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Fasting is commonly used in aquaculture to empty the gut before slaughter, but little is known about how feeding frequency before fasting affects the stress response of trout. To find out more, 240 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were separated into three groups with different feeding schedules during the final month of fattening, from 26 September to 28 October 2013 (daily, every two days or every four days) and two durations of pre-slaughter fasting (two days of fasting; 24.3 degree days, to nine days of fasting; 102 degree days). After slaughter, a number of stress-related parameters were measured, such as liver glycogen, skin/gill colour and haematological parameters (cortisol, glucose, lactate, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase). Trout given food every two days on the farm had lower levels of cortisol and higher levels of triglycerides and liver glycogen than the other treatments after two days of fasting; indicating that habituating trout to feed once every two days in the final month of fattening lowered their stress response to two days of fasting before slaughter.
The General Decision-Making Styles (GDMS) scale measures five decision-making styles: rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant and spontaneous. GDMS has been related to coping and some personality factors and sex-differences has been described. In spite of its usefulness, there is not a validated Spanish translation. The aim of this study is to translate to Spanish and provide psychometric evidence considering sex differences and the relationships between GDMS, personality and coping variables. Two samples were used for this study; the first sample composed by 300 participants who completed the GDMS and the Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI), and the second sample of 361 participants who completed the GDMS, the Ten Item Personality Trait Inventory and the brief COPE scales. Participants from second sample filled in GDMS a second time (137 participants) after eight weeks from the first data collection. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a five-factor composition of GDMS with equivalence across sex using invariance analyses. Moreover, GDMS showed acceptable internal consistency and temporal stability. Finally, rational and intuitive styles were related to healthier coping patterns and emotional stability, while dependent, avoidant and spontaneous styles were associated with unhealthy coping patterns and emotional instability.
The municipality of Leganés has been very vulnerable to the effects of the crisis derived from the COVID-19 pandemic (both due to the incidence of the infection and the socioeconomic situation). Multiple studies show that children and adolescents, especially those with a psychiatric background, have been one of the most affected groups during the confinement.
Firstly, to describe the characteristics of clinical care at the Child/Youth Mental Health Centre of Leganés (Madrid) during the first lockdown (March-June 2020). Secondly, to present data on the clinical evolution of the patients along this period (n = 720).
Descriptive study and literature review.
Clinical care during the period of strict confinement was mainly by telephone, although the most serious cases were attended in person. In addition, referral to Intensive outpatient programs was interrupted. The results show 56% of patients remained stable. Anxious symptoms (35%) and behavioural disturbances (24%) were most frequently referred (Figure 1), It is noteworthy that the most critical cases (such as suicide attempts or domestic violence) were observed in adolescents and that at least 11% of patients increased their use of electronic devices.
The first confinement stage was particularly stressful for families and especially for children and adolescents, although most patients remained psychopathologically stable. However, other studies have found a significant increase in child and adolescent mental health problems during the following months (de-escalation stage).
Myzus persicae is a cosmopolitan aphid that is highly polyphagous and an important agricultural pest. The subspecies M. persicae nicotianae has been described for highly specialized phenotypes adapted to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In Chile, the population of M. persicae nicotianae was originally composed of a single red genotype that did not possess insecticide resistance mutations. However, in the last decade, variation in the colour of tobacco aphids has been observed in the field. To determine whether this variation stems from the presence of new genotypes, sampling was carried out across the entire distribution of tobacco cultivation regions in Chile. The aphids collected were genotyped, and the frequency of kdr (L1014F), super-kdr (M918T), modification of acetylcholinesterase (MACE) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit (nAChRβ) mutations associated with insecticide resistance was determined. A total of 16 new genotypes of M. persicae nicotianae were detected in Chile: four of them possessed the MACE mutation, and none of them possessed the kdr, super-kdr or nAChRβ mutation. The previously described red genotype was not detected in any of the sampled fields over two seasons. These results raise questions about the mechanisms underlying changes in the genetic structure of M. persicae nicotianae populations in Chile. Future research aimed at addressing these questions could provide new insight into aphid evolution and agricultural practices.
Depressed patients with early traumatic experiences may represent a clinically distinct subtype with worse clinical outcome. Since early traumatic experiences alter the development of systems that regulate the stress response, certain personality features may influence coping strategies, putting individuals with depression and a history of early traumatic experiences at greater risk of suicidal behaviour.
To determine whether impulsivity mediates the relationship between early traumatic experiences and suicidal behaviour in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
The sample included 190 patients [mean age (SD)=53.71 (10.37); females: 66.3%], with current MDD. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) were used to assess childhood and adulthood adverse life events and impulsivity. We developed mediation models by bootstrap sampling methods.
81 (42.6%) patients had previous suicide attempts (SA). CTQ-SF-Total and BIS-11-Total scores were higher in MDD patients with previous SA. Correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between the CTQ-SF-Total and BIS-11-Total, CTQ-SF-Total and HDRS-Total, and BIS-11-Total and HDRS-Total scores. Regression models found that CTQ-SF-Total, BIS-11-Total, and HDRS-Total scores were associated with SA. Mediation analyses further revealed the association between CTQ-SF-Total and SA was mediated by the indirect effect of the BIS-11-Total score (b=0.007, 95% CI=0.001, 0.015), after controlling for sex, HDRS-Total, and LTE-Total.
Impulsivity could mediate the influence of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour. This will help understand the role of risk factors in suicidal behaviour and aid in the development of prevention interventions focused on modifiable mediators when risk factors are non-modifiable.
Suicidal behavior has a great impact on world public health. The literature describes the possible existence of an association between neurobiological, clinical and cognitive factors in suicidal behavior.
To determine the possible relationship between clinical variables (history of abuse/maltreatment in childhood), psychopathology (impulsivity traits) and cognitive (decision-making) with a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal idea in patients with major depressive disorder.
Cross-sectional study in a sample of adult patients with major depressive disorder in which two types of comparisons are made. In the first case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of history of suicide attempt. In the second case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of suicidal ideation in the same sample of patients. Finally, sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables were evaluated in that population sample.
When the joint influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics are present, it can be said that being single/divorced/separated, a history of sexual abuse in childhood and an alteration in decision-making, specifically a lower number of choices of deck D in the IGT test, are associated with a higher probability of a personal history of suicide attempt. While a higher score on the Barrat impulsivity scale is associated with a greater probability of presenting current suicidal ideation once the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables has been taken into account.
Different sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive factors are associated with the presence of a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal ideation.
In Chile, two quinoa ecotypes are grown: salares, also present in the highlands of Bolivia, and coastal, in central and southern areas of the country, at sea level. Genotypes from the coastal ecotype have characteristics that differentiate them from the most popular quinoa genotypes grown in the Andean Region of South America. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination in quinoa genotypes from coastal and salares ecotypes cultivated in Chile, and (2) to study the presence of physiological dormancy (PD) in these genotypes. Seed germination from nine quinoa genotypes, two from salares and seven from coastal ecotypes, was evaluated in a gradient of temperatures between 11 and 42°C. Germination was also evaluated at 20°C at 0, 7 and 15 months from harvest. Results showed that seed from the nine genotypes germinated at their maximum percentage between 11 and 35°C. However, their faster germination occurred between 25 and 35°C. There was a significant difference between optimum temperature for germination between genotypes from coastal (28°C) and salares (30°C). An increase in germination rates after 7 months of storage suggested the presence of a non-deep PD in seeds from coastal ecotype, which may be useful to improve pre-harvest sprouting resistance in quinoa breeding programmes.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed and highly expressed neurotrophin in the CNS. BDNF gene have been associated with increased risk psychiatric disorders. It has been described interaction between BDNF and serotonin system at a neural and genetic level. Neuroticism as a personality trait relevant in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has genetic inheritance and is associated with serotonergic dysfunction. Has been reported that BDNF Val66Met variant is associated with neuroticism in general population. The aim of this study is to test the association between Val66Met and neuroticism and evaluate if the presence of Val66Met allele interacts with polymorphism in promoter region of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) for develop neuroticism in BPD. We evaluate personality with NEO PI R in 104 BPD subjects that did not meet criteria for axis I diagnoses and other personality disorders. Genetic analysis of BDNF was performed determining the presence of Val/Val Val/Met and Met/Met BDNF variants. 5-HTTLPR was performed determining the presence of L and S 5-HTTLPR alleles. Statistical analysis were tested with parametric and correlation method with Stata10. We did not found differences in neuroticism between BDNF variants, but when controlled by BDNF alleles we found that Met/Met modulate the expression of 5-HTTLPR, with S-carriers (LS+SS) having higher neuroticism than LL (F = 6.36, p = 0.0031). We found no differences in expression of 5-HTTLPR in other BDNF variants. We conclude that BDNF have a differential modulating effect of 5-HTTLPR in neuroticism in BPD.
Neuroticism is characterized by emotional instability and the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depressed mood. Subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD) present this personality dimension as a temperamental core trait. There has been proposed that neuroticism can appropriately describe the most important characteristics of BPD. The polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been implicated in depression, anxiety and suicide. It is estimated that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism account to 7 to 9% of inherited variance of neuroticism in personality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between neuroticism and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in BPD. We evaluate personality with NEO PI R inventory in 104 BPD subjects (76 female/28 male) that did not meet criteria for axis I diagnoses and other personality disorders. The genetic analysis of 5-HTTLPR were performed determining the presence of long and short alleles, subjects were grouped in long/long (LL) and S-carriers (LS+SS). Statistical analysis were tested with parametric and correlation method with Stata10. We found significant difference in neuroticism between the genotype groups (F = 8.57, p = 0.0004) and lower levels of neuroticism in LL than S-carriers. Female have higher neuroticism than male. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism explains 18.02% of inherited variance in neuroticism. The S-carriers had 11.9 times higher risk of presenting elevated neuroticism compared with LL. We conclude that there are relation between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and neuroticism in BPD. These results should contribute to the genetic study of BPD.
The workshop will give an overview of distinct neurophysiological and brain imaging studies with patients suffering from Borderline personality disorder and from depressive affective disorder. The contribution of Jose Manuel De la Fuente will report findings of sleep EEG recordings of patients with Borderline personality disorder (BPD), Major Depression (MD), Recurrent Brief Depression (RBD), and of controls. It was detected that BPD patients expressed less slow wave sleep than MD and RBD patients without BPD. Oliver Pogarell performed a radioligand brain imaging study that revealed an increase of the availability of the specific serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hypothalamus and brain stem of BPD patients which is in contrast to the findings of a SERT decrease in patients with depression. Christine Norra recorded event-related auditory evoked potentials (AEP) obtained through the application of various loudness stimuli. The strong loudness dependency of AEP in patients with BPD correlated with aspects of impulsiveness which may point to a serotonin disturbance in this disorder. Thomas Zetzsche and his collegues performed a quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of temporolimbic regions in patients with BPD and MD. They found a significant increase of amygdala volume both in BPD patients with comorbid MD and in MD patients without BPD. Comparison of abnormal neurobiological findings between BPD and MD could provide a better insight into potential differences but also into similarities of the pathophysiology of these important psychiatric disorders.
Despite the high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms located around 2-3% of the population, there continue to be cases where the characteristics of the patient or the circumstances of their environment, they fall short queries mental health or when they do not for the disorder itself, but for another reason obsessional symptoms worsen.
Expose using clinical case, the existence of patients with obsessive pathology whose characteristics do not seek mental health consultation, until this is associated with a new disease that interferes significantly in vital organization.
We report the case of a man of 88 years old, married at 60, was admitted to the psychiatric consultation at the request of his wife 29 years his junior, for behavioral disorders several years of evolution and history of obsessive symptoms compulsive, which did not interfere with their daily lives by the lack of insight and poor social environment
OCD is included in anxiety disorders.
It is characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with personal, work and / or patient's social.
There are cases that own personality traits of the patient, this disorder is not diagnosed early and choose to go only when associated with worsening cognitive impairment rituals and interfere with family life.
In this exhibition we aim to describe a clinical case and the different consequences that may present additional problems with eating disorders, focusing with emphasis on development and clinical picture. This disorder usually occurs in non-obese adolescents accused, showing symptoms significantly related to interpersonal functioning of these adolescents, who tend to be isolated or seek company of younger guys. They are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorders related or unrelated to the food. Dietary restriction involves biological and physical changes, highlighting the alteration of hypothalamic and endocrine system, leading to signs and symptoms such as amenorrhea, cold intolerance, hypotension … Neurochemical changes have also been attributed to malnutrition.
The present case is a 31 year old woman. Initiates contact with Mental Health at age 15 by anorexia nervosa. Patient requests for worsening nutritional status, family relationships, and alcohol consumption, being the turning point and main motivation, the birth of his daughter. 8 months ago gave birth, being an unexpected delivery at home. Unaware that pregnancy, justifying as secondary amenorrhea eating disorder and abdominal inflammation malnutrition. Daughter born seven months income requires low weight and withdrawal symptoms during pregnancy as continuous with anxiolytic and antidepressant treatment.
It has a favorable, always maintaining therapeutic commitment announced at the beginning of tratamiento. Currently still in out patient reviews with Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology, Nursing and Nutrition.
Immigration in Spain is from the early ‘90s phenomenon of demographic and economic importance, according to INE, in January 2011 first residing in the country nearly 6.7 million people born outside our borders. In recent years, many immigrants are living in especially difficult circumstances.
Show that these people undergo a series of very specific stressors and duels: precarious and harsh working conditions, poor diet, loneliness and lack of social support… This would enhance the appearance of psychiatric symptoms in various areas, closely related to lifestyles that maintain and in some cases precipitate substance use in this group, primarily those that have a sedative profile.
We will present the clinical case of a 34 year old Nigerian male. No somatic or psychiatric history of interest. Cannabis smoker since adolescence. A year after his arrival in Spain admitted to our inpatient unit due to clinical psychotic. Was a challenge from the point of view of psychopharmacological have many side effects with low doses of typical antipsychotics
Disappearance of psychotic and affective symptoms to approach the case from a pharmacological perspective, social and cultural.
Addressing the relationship between life stressors and cannabis as a trigger or catalyst for psychotic episodes in individuals predisposed. Pathological elaborations of cultural integration of an immigrant (whether by denial of the original culture or over-identification with the host culture) facilitates the use of toxic either for blending with Western consumer culture or cultural consumption radicalization toxic in some East African countries.
Currently the Eating Behavior Disorders have become a social and health problem of the first kind that requires a specialized and interdisciplinary approach to these disorders. These clinical conditions are characterized by their complexity and diversity symptomatology, which implies a significant interference in their functioning in different areas of life and clinically significant distress.
Given the high burden of care in the USMC that difficult to monitor these patients at appropriate intervals, as well as the seriousness of the clinical and physical complications that can result, ultimately, in death, it seems necessary to implement group interventions to ensure greater continuity of care.
In all forms of group therapy underlying common advantages which advocate their implementation. Recent studies show that group therapy for eating disorders is equally effective as individual treatment. So in the USMC - Huelva conducted a psychotherapeutic group aimed at people with these clinical pictures. The present work is to analyze the impact of the intervention group in the eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression, comparing the results obtained in the tests applied before and after treatment.
Psychometric tests used were:
- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
- Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
- Inventory of Eating disorders (EDI)
The results reflect a clinically relevant improvement in both psychometric testing quality indicators (no hospitalizations, no emergency service attendance, adherence, etc.)
We should consider that group psychotherapy has unique properties that offer individual psychotherapy.
Given the high prevalence, severity and difficulty recognizing psychiatric disorders in patients with TBI, it is necessary to conduct a detailed history, gathering information on the location of the lesion and its relationship with the table in the psychopathological examination.
Illustrated by a clinical case, the close relationship between the injury of specific brain areas and the emergence of psychopathology that allows us to deepen the understanding of the biological substrate of mental disorders.
Exposure of a clinical picture and brief literature review of the existing literature.
We report the case of a man of 49 years old, no personal or family history was admitted to the hospital after a traffic accident with severe TBI. Computed tomography (CT) scan shows intraparenquematoso right temporal hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma right, pneumocephalus front right, front left fracture of both orbits and right maxillary sinus.
The interest in the study and the relationship of psychiatric symptoms with the location of the lesions, we can provide improved understanding of the biological basis of mental disorders.
In last years, studies on the families of patients with eating disorders (ED) have tried to identify family needs, as well as to determine their coping strategies.
To identify the coping strategies in families of patients with eating disorders.
Forty relatives were evaluated (mean age=49.4 years, S.D.=6.7); 52% women and 48% men; 94.6% married. COPE scale (Carver et al., 1989) was used to measure individual coping strategies, and F-COPES scale (Olson and Larsen, 1987) was used to evaluate family coping strategies. Statistical analysis was realized using SPSS.19.
The relatives had higher scores in the following COPE subscales: planning, suppression of competing activities, active coping; they had lower scores in drug/alcohol intake, behavioral disengagement and denial. In F-COPES subscale the higher scores were in reframing and the lower ones in passive appraisal.
It of patients relatives faces their trying change, avoiding other activities or thoughts that distract them. As family, they identify the problems and try to handle them looking for support in nearby persons.