation, and charge separation in donor–acceptor nanoparticle blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and indene-C60-bisadduct. Optical modeling combined with steady-state and time-resolved optoelectronic characterization revealed that the nanoparticle blends experience a photocurrent limited to 60% of a bulk solution mixture. This discrepancy resulted from imperfect free charge generation inside the nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and chemically resolved X-ray mapping showed that enhanced miscibility of materials did improve the donor–acceptor blending at the center of the nanoparticles; however, a residual shell of almost pure donor still restricted energy generation from these nanoparticles.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
Over the past 15 years, there has been substantial growth in web-based psychological interventions. We summarize evidence regarding the efficacy of web-based self-directed psychological interventions on depressive, anxiety and distress symptoms in people living with a chronic health condition.
We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE databases and Cochrane Database from 1990 to 1 May 2019. English language papers of randomized controlled trials (usual care or waitlist control) of web-based psychological interventions with a primary or secondary aim to reduce anxiety, depression or distress in adults with a chronic health condition were eligible. Results were assessed using narrative synthases and random-effects meta-analyses.
In total 70 eligible studies across 17 health conditions [most commonly: cancer (k = 20), chronic pain (k = 9), arthritis (k = 6) and multiple sclerosis (k = 5), diabetes (k = 4), fibromyalgia (k = 4)] were identified. Interventions were based on CBT principles in 46 (66%) studies and 42 (60%) included a facilitator. When combining all chronic health conditions, web-based interventions were more efficacious than control conditions in reducing symptoms of depression g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.22–0.39), anxiety g = 0.19 (95% CI 0.12–0.27), and distress g = 0.36 (95% CI 0.23–0.49).
Evidence regarding effectiveness for specific chronic health conditions was inconsistent. While self-guided online psychological interventions may help to reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression and distress in people with chronic health conditions in general, it is unclear if these interventions are effective for specific health conditions. More high-quality evidence is needed before definite conclusions can be made.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on population mental health are unknown. We need to understand the scale of any such impact in different sections of the population, who is most affected and how best to mitigate, prevent and treat any excess morbidity. We propose a coordinated and interdisciplinary mental health science response.
Migration of mental health professionals is an important phenomenon influencing mental health services of host and donor countries. Data on medical migration in Europe is very limited, particularly in the field of young doctors and psychiatry. To research this hot topic, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) conducted the EFPT Brain Drain Survey.
To identify the impact of previous short-term mobility on international migration and to understand characteristics, patterns and reasons of migration.
In this cross-sectional European multicentre study, data were collected from 2281 psychiatric trainees across 33 countries. All participants answered to the EFPT Brain Drain Survey reporting their attitudes and experiences on migration.
Two-thirds of the trainees had not had a short-mobility experience in their lifetime, but those that went abroad were satisfied with their experiences, reporting that these influenced their attitude towards migration positively. However, the majority of the trainees had not had a migratory experience of more than 1 year. Flows showed that Switzerland and United Kingdom have the greatest number of immigrant trainees, whereas Germany and Greece have the greatest number of trainees leaving. ‘'Pull factors'’ were mostly academic and personal reasons, whereas ‘'push factors'’ were mainly: academic and financial reasons. Trainees that wanted to leave the country were significantly more dissatisfied with their income.
The majority of the trainees has considered leaving the country they currently lived in, but a lower percentage has taken steps towards migration.
Young women with personality disorders (PD) are common in psychiatric inpatient care. The clinical impression is that there is a considerably increased incidence the last decade.
Objectives and aim
To show changes in frequency and extent of inpatient care for PD, and the relation to suicide.
All admissions for inpatient care given a primary diagnosis of PD in compulsory or voluntary care years 1990 to 2010 were extracted from the National Patient Register. Subsequently, data from the Cause of Death Register were extracted and linked for the same time period.
There were more than 60,000 admissions for PD in Sweden 1990–2010. During the last ten years there was a doubling of the number of yearly admissions for young women in the ages 18 to 24 years, and inpatient care hospitalization for PD are currently six times more common for women than for men in this age group. The same is true for compulsory care. Every fifth woman in this age group who had committed suicide had been treated for PD within the last five year period prior to the suicide.
The incidence of inpatient care in young women with PD did show a sharp rise during the last decade. There was a corresponding increase in suicide with a diagnosis of PD. Guidelines for treatment and care exist but more knowledge and action plans directed both to health care and the society are urgently needed.
Effective preventive strategies could reduce disability and the long term social and health complications associated with depression, but options are limited. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, simple, and safe intervention that corrects the attentional and interpretive biases associated with depression.
To determine if CBM decreases the one-year onset of major depression in adults at risk.
This randomised controlled trial will recruit adults with subsyndromal depression living in Australia (parallel design, 1:1 allocation ratio). The intervention will be delivered via the internet over 52 weeks. The primary outcome of interest is the onset of a major depression according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Secondary outcomes of interest include change in the severity of depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and changes in attention and interpretive biases. Outcomes will be collected 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomisation.
Preliminary data on a subsample of 20 participants showed that the mean±SE PHQ-9 score of controls was 7.5±0.9 at study entry and 7.1±1.5 at week 6 (paired t-test=0.29, p=0.779), whereas the mean±SE score of active CBM participants was 7.4±1.0 and 4.4±1.1, respectively (paired t=6.00, p<0.001). The mean PHQ-9 difference between control and active CBM participants over 6 weeks was 2.6±1.5 points (t=1.79, p=0.090). One of 11 controls (9.1%) and 0/9 active CBM participants showed evidence of clinically significant depressive symptoms at week 6 (i.e., PHQ-9≥15).
By March 2015, 6-months preliminary data will be available on 165 participants.
There is a shortage of psychiatrists worldwide. Within Europe, psychiatric trainees can move between countries, which increases the problem in some countries and alleviates it in others. However, little is known about the reasons psychiatric trainees move to another country.
Survey of psychiatric trainees in 33 European countries, exploring how frequently psychiatric trainees have migrated or want to migrate, their reasons to stay and leave the country, and the countries where they come from and where they move to. A 61-item self-report questionnaire was developed, covering questions about their demographics, experiences of short-term mobility (from 3 months up to 1 year), experiences of long-term migration (of more than 1 year) and their attitudes towards migration.
A total of 2281 psychiatric trainees in Europe participated in the survey, of which 72.0% have ‘ever’ considered to move to a different country in their future, 53.5% were considering it ‘now’, at the time of the survey, and 13.3% had already moved country. For these immigrant trainees, academic was the main reason they gave to move from their country of origin. For all trainees, the overall main reason for which they would leave was financial (34.4%), especially in those with lower (<500€) incomes (58.1%), whereas in those with higher (>2500€) incomes, personal reasons were paramount (44.5%).
A high number of psychiatric trainees considered moving to another country, and their motivation largely reflects the substantial salary differences. These findings suggest tackling financial conditions and academic opportunities.
Cognitive processes are impaired in Schizophrenia (SKZ). The nature of such impairment escapes definition.
Identification of a genetic profile at risk of cognitive impairment.
Identifying a molecular pathways enriched for mutations associated with cognitive impairment.
Seven hundred and sixty-five individuals from the CATIE, M = 556, mean age = 40.93 ± 11.03 were included. Verbal memory was outcome. R and Plink served for the analyses. Inflation factor was controlled by lambda values. Input for the pathway analysis were SNPs associated with outcome (P < 0.05) genomewide.
Gender (male, P = 2.34e–05;t = –4.26) and years of education (P = 1.57e–03;t = 6.502) were associated with verbal memory. Inflammation and oxidation were associated with outcome (Table 1, adj_P < 0.01).
Being male and poorly educated were associated with poorer verbal memory. Inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway were enriched in mutations associated with poorer verbal memory. This finding is in line with previous reports [1,2,3].
Eosinophils are important immune cells that have been implicated in resistance to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in both naturally and experimentally infected sheep. Proteins of particular importance appear to be IgA-Fc alpha receptor (FcαRI), C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3), proteoglycan 3 (PRG3, major basic protein 2) and EPX (eosinophil peroxidase). We used known human nucleotide sequences to search the ruminant genomes, followed by translation to protein and sequence alignments to visualize differences between sequences and species. Where a sequence was retrieved for cow, but not for sheep and goat, this was used additionally as a reference sequence. In this review, we show that eosinophil function varies among host species. Consequently, investigations into the mechanisms of ruminant immune responses to GIN should be conducted using the natural host. Specifically, we address differences in protein sequence and structure for eosinophil proteins.
Emergency service (ambulance, police, fire) call-takers and dispatchers are often exposed to duty-related trauma, placing them at increased risk for developing mental health challenges like stress, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Their unique working environment also puts them at-risk for physical health issues like obesity, headache, backache, and insomnia. Along with the stress associated with being on the receiving end of difficult calls, call-takers and dispatchers also deal with the pressure and demand of following protocol despite dealing with the variability of complex and stressful situations.
A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo databases.
A total of 25 publications were retrieved by the search strategy. The majority of studies (n = 13; 52%) reported a quantitative methodology, while nine (36%) reported the use of a qualitative research methodology. One study reported a mixed-methods methodology, one reported an evaluability assessment with semi-structured interviews, one reported on a case study, and one was a systematic review with a narrative synthesis.
Challenges to physical health included: shift-work leading to lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, and obesity; outdated and ergonomically ill-fitted equipment, and physically confining and isolating work spaces leading to physical injuries; inadequate breaks leading to fatigue; and high noise levels and poor lighting being correlated with higher cortisol levels. Challenges to mental health included: being exposed to traumatic calls; working in high-pressure environments with little downtime in between stressful calls; inadequate debriefing after stressful calls; inappropriate training for mental-health-related calls; and being exposed to verbally aggressive callers. Lack of support from leadership was an additional source of stress.
Emergency service call-takers and dispatchers experience both physical and mental health challenges as a result of their work, which appears to be related to a range of both operational and support-based issues. Future research should explore the long-term effects of these physical and mental health challenges.