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Discrepancies exist in reports of social cognition deficits in individuals with premanifest Huntington’s disease (HD); however, the reason for this variability has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate group- and individual-level social cognitive performance and (2) examine intra-individual variability (dispersion) across social cognitive domains in individuals with premanifest HD.
Theory of mind (ToM), social perception, empathy, and social connectedness were evaluated in 35 individuals with premanifest HD and 29 healthy controls. Cut-off values beneath the median and 1.5 × the interquartile range below the 25th percentile (P25 – 1.5 × IQR) of healthy controls for each variable were established for a profiling method. Dispersion between social cognitive domains was also calculated.
Compared to healthy controls, individuals with premanifest HD performed worse on all social cognitive domains except empathy. Application of the profiling method revealed a large proportion of people with premanifest HD fell below healthy control median values across ToM (>80%), social perception (>57%), empathy (>54%), and social behaviour (>40%), with a percentage of these individuals displaying more pronounced impairments in empathy (20%) and ToM (22%). Social cognition dispersion did not differ between groups. No significant correlations were found between social cognitive domains and mood, sleep, and neurocognitive outcomes.
Significant group-level social cognition deficits were observed in the premanifest HD cohort. However, our profiling method showed that only a small percentage of these individuals experienced marked difficulties in social cognition, indicating the importance of individual-level assessments, particularly regarding future personalised treatments.
Targeted drug development efforts in patients with CHD are needed to standardise care, improve outcomes, and limit adverse events in the post-operative period. To identify major gaps in knowledge that can be addressed by drug development efforts and provide a rationale for current clinical practice, this review evaluates the evidence behind the most common medication classes used in the post-operative care of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE from 2000 to 2019 using a controlled vocabulary and keywords related to diuretics, vasoactives, sedatives, analgesics, pulmonary vasodilators, coagulation system medications, antiarrhythmics, steroids, and other endocrine drugs. We included studies of drugs given post-operatively to children with CHD undergoing repair or palliation with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We identified a total of 127 studies with 51,573 total children across medication classes. Most studies were retrospective cohorts at single centres. There is significant age- and disease-related variability in drug disposition, efficacy, and safety.
In this study, we discovered major gaps in knowledge for each medication class and identified areas for future research. Advances in data collection through electronic health records, novel trial methods, and collaboration can aid drug development efforts in standardising care, improving outcomes, and limiting adverse events in the post-operative period.
To describe a pilot project infection prevention and control (IPC) assessment conducted in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in New York State (NYS) during a pivotal 2-week period when the region became the nation’s epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A telephone and video assessment of IPC measures in SNFs at high risk or experiencing COVID-19 activity.
SNFs in 14 New York counties, including New York City.
A 3-component remote IPC assessment: (1) screening tool; (2) telephone IPC checklist; and (3) COVID-19 video IPC assessment (ie, “COVIDeo”).
In total, 92 SNFs completed the IPC screening tool and checklist: 52 (57%) were conducted as part COVID-19 investigations, and 40 (43%) were proactive prevention-based assessments. Among the 40 proactive assessments, 14 (35%) identified suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVIDeo was performed in 26 (28%) of 92 assessments and provided observations that other tools would have missed: personal protective equipment (PPE) that was not easily accessible, redundant, or improperly donned, doffed, or stored and specific challenges implementing IPC in specialty populations. The IPC assessments took ∼1 hour each and reached an estimated 4 times as many SNFs as on-site visits in a similar time frame.
Remote IPC assessments by telephone and video were timely and feasible methods of assessing the extent to which IPC interventions had been implemented in a vulnerable setting and to disseminate real-time recommendations. Remote assessments are now being implemented across New York State and in various healthcare facility types. Similar methods have been adapted nationally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Realizing packaged state-of-the-art performance of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) operating at millimeter wavelengths presents significant challenges in terms of electrical interface circuitry and physical construction. For instance, even with the aid of modern electromagnetic simulation tools, modeling the interaction between the MMIC and its package embedding circuit can lack the necessary precision to achieve optimum device performance. Physical implementation also introduces inaccuracies and requires iterative interface component substitution that can produce variable results, is invasive and risks damaging the MMIC. This paper describes a novel method for in situ optimization of packaged millimeter-wave devices using a pulsed ultraviolet laser to remove pre-selected areas of interface circuit metallization. The method was successfully demonstrated through the optimization of a 183 GHz low noise amplifier destined for use on the MetOp-SG meteorological satellite series. An improvement in amplifier output return loss from an average of 12.9 dB to 22.7 dB was achieved across an operational frequency range of 175–191 GHz and the improved circuit reproduced. We believe that our in situ tuning technique can be applied more widely to planar millimeter-wave interface circuits that are critical in achieving optimum device performance.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Limited research has been conducted on the survival of men with castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC) with a pre-existing history of cardiovascular disease, receiving oral androgen signaling inhibitors. This study highlights all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality for elderly patients with CRPC with pre-existing history of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Inadequate knowledge is known about the survival of men with castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC) with pre-existing history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), receiving oral androgen signaling inhibitors (OASI). We compared all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality for elderly patients with CRPC with pre-existing history of CVD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: An active comparator, new user design, was used to identify 2,608 men older than age 65 years with CRPC using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database from 2011 to 2015. Patients were grouped into two analytical cohorts by CVD history. Within each analytical cohort patients were divided into two arms based on their new-user status (OASI vs. chemotherapy). All demographics and clinical characteristics were adjusted by inverse probability treatment weights (IPTWs). Unadjusted and IPTW-adjusted time-dependent Cox models, and Fine and Gray’s models were conducted to evaluate associations between OASI and all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nearly 64.5% of patients had pre-existing CVD. We observed a lower all-cause mortality in the pre-existing CVD cohort compared to the no pre-existing CVD cohort (IPTW-adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.59; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.64; IPTW-AHR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.78, respectively). Similarly, the prostate cancer specific-mortality was showed to be lower in the pre-existing CVD cohort compared to the no pre-existing CVD cohort when comparing OASI versus chemotherapy by the IPTW-adjusted time-dependent Fine and Gray’s models (IPTW-AHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.66; IPTW-AHR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.80, respectively). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: OASI showed a significant protective effect against all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality compared with chemotherapy; however, were less protective among patients without pre-existing CVD. Further studies are needed to investigate OASI in patients with and without pre-existing CVD.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our work provides guidance on whether dietary fat intake influences serum cholesterol levels in response to ketogenic diet therapy in adults with epilepsy. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is used in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults. Some patients on MAD show an increase in serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We explored whether dietary fat composition predicts short-term elevations in serum lipid levels in diet-naive adults who begin MAD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants self-reported their diet intake with 3-day food records at baseline, 1 month and 2 months. Food records were analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were also collected and LDL level calculated at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 38 patients submitted complete food records at each study visit (baseline, 1 month, and 2 month). Compared to baseline diet intake, there was a significant reduction in daily carbohydrate intake at 1 and 2 months (p<0.001) and a significant increase in daily fat intake at 1 and 2 months (p<0.001). There was also a significant increase in daily saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake at 1 and 2 months (p<0.001), daily mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake at 1 and 2 months (p<0.001), and daily cholesterol intake at 1 month (p<0.05) and 2 months (p<0.001), but no change in daily poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake over time. Compared to baseline, there was a significant increase in serum LDL at 1 month (p<0.001) and 2 months (p<0.01) and an increase in serum TC at 1 month (p<0.01) but not 2 months. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Despite a significant increase in total fat, saturated fat and mono-unsaturated fat intake as well as an increase in total cholesterol and LDL levels following MAD initiation, dietary fat composition appears to minimally predict serum lipid values in the short term.
This study examined the associations between accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST), lower intensity physical activity (LPA), higher intensity physical activity (HPA) and the incidence of depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up.
We included 2082 participants from The Maastricht Study (mean ± s.d. age 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 51.2% men) without depressive symptoms at baseline. ST, LPA and HPA were measured with the ActivPAL3 activity monitor. Depressive symptoms were measured annually over 4 years of follow-up with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between ST, LPA, HPA and incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10). Analyses were adjusted for total waking time per day, age, sex, education level, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status and alcohol use.
During 7812.81 person-years of follow-up, 203 (9.8%) participants developed incident depressive symptoms. No significant associations [Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found between sex-specific tertiles of ST (lowest v. highest tertile) [1.13 (0.76–1.66], or HPA (highest v. lowest tertile) [1.14 (0.78–1.69)] and incident depressive symptoms. LPA (highest v. lowest tertile) was statistically significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms in women [1.98 (1.19–3.29)], but not in men (p-interaction <0.01).
We did not observe an association between ST or HPA and incident depressive symptoms. Lower levels of daily LPA were associated with an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms in women. Future research is needed to investigate accelerometer-derived measured physical activity and ST with incident depressive symptoms, preferably stratified by sex.
Strengthening health systems and maintaining essential service delivery during health emergencies response is critical for early detection and diagnosis, prompt treatment, and effective control of pandemics, including the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Health information systems (HIS) developed during recent Ebola outbreaks in West Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) provided opportunities to collect, analyze, and distribute data to inform both day-to-day and long-term policy decisions on outbreak preparedness. As COVID-19 continues to sweep across the globe, HIS and related technological advancements remain vital for effective and sustained data sharing, contact tracing, mapping and monitoring, community risk sensitization and engagement, preventive education, and timely preparedness and response activities. In reviewing literature of how HIS could have further supported mitigation of these Ebola outbreaks and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, 3 key areas were identified: governance and coordination, health systems infrastructure and resources, and community engagement. In this concept study, we outline scalable HIS lessons from recent Ebola outbreaks and early COVID-19 responses along these 3 domains, synthesizing recommendations to offer clear, evidence-based approaches on how to leverage HIS to strengthen the current pandemic response and foster community health systems resilience moving forward.
Despite growing international attention, the anthropological and socio-behavioral elements of epidemics continue to be understudied and under resourced and lag behind the traditional outbreak response infrastructure. As seen in the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of socio-behavioral elements in understanding transmission and facilitating control of many outbreak-prone pathogens, this is problematic. Beyond the recent strengthening of global outbreak response capacities and global health security measures, a greater focus on the socio-behavioral components of outbreak response is required. We add to the current discussion by briefly highlighting the importance of socio-behavior in the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response, and describe vital areas of future development, including methods for community engagement and validated frameworks for behavioral modeling and change in outbreak settings.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is used in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults. Some patients on MAD show an increase in serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We explored whether dietary fat composition predicts short-term elevations in serum lipid levels in diet-naïve adults who begin MAD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants self-reported their diet intake with 3-day food records at baseline, 1 month and 2 months. Food records were analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Fasting serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides were also collected and LDL level calculated at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 38 patients submitted complete food records at each study visit (baseline, 1 month, and 2 month). Compared to baseline diet intake, there was a significant reduction in daily carbohydrate intake at 1 and 2 months months (p<0.001). There was also a significant increase in daily saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake at 1 and 2 months (p<0.001), daily mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake at 1 and 2 months (p<0.001), and daily cholesterol intake at 1 month (p<0.05) and 2 months (p<0.001), but no change in daily poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake over time. Compared to baseline, there was a significant increase in serum LDL at 1 month (p<0.001) and 2 months (p<0.01) and an increase in serum TC at 1 month (p<0.01) but not 2 months. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT : Despite a significant increase in total fat, saturated fat and mono-unsaturated fat intake as well as an increase in total cholesterol and LDL levels following MAD initiation, dietary fat composition appears to minimally predict serum lipid values in the short term. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Tanya McDonald has received speaking honoraria from Nutricia North America. Bobbie Henry-Barron receives grants from Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR) which is funded in part by Grant Number UL1 TR 001079 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Nutricia and Vitaflo. Diane Vizthum receives grants from the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR) which is funded in part by Grant Number UL1 TR 001079 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Mackenzie C. Cervenka has received grant support from Nutricia North America, Vitaflo, Army Research Laboratory, The William and Ella Owens Medical Research Foundation and BrightFocus Foundation. She receives speaking honoraria from LivaNova, Epigenix, Nutricia North America and the Glut1 Deficiency Foundation and performs consulting with Nutricia North America and Sage Therapeutics and receives Royalties from Demos Health.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems have developed protocols for prehospital activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to decrease first-medical-contact-to-balloon time (FMC2B). The rate of “false positive” prehospital activations is high. In order to decrease this rate and expedite care for patients with true STEMI, the American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) developed the Mission Lifeline PreAct STEMI algorithm, which was implemented in Los Angeles County (LAC; California USA) in 2015. The hypothesis of this study was that implementation of the PreAct algorithm would increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of prehospital activation.
This is an observational pre-/post-study of the effect of the implementation of the PreAct algorithm for patients with suspected STEMI transported to one of five STEMI Receiving Centers (SRCs) within the LAC Regional System. The primary outcome was the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The secondary outcome was FMC2B.
A total of 1,877 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome in the pre-intervention period and 405 patients in the post-intervention period. There was an overall decrease in cardiac catheterization laboratory activations, from 67% in the pre-intervention period to 49% in the post-intervention period (95% CI for the difference, -14% to -22%). The overall rate of cardiac catheterization declined in post-intervention period as compared the pre-intervention period, from 34% to 30% (95% CI, for the difference -7.6% to 0.4%), but actually increased for subjects who had activation (48% versus 58%; 95% CI, 4.6%-15.0%). Implementation of the PreAct algorithm was associated with an increase in the PPV of activation for PCI or CABG from 37.9% to 48.6%. The overall odds ratio (OR) associated with the intervention was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The effect of the intervention was to decrease variability between medical centers. There was no associated change in average FMC2B.
The implementation of the PreAct algorithm in the LAC EMS system was associated with an overall increase in the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation.
Background: Trauma care represents a complex patient journey, requiring multi-disciplinary coordinated care. Team members are human, and as such, how they feel about their colleagues and their work affects performance. The challenge for health service leaders is enabling culture that supports high levels of collaboration, cooperation and coordination across diverse groups. Aim Statement: We aimed to define and set the agenda for improvement of the relational aspects of trauma care at a large tertiary care hospital. Measures & Design: We conducted a mixed-methods collaborative ethnography using the Relational Coordination survey – an established tool to analyze the relational dimensions of multidisciplinary teamwork – participant observation, interviews, and narrative surveys. Findings were presented to clinicians in working groups for further interpretation and to facilitate co-creation of targeted interventions designed to improve team relationships and performance. Evaluation/Results: We engaged a complex multidisciplinary network of ~500 care providers dispersed across seven core interdependent clinical disciplines. Initial findings highlighted the importance of relationships in trauma care and opportunities to improve. Narrative survey and ethnographic findings further highlighted the centrality of a translational simulation program in contributing positively to team culture and relational ties. A range of 16 interventions – focusing on structural, process and relational dimensions – were co-created with participants and are now being implemented and evaluated by various trauma care providers. Discussion/Impact: Through engagement of clinicians spanning organizational boundaries, relational aspects of care can be measured and directly targeted in a collaborative quality improvement process. We encourage health care leaders to consider relationship-based quality improvement strategies, including translational simulation and relational coordination processes, in their efforts to improve care for patients with complex, interdependent journeys.
Le trouble bipolaire (TB) est une maladie chronique sévère qui atteint 1 à 4 % de la population générale. Le TB entraîne un handicap majeur lié au très haut niveau de rechute (60 % à 2 ans), à l’impact fonctionnel des comorbidités associées et aux troubles persistants entre les épisodes. Cette maladie récurrente a été reconnue par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) comme la septième cause de handicap par année de vie parmi toutes les maladies dans la population des 15 à 44 ans . L’arrivée nouvelle du DSM-5 témoigne de la volonté d’amélioration des outils de classification diagnostique à partir des biomarqueurs validés dans chaque trouble psychiatrique. Néanmoins, l’identification de tels biomarqueurs n’est pas toujours facile et se heurte à la complexité et à l’hétérogénéité des pathologies dont celle du trouble bipolaire. Ainsi, des efforts croissants sont fait afin d’identifier de nouveaux biomarqueurs du TB qui corrèlent avec des symptômes ou des dimensions cliniques de la maladie. Des travaux récents ont mis l’accent sur l’intérêt de biomarqueurs pour les TB dans le champ de la neuro-imagerie , des rythmes circadiens  et de certains marqueurs moléculaires . Ces biomarqueurs ont pour objectif d’aider non seulement au meilleur dépistage du trouble et à sa meilleure compréhension physiopathologique, mais aussi à la prévention des rechutes, à l’évaluation de l4efficacité des thérapeutiques et à la prédiction de la réponse thérapeutique. Cette recherche de biomarqueurs s’inscrit dans un effort général de la recherche d’une médecine personnalisée.
The aim of this work was to identify factors associated with homelessness status in patients admitted to the psychiatric emergency ward of a French public teaching hospital over the 6-year study period (2001-2006).
The study was based on a retrospective review of the psychiatric emergency ward's administrative and medical computer databases. Each emergency care episode had accompanying data including demographic, financial, clinical, and management information.
During this 6-year study, the psychiatric service recorded 16,754 care episodes concerning 8,860 different patients, of which 591 were homeless (6.7%) and 8,269 were non-homeless (93.3%). The mean ± SD number of visits to the psychiatric emergency service was higher for homeless (4.9±12.3) than for non-homeless patients (1.7±2.4) (p< .001). A total of 331 homeless patients (56%) had more than one care episode, versus 2,180 (26%) for non-homeless patients. Factors associated with homelessness included male sex, single status, and the reception of social financial assistance. Schizophrenia (43.7%) and substance use disorders (31.0%) were the most frequent disorders in homeless patients. Aggressive behaviour and violence were reported equally in homeless and non-homeless patients. Homeless patients were hospitalized less often after having received care in the emergency ward.
Although there is near-universal access to free mental health care in France, our findings suggest that the quality and adequacy of subsequent care were not always guaranteed. Multidisciplinary and collaborative solutions are needed to improve the management of homeless patients.
Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) is a statistical method created to explore the heterogeneity of clinical groups based on their longitudinal outcomes by identifying distinct trajectories of change. This model can be applied to assess heterogeneity in responses to treatment. This pilot study explored the relevance of the GBTM associated with the dimensional evaluation of mood (MATHYS) to define trajectory of recovery in acute bipolar mood episodes on a short period of time during a naturalistic study.
The sample consisted in 118 bipolar patients and all patients were recruited during an acute phase: 56% had a major depressive episode, 26% a manic or hypomanic episode, and 18% a mixed state using the DSM-IV criteria. Patients were assessed four times with MATHYS during a three weeks follow-up period. It is an observational study and treatment was prescribed as usual. We applied the GBTM method and MATHYS total score to define trajectories of recovery.
This method allows identifying 4 trajectories of recovery. At Baseline, two of them started with a score of inhibition but with quite different evolutive profiles (stable inhibition versus improvement). The two others trajectories started with a score of activation (mild versus moderate) and showed a linear improvement of symptoms but with a more rapid recovery for the patients with the higher activation at baseline.
When considering the diagnosis of patients belonging in each trajectory, there model seems particular relevant to explore the high heterogeneity in response to treatment in bipolar patients during an acute depressive episode.
ENBREC (European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centres) is a disease-oriented network designed to set up a EU-wide network of expert centres, specialized in research and care in bipolar disorders. The European added value is to share expertise in the different fields of research and to have access to large cohorts of patient. It is an FP7 project whith 6 countries involved.
ENBREC will provide an EU-integrated facility for research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and on the mechanisms of bipolar disorders.
A preliminary step was to develop a computerized medical file to collect in a same manner a minimum set of clinical data to perform observational studies. We also include a common cognitive battery. Patients will be re-assessed every 6 months. This systematic assessment is the minimum required to be involved as an expert centre of the network. In parallel, we will collect DNA samples to perform genetic studies on well-characterized patients. Moreover, data from scanners performed for diagnostic purpose will be pooled to provide a large sample of structural brain pictures.
Other modules are proposed in the framework of the expert centres for observational studies with a high frequency of assessment to be able to capture more detailed description in psychopathological variables and in treatment response.
This cohort will allow selecting and recruiting patients for interventional studies or in specific programmes of research. Large cohorts of well-characterized patients are needed to improve the knowledge of this heterogeneous disease and to translate research outcomes into health improvements.
Objective. As some temperament profiles may be markers of genetic vulnerability traits, we aimed to compare sensation seeking in euthymic bipolar patients and in controls. Methods. One hundred ninety-four patients fulfilling DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorders (BP), 81% of whom presented type I BP, and 95 controls were included in this study. Euthymia was assessed using both the MADRS and Bech mania scales. Subjects were evaluated using the French abbreviated form of Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), which provide a total score (TS) and four subscores: Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (Dis), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). Results. SSS total score differed significantly between men (17.2 ± 0.5) and women (15.3 ± 0.6) (P = 0.02) and all the subscores were negatively correlated with age. On adjustement for sex and age, we found that bipolar patients had a high Dis score (P = 0.003). However, if the same analysis was performed with a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence as a covariable, no such difference was found (P = 0.436). The SSS demonstrated a high degree of test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.91). Conclusion. These results suggest that sensation seeking assessed with the SSS is not a temperament characteristic associated with bipolar disorders but is instead linked to a tendency towards alcohol abuse.
EUthymic states in bipolar disorders are generally considered to be devoid of severe symptoms. However, bipolar patients present subsyndromal symptoms for half of their life, and often have comorbid psychiatric disorders. If we go beyond the concept of temperamental features, can we identify certain emotional characteristics distinguishing normothymic bipolar patients from normal controls? The aim of this study was to assess the emotional reactivity of normothymic bipolar patients, comparing such patients with a normal control group during an experimental mood induction procedure.
We evaluated the subjective emotional reactivity of 145 subjects (90 control subjects and 55 normothymic bipolar patients), using an emotional induction method based on the viewing of a set of slides (6 positive, 6 negative, 6 neutral) extracted from International Affective Picture System. Subjective valence and arousal were recorded with the Self Assessment Manikin.
We also recorded startle reflexes.
Normothymic bipolar patients and normal controls assessed valence and arousal similarly for positive and negative images. However, neutral images were considered more pleasant, and induced a higher level of arousal, in normothymic bipolar patients than in control subjects. Neutral pictures also triggered a stronger startle reflex in normothymic bipolar patients compared to controls.
Normothymic bipolar patients displayed emotional hyper-reactivity, mostly evidenced in neutral situations. This feature may be linked to emotional dysregulation and is a potential endophenotype and or a risk factor for bipolar disorders. This trait may be responsible for vulnerability to minor stressful events in everyday life. These findings have potential implications for the daily management.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.