To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Early life exposures and growth patterns may affect long-term risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD). We followed up in adolescence two Zambian cohorts (n 322) recruited in infancy to investigate how two early exposures – maternal HIV exposure without HIV infection (HEU) and early growth profile – were associated with later anthropometry, body composition, blood lipids, Hb and HbA1c, blood pressure and grip strength. Although in analyses controlled for age and sex, HEU children were thinner, but not shorter, than HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) children, with further control for socio-demographic factors, these differences were not significant. HEU children had higher HDL-cholesterol than HUU children and marginally lower HbA1c but no other biochemical or clinical differences. We identified three early growth profiles – adequate growth, declining and malnourished – which tracked into adolescence when differences in anthropometry and body fat were still seen. In adolescence, the early malnourished group, compared with the adequate group, had lower blood TAG and higher HDL, lower grip strength (difference: −1·87 kg, 95 % CI −3·47, −0·27; P = 0·02) and higher HbA1c (difference: 0·5 %, 95 % CI 0·2, 0·9; P = 0·005). Lower grip strength and higher HbA1c suggest the early malnourished children could be at increased risk of NCD in later life. Including early growth profile in analyses of HIV exposure reduced the associations between HIV and outcomes. The results suggest that perinatal HIV exposure may have no long-term effects unless accompanied by poor early growth. Reducing the risk of young child malnutrition may lessen children’s risk of later NCD.
The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
The use of ‘cut-and-carry’ (the mechanical harvesting and feeding of fresh grass) has increased in some temperate regions in recent years and evidence suggests that sward management practices in this system differ to conventional grazing. In order to investigate this further, a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment was used to examine the effect of low (1489 kg dry matter (DM)/ha; LHM) and high (2142 kg DM/ha; HHM) pre-cutting herbage mass; three ryegrass cultivars, diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne; DIP), tetraploid perennial ryegrass (TET) and a hybrid ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum × L. perenne; HY); and the inclusion of red clover (Trifolium pratense) on sward herbage production, nutritive value and ryegrass morphology. Plots were harvested according to herbage mass from March to November in 2018 and 2019. Annual DM production was 1489 kg DM/ha higher in HHM than in LHM swards. Pre-cutting herbage mass had no effect on organic matter digestibility (OMD) in early season for DIP and TET swards or in late season for all cultivars. There was an interaction between ryegrass cultivar and clover inclusion in annual yield whereby red clover increased DM production in all cultivars however, its effect was largest in HY swards. Red clover inclusion increased DM production but reduced OMD in early and mid-seasons. Overall, TET swards were lowest in neutral detergent fibre and highest in OMD compared to HY and DIP. Pre-cutting herbage mass, ryegrass cultivar and red clover inclusion require careful consideration when establishing and managing pastures in cut-and-carry systems.
Minority and older adult patients remain underrepresented in cancer clinical trials (CCTs). The current study sought to examine sociodemographic inequities in CCT interest, eligibility, enrollment, decline motivation, and attrition across two psychosocial CCTs for gynecologic, gastrointestinal, and thoracic cancers.
Patients were approached for recruitment to one of two interventions: (1) a randomized control trial (RCT) examining effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting sleep, pain, mood, cytokines, and cortisol following surgery, or (2) a yoga intervention to determine its feasibility, acceptability, and effects on mitigating distress. Prospective RCT participants were queried about interest and screened for eligibility. All eligible patients across trials were offered enrollment. Patients who declined yoga intervention enrollment provided reasons for decline. Sociodemographic predictors of enrollment decisions and attrition were explored.
No sociodemographic differences in RCT interest were observed, and older patients were more likely to be ineligible. Eligible Hispanic patients across trials were significantly more likely to enroll than non-Hispanic patients. Sociodemographic factors predicted differences in decline motivation. In one trial, individuals originating from more urban areas were more likely to prematurely discontinue participation.
These results corroborate evidence of no significant differences in CCT interest across minority groups, with older adults less likely to fulfill eligibility criteria. While absolute Hispanic enrollment was modest, Hispanic patients were more likely to enroll relative to non-Hispanic patients. Additional sociodemographic trends were noted in decline motivation and geographical prediction of attrition. Further investigation is necessary to better understand inequities, barriers, and best recruitment practices for representative CCTs.
To examine cross-sectional associations between farmers’ market shopping behaviours and objectively measured and self-reported fruit and vegetable (FV) intake among rural North Carolina (NC) and New York City (NYC) shoppers.
Cross-sectional intercept surveys were used to assess self-reported FV intake and three measures of farmers’ market shopping behaviour: (1) frequency of purchasing FV; (2) variety of FV purchased and (3) dollars spent on FV. Skin carotenoids, a non-invasive biomarker for FV intake, were objectively measured using pressure-mediated reflection spectroscopy. Associations between farmers’ market shopping behaviours and FV intake were examined using regression models that controlled for demographic variables (e.g. age, sex, race, smoking status, education, income and state).
Farmers’ markets (n 17 markets) in rural NC and NYC.
A convenience sample of 645 farmers’ market shoppers.
Farmers’ market shoppers in NYC purchased a greater variety of FV and had higher skin carotenoid scores compared with shoppers in rural NC. Among all shoppers, there was a positive, statistically significant association between self-reported frequency of shopping at farmers’ markets and self-reported as well as objectively assessed FV intake. The variety of FV purchased and farmers’ market spending on FV also were positively associated with self-reported FV intake, but not skin carotenoids.
Those who shop for FV more frequently at a farmers’ markets, purchase a greater variety of FV and spend more money on FV have higher self-reported, and in some cases higher objectively measured FV intake. Further research is needed to understand these associations and test causality.
There is limited information as to whether people who experience severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as young children are at increased risk of overweight, high body fat and associated chronic diseases in later life. We followed up, when aged 7–12 years, 100 Zambian children who were hospitalised for SAM before age 2 years and eighty-five neighbourhood controls who had never experienced SAM. We conducted detailed anthropometry, body composition assessment by bioelectrical impedance and deuterium dilution (D2O) and measured blood lipids, Hb and HbA1c. Groups were compared by linear regression following multiple imputation for missing variables. Children with prior SAM were slightly smaller than controls, but differences, controlling for age, sex, socio-economic status and HIV exposure or infection, were significant only for hip circumference, suprailiac skinfold and fat-free mass index by D2O. Blood lipids and HbA1c did not differ between groups, but Hb was lower by 7·8 (95 % CI 0·8, 14·7) g/l and systolic blood pressure was 3·4 (95 % CI 0·4, 6·4) mmHg higher among the prior SAM group. Both anaemia and high HbA1c were common among both groups, indicating a population at risk for the double burden of over- and undernutrition and associated infectious and chronic diseases. The prior SAM children may have been at slightly greater risk than the controls; this was of little clinical significance at this young age, but the children should be followed when older and chronic diseases manifest.
This paper integrates the first rock art directly dated with radiocarbon (14C) in Southeast Asia with the archaeological activity in the area and with stylistically similar rock art in the region. Peñablanca is a hotspot of archaeological research that includes the oldest dates for human remains in the Philippines. The caves in Peñablanca with known rock art were revisited and only 37.6% of the original recorded figures were found; the others are likely lost to agents of deterioration. A sample was collected from an anthropomorph and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dated to 3570–3460 cal BP. The date corresponds to archaeological activity in the area and provides a more holistic view of the people inhabiting the Peñablanca caves at that time. A systematic review was used to find similar black anthropomorph motifs in Southeast Asia to identify potential connections across the region and provide a possible chronological association.
Delineating the proximal urethra can be critical for radiotherapy planning but is challenging on computerised tomography (CT) imaging.
Materials and methods:
We trialed a novel non-invasive technique to allow visualisation of the proximal urethra using a rapid sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to visualise the urinary flow in patients voiding during the simulation scan.
Of the seven patients enrolled, four were able to void during the MRI scan. For these four patients, direct visualisation of urinary flow through the proximal urethra was achieved. The average volume of the proximal urethra contoured on voiding MRI was significantly higher than the proximal urethra contoured on CT, 4·07 and 1·60 cc, respectively (p = 0·02). The proximal urethra location also differed; the Dice coefficient average was 0·28 (range 0–0·62).
In this small, proof-of-concept prospective clinical trial, the volume and location of the proximal urethra differed significantly when contoured on a voiding MRI scan compared to that determined by a conventional CT simulation. The shape of the proximal urethra on voiding MRI may be more anatomically correct compared to the proximal urethra shape determined with a semi-rigid catheter in place.
To assess the association between dietary diversity and development among children under 24 months in rural Uganda and to establish other factors that could be associated with development among these children.
A secondary data analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled maternal education trial (n 511) was conducted on a sub-sample of 385 children. We used adjusted ORs (AORs) to assess the associations of dietary diversity scores (DDS) and other baseline factors assessed at 6–8 months with child development domains (communication, fine motor, gross motor, personal–social and problem solving) at 20–24 months of age.
Rural areas in Kabale and Kisoro districts of south-western Uganda.
Children under 24 months.
After multivariable analysis, DDS at 6–8 months were positively associated with normal fine motor skills development at 20–24 months (AOR = 1·18; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·37; P = 0·02). No significant association was found between DDS and other development domains. Children who were not ill at 6–8 months had higher odds of developing normal communication (AOR = 1·73; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·77) and gross motor (AOR = 1·91; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·36) skills than sick children. Girls had lower odds of developing normal gross motor skills compared with boys (AOR = 0·58; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·98). Maternal/caregiver nutritional education intervention was positively associated with development of gross motor, fine motor and problem-solving skills (P-values < 0·05).
We found an association between child DDS at 6–8 months and improvement in fine motor skills development at 20–24 months. Child illness status, maternal/caregiver nutritional education intervention and sex were other significant baseline predictors of child development at 20–24 months.
To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.
The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).
Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.
A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level “harm index” for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.
We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
We examined associations of urine iodide excretion, proxy for iodine intake, with child development and growth.
This is a secondary analysis of a 1:1 cluster-randomised trial with a 6-month nutrition/stimulation/hygiene education intervention among mothers of children aged 6–8 months to improve child development and growth. Development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development–III (BSID-III) and Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), whereas anthropometry was used to assess growth. Urine iodide concentration (UIC) and urine iodide/creatinine ratio (ICR) were measured.
The current study was conducted in southern Uganda.
We randomly selected 155 children from the 511 enrolled into the original trial and analysed data when they were aged 20–24 and 36 months.
Median UIC for both study groups at 20–24 and 36 months were similar (P > 0·05) and within the normal range of 100–199 µg/l (0·79–1·60 µmol/l), whereas the intervention group had significantly higher ICR at 20–24 months. The BSID-III cognitive score was positively associated (P = 0·028) with ICR at 20–24 months in the intervention group. The ASQ gross motor score was negatively associated (P = 0·020) with ICR at 20–24 months among the controls. ICR was not significantly associated with anthropometry in the two study groups at either time-point.
Following the intervention, a positive association was noted between ICR and child’s cognitive score at 20–24 months, whereas no positive association with ICR and growth was detected. Iodine sufficiency may be important for child’s cognitive development in this setting.
The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of information on the Internet posted about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine how closely these materials are written to the recommended reading levels.
Using the search term “coronavirus,” information posted on the first 100 English language websites was identified. Using an online readability calculator, multiple readability tests were conducted to ensure a comprehensive representation would result.
The mean readability scores ranged between grade levels 6.2 and 17.8 (graduate school level). Four of the 5 measures (GFI, CLI, SMOG, FRE) found that readability exceeded the 10th grade reading level indicating that the text of these websites would be difficult for the average American to read. The mean reading level for nearly all noncommercial and commercial websites was at or above the 10th grade reading level.
Messages about COVID-19 must be readable at an “easy” level, and must contain clear guidelines for behavior. The degree to which individuals seek information in response to risk messages is positively related to the expectation that the information will resolve uncertainty. However, if the information is too complex to interpret and it fails to lead to disambiguation, this can contribute to feelings of panic.
The Área de Conservación Osa (ACOSA) contains the largest population of Scarlet Macaws Ara macao in Costa Rica. Despite their influence on ecosystem dynamics and status as a flagship species, empirical data on the foraging patterns of this population is lacking. This information is crucial in implementing effective conservation strategies, particularly reintroduction attempts. Observations of feeding behaviour were made systematically over a 12-month period to provide the first direct examination of Scarlet Macaw diet within the ACOSA region. Scarlet Macaws feed on various items including seeds, flowers, bark, and leaf-gall larvae. Key findings included a demonstration of a smaller dietary niche breadth than that recorded for other Central American populations, use of button mangrove Conocarpus erectus, a species not previously recognised as a food source for Scarlet Macaws, and a heavy reliance on an exotic non-native species, Terminalia catappa. We argue that whilst human-modified coastal locations may present viable habitat for Scarlet Macaws, anthropogenic influences including the removal of native food sources and proliferation of exotic and cultivated species have left the Scarlet Macaws of the ACOSA particularly dependent on a small number of species.
n-6 Fatty acids have been shown to exert pro-adipogenic effects, whereas n-3 fatty acids work in opposition. Increasing intakes of linoleic acid (LA; n-6) v. α-linolenic acid (ALA; n-3) in Western diets has led to the hypothesis that consumption of this diet during pregnancy may be contributing to adverse offspring health. This study investigated the effects of feeding a maternal dietary LA:ALA ratio similar to that of the Western diet (9:1) compared with a proposed ‘ideal’ ratio (about 1:1·5), at two total fat levels (18 v. 36 % fat, w/w), on growth and lipogenic gene expression in the offspring. Female Wistar rats were assigned to one of the four experimental groups throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring were culled at 1 and 2 weeks of age for sample collection. Offspring of dams consuming a 36 % fat diet were approximately 20 % lighter than those exposed to an 18 % fat diet (P < 0·001). Male, but not female, liver weight at 1 week was approximately 13 % heavier and had increased glycogen (P < 0·05), in offspring exposed to high LA (P < 0·01). Hepatic expression of lipogenic genes suggested an increase in lipogenesis in male offspring exposed to a 36 % fat maternal diet and in female offspring exposed to a low-LA diet, via increases in the expression of fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein. Sexually dimorphic responses to altered maternal diet appeared to persist until 2 weeks of age. In conclusion, whilst maternal total fat content predominantly affected offspring growth, fatty acid ratio and total fat content had sexually dimorphic effects on offspring liver weight and composition.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
All Fire and Emergency Services (FES) personnel must balance FES work with their other responsibilities. Given that women tend to take on a greater responsibility for management of household/domestic activities than men, the on-call component of their FES work may be associated with very different challenges. Despite this, women have rarely been the focus of on-call research.
To explore women’s on-call experiences in the FES by examining coping styles and strategies, with the goal of helping to innovate the way women are supported in FES roles.
Relevant findings from two studies are included. The first study involved FES personnel from two agencies in Australia (n=24) who participated in a semi-structured interview. The second study was an anonymous online survey to determine work characteristics, sleep, stress, and coping in on-call workers more broadly, with workers from all industries across Australia (n=228) invited to participate.
Interview data identified two major themes in terms of coping with on-call work. Support (from family, social, and work), planning, and preparation were identified as important in helping women cope in the context of on-call unpredictability. Results from the survey (43% women) showed that on-call workers were an engaged group in terms of their coping, with 67% classified as having a positive coping style and 58% of women indicating that they agreed/strongly agreed with the statement, “I cope well with on-call work.”
Taken together, these data highlight engagement with positive coping by women who do on-call work, including in the FES. Importantly, positive coping strategies, such as talking about emotions, problem-solving, and seeking support have been linked to increased shift work tolerance in other populations. Coping style and strategies represent modifiable variables which could be specifically applied to assist women to manage the unique challenges associated with on-call work in the FES.
Approximately 70% of the 30 000 known bee (Hymenoptera) species and most flower-visiting, solitary wasps (Hymenoptera) nest in the ground. However, nesting behaviours of most ground-nesting bees and wasps are poorly understood. Habitat loss, including nesting habitat, threatens populations of ground-nesting bees and wasps. Most ground-nesting bee and wasp studies implement trapping methods that capture foraging individuals, but provide little insight into the nesting preferences of these taxa. Some researchers have suggested that emergence traps may provide a suitable means by which to determine ground-nesting bee and wasp abundance. We sought to evaluate nest-site selection of ground-nesting bees and wasps using emergence traps in two study systems: (1) planted wildflower enhancement plots and fallow control plots in agricultural land; and (2) upland pine and hammock habitat in forests. Over the course of three years (2015–2017), we collected 306 ground-nesting bees and wasps across all study sites from emergence traps. In one study, we compared captures per trap between coloured pan traps and emergence traps and found that coloured pan traps captured far more ground-nesting bees and wasps than did emergence traps. Based on our emergence trap data, our results also suggest ground-nesting bees and wasps are more apt to nest within wildflower enhancement plots than in fallow control plots, and in upland pine habitats than in hammock forests. In conclusion, emergence traps have potential to be a unique tool to gain understanding of ground-nesting bee and wasp habitat requirements.
Donemark J.L. Calimon, Partner in Quisumbing Torres Law Offices and a member firm of Baker McKenzie International in Manila,
Jay Patrick R. Santiago, Senior associate in Quisumbing Torres Law Offices and a member firm of Baker McKenzie International in Manila, the Philippines.,
Grace Ann C. Lazaro, Associate in Quisumbing Torres Law Offices and a member firm of Baker McKenzie International in Manila, the Philippines.
In 2018, the Philippines is the fourth freest economy in Southeast Asia, the 13th among 43 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and the 61st in the world next to Spain. As of November 2017, the Philippine economy has grown over 6 percent for a ninth consecutive quarter. Indeed, the Philippines is emerging as one of this decade's economic stars with the World Bank predicting growth of more than 6 percent until 2019, underpinned by an ambitious infrastructure building programme and a young and growing population. With approximately 60 percent of the population within the age bracket of 15 – 64 years, a literacy rate of over 95 percent, and an English-speaking population, the Philippines has the manpower to fuel further economic growth.
In addition to manpower, the Philippines has a robust domestic and international legal investment regime that aims to ensure and promote investment development, growth and protection. This chapter tackles the legal protections available to a foreign investor in the Philippines, including (i) substantive protections under both domestic laws and investment treaties; and (ii) procedural protections under investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) remedies. The chapter will also deal with legal trends and future developments in the Philippines relating to foreign investments and ISDS.
FOREIGN INVESTMENT: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEGAL REGIMES
NATIONAL LEGAL REGIME
The Philippines encourages foreign investments as reflected in various laws, regulations and court decisions. As of January 2018, according to the Board of Investments (BOI), there are approximately 123 investment-related laws and 14 investment promotion agencies in the Philippines, e.g. the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) and other special economic zones. The most important investment-related laws are described below.
Commonwealth Act No. 108: The Anti-Dummy Law (ADL)
The ADL provides that in all cases in which any constitutional or legal provision requires Philippine or any other specific citizenship as a requisite for the exercise or enjoyment of a right, franchise or privilege, any citizen of the Philippines or of any other specific country who allows his name or citizenship to be used for the purpose of evading such provision, and any alien or foreigner profiting thereby, shall be punished by imprisonment and/or by a fine.