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This study describes changes in oxidative stress (OS) parameters in mice experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis, which causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis. For this, 28 Swiss mice were used, divided into two groups (G1 and G2), with 14 animals each. Of these, eight were infected with ten infective larvae each, by gavage, and six were used as a control group. Mice from G1 and G2 were euthanized at 14 days and 24 days post-infection, respectively. Tissue samples were used for histopathological analysis and blood (serum) samples were taken to assess the levels of proteins, non-protein thiols (NPTs) and nitric oxide (NO), from centrifugation and subsequent collection of aliquots of the supernatant. Among OS parameters, infected mice in both groups had higher NO levels than the control group, due to the presence of: eosinophil infiltrate in the liver and intestine; pancreatitis; and intestinal granuloma. However, the infected mice of both groups showed a reduction in the levels of NPTs, in relation to the control group, due to the presence of: eosinophilic infiltrate in the liver and intestine; and intestinal granuloma. Our results suggest that A. costaricensis infection has important effects on the intestine, liver and pancreas, and the analyses were performed from the tissue of these organs. The mechanisms for these changes are related to the decrease in the body's main antioxidant defences, as demonstrated by the reduction of NPTs, thus contributing to the development of more severe tissue damage. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological lesions and markers for OS.
The G72/G30 gene is one of the common loci shared both by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies accumulating since the discovery of this gene complex in 2002 produced controversial results in both disorders in different populations.
We investigated the association between G72/G30 gene and bipolar I disorder (BPI) in the Romanian population paying special attention to the association of G72/G30 locus with lifetime psychosis in BPI patients.
Fourteen G72-SNPs were genotyped in a Romanian sample of 198 BPI patients and 180 controls screened for psychiatric disorders in the Institute of Human Genetics, Life & Brain Center of the University of Bonn, Germany. Statistical analysis was performed with FAMHAP and Haploview-v3.32. The significance level of the results was corrected for multiple testing through permutations in 100,000 Monte Carlo simulations.
None of the fourteen SNPs was associated with the global diagnosis of BPI in our total patient sample or with the psychotic BPI subtype. But four SNPs reached nominal significance in the non-psychotic BPI subgroup [rs3916965 (M12) (P=0.044), rs1935057 (P=0.037), rs3916967 (M14) (P=0.043), rs2391191 (M15, non-synonymous) (P=0.043)]. In the non-psychotic subgroup, the haploblock including M14 and M15 (GA) remained significantly associated with BPI after correction through permutations (P=0.0524; OR=1.82).
Our results are the first replication of the study by Williams et al. (2006) reporting the same G72-SNPs [M12(A) and the functional SNP M15(A)], with the same alleles, to be associated with non-psychotic BPI disorder.
Since the discovery of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2) several studies reported association of TPH2 genetic variation with bipolar I disorder (BPI). Our objectives were to replicate in the Romanian population the recently described association of a rare functional SNP (rs17110563) and of a haplotype covering the 5′ region of TPH2 with BPI (Cichon et al., 2008) and to investigate the influence of the phenotypic traits age-of-onset, family history and parent-of-origin”, defined according to clinical criteria, on the degree of association between TPH2 and BPI.
Sixteen TPH2 SNPs were genotyped in a Romanian sample of 198 BPI patients and 180 controls screened for psychiatric disorders. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with Haploview3.32 and FAMHAP.
The functional SNP rs17110563 (encoding a Pro206Ser substitution) was present in Romanian BPI patients and absent in controls. SNPs located in the 5′-region (rs11178997, rs11178998, rs7954758), significantly associated with BPI in German patients were not associated with BPI in Romanian patients at single-marker level, but gave evidence for association at haplotypic level in a subgroup of patients with paternal transmission of BPI. Evidence for association was identified between haplotypes located in the 3′-region of TPH2 and BPI in the overall sample as well as in the subgroups of familial cases, the subgroup with paternal transmission, and the subgroup with AO≤25 years.
Our data provide support for the involvement of TPH2 in the etiology of BPI.
Vitamins play an essential role in broiler nutrition. They are fundamental for normal metabolic and physiological process, and their requirements for poultry are not fixed and can be affected by multiple factors. In contrast, mycotoxins are a challenging issue because they hinder performance and the immune system. Vitamin supplementation above minimum requirements would permit improvement in productive potential, health, bone and meat quality in a situation of mycotoxin challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of optimum vitamin nutrition in diets contaminated with aflatoxin in broilers from 1 to 44 days of age. A total of 1800 Cobb 500 male chicks were randomized to 15 sets of eight treatment groups, each containing 15 birds using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design (commercial vitamin levels and high vitamin levels, two levels of aflatoxin – 0 and 0.5 ppm with binder levels of 0 and 10 000 mg/kg). The mash diets were corn and soybean meal based, formulated according to commercial practices. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were analyzed for birds from 1 to 44 days of age. To determine carcass characteristics (carcass yield, breast yield and leg yield) and black bone syndrome, two birds were slaughtered from each group at 45 days. Other analyses included breast tenderness, water loss by dripping and malonaldehyde concentrations. The results demonstrated that broilers that were fed high levels of vitamins showed better weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast yield than broilers that were fed diets with commercial vitamin levels (P < 0.05); also, broilers that were fed diets containing 0.5 ppm aflatoxin had lower weight gain, carcass yield and breast yield (P < 0.05). The use of 10 000 mg/kg of binder improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion throughout the rearing period. We conclude that aflatoxin negatively affects performance and carcass yield; however, feeding optimum vitamin nutrition improved these performance traits.
Carbon-14 (radiocarbon, 14C) is a long-lived radionuclide (5730 yr) of interest regarding the safety for the management of intermediate level wastes (ILW). The present study gives an overview of the release of 14C from irradiated Zircaloy cladding in alkaline media. 14C is found either in the alloy part of Zircaloy cladding due to the neutron activation of 14N impurities by 14N(n,p)14C reaction, or in the oxide layer (ZrO2) formed at the metal surface by the neutron activation of 17O from UO2 or (U-Pu)O2 fuel and water from the primary circuit in the reactor by 17O(n,α)14C reaction. Various irradiated and unirradiated Zircaloys have been studied. The total 14C inventory has been determined both experimentally and by calculations. The results seem to be in good agreement. Leaching experiments were conducted in alkaline media for several time durations. 14C was mainly released as carboxylic acids. Further, corrosion measurements were performed by using both hydrogen measurements and electrochemical measurements. The corrosion rate (CR) ranges from a few nm/yr to 100 nm/yr depending on the surface conditions and the method used for measurement. From a safety assessment point of view, the instant release fraction (IRF) was determined on irradiated Zircaloy-2. The results showed that the 14C inventory in the oxide was significantly below the 20% commonly used in safety case assessments.
Hulless oats are of interest as an alternative to corn and wheat in organic poultry diets because they offer potential to enhance agrobiodiversity and produce locally grown feeds both within and outside of corn-growing regions. Hulless oats are easily certified GM-free and have demonstrated nutritional value for poultry. A feeding study was carried out to examine: (i) the effects of substituting corn, wheat or a fraction of each with hulless oats in organic layer diets, and (ii) the importance of oat variety in feed performance. Productivity and economic implications in the context of current organic markets were explored. Experimental diets included an oat-free control, Oat + corn, Oat + wheat and Oat + corn + wheat, each of which was formulated with three hulless oat varieties, AC Gwen, Paul and Streaker. All but the control diet included oats at 200 g kg−1. Three hundred Hy-Line Brown hens were individually caged and allocated to diets in groups of 10 in a completely randomized design with three replicates per diet. Experimental diets were fed between 24 and 32 weeks of age during which time hen health, egg production and egg quality indicators were monitored. Results indicated that hulless oats had no negative effects on hen health and productivity. On the basis of current organic feed ingredient prices and an estimated cost of USD 533 mt−1 for production of oats in the study region, oat containing diets were more expensive than the oat-free control. In an evaluation of revenue based on current market prices for organic eggs, the additional cost was completely offset by larger egg sizes of hens on oat containing diets. There were no major differences associated with oat variety.
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of free and nanoencapsulated curcumin against Trypanosoma evansi. In vitro efficacy of free curcumin (CURC) and curcumin-loaded in lipid-core nanocapsules (C-LNCs) was evaluated to verify their lethal effect on T. evansi. To perform the in vivo tests, T. evansi-infected animals were treated with CURC (10 and 100 mg kg−1, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and C-LNCs (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) during 6 days, with the results showing that these treatments significantly attenuated the parasitaemia. Infected untreated rats showed protein peroxidation and an increase of nitrites/nitrates, whereas animals treated with curcumin showed a reduction on these variables. As a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) differs between groups (P<0·05). Infected animals and treated with CURC exhibited a reduction in the levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine, when compared with the positive control group. The use of curcumin in vitro resulted in a better parasitaemia control, an antioxidant activity and a protective effect on liver and kidney functions of T. evansi-infected adult male Wistar rats.
The optoelectronic properties of a-SiC:H alloys with different carbon content are investigated with time resolved photoconductivity and photoinduced absorption measurements. It is shown that the electron drift mobility decreases with increasing carbon content. Also a weak increase of deep electron trapping with increasing carbon content is suggested by the experimental data. The recombination does not seem to be strongly changed by the presence of carbon at least at low carbon content.
Several stationary and transient techniques are used to characterize a large number of intrinsic a-Si:H films prepared in a narrow range of production conditions. Correlation between stationary photoconductivity, the activation energy of the dark conductivity and the long-time range decay of the transient photoconductivity and photoinduced absorption is observed. The applicability of a-Si:H films for solar cells in view of these properties is discussed.
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