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Previous research indicates that body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with risk of suicidality. However, studies have relied on small and/or specialist samples and largely focussed on adults, despite these difficulties commonly emerging in youth. Furthermore, the aetiology of the relationship remains unknown.
Two independent twin samples were identified through the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, at ages 18 (N = 6027) and 24 (N = 3454). Participants completed a self-report measure of BDD symptom severity. Young people and parents completed items assessing suicidal ideation/behaviours. Logistic regression models tested the association of suicidality outcomes with: (a) probable BDD, classified using an empirically derived cut-off; and (b) continuous scores of BDD symptoms. Bivariate genetic models examined the aetiology of the association between BDD symptoms and suicidality at both ages.
Suicidal ideation and behaviours were common among those with probable BDD at both ages. BDD symptoms, measured continuously, were linked with all aspects of suicidality, and associations generally remained significant after adjusting for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between BDD symptoms and suicidality (72.9 and 77.7% at ages 18 and 24, respectively), but with significant non-shared environmental influences (27.1 and 22.3% at ages 18 and 24, respectively).
BDD symptoms are associated with a substantial risk of suicidal ideation and behaviours in late adolescence and early adulthood. This relationship is largely explained by common genetic liability, but non-shared environmental effects are also significant and could provide opportunities for prevention among those at high-risk.
To know prevalence of depression in Spanish nursing home(NH) by analysing the clinical profile of residents from RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH).
A multicentral, transversal, observational study was carried out in April 2005. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representing the Spanish state participated. Depression was analysed in patient´s history and determined by NPI of Cummings, NH version.
1037 residents were randomized, 1020 were used by clinical data analysis. 941 were used to determine depression prevalence. Median age 83,4yo, 66.6% were women, 70.9% with basic educational level, 57.4% widows, 25.7% single, 41.5% had some degree of functional deterioration, 22.1% had delirium. In 26.4% were documented Stroke(17,9% TIA). 61.7% had dementia.
Depression appears in 31.4% of elderly institutionalized with the only diagnosis of depression or independent of others. There were no significant differences in age groups. However, was most frequent in women. 95.7% of patients with diagnosis of dementia had at least one drug for depression. Most used anti-depressants were trazadone (23%), citalopram (20.9%), sertraline (15.8%), fluoxetine (10.1%). No tricyclical anti-depressant reached 1% of consumption.
Depression affects practically one in three institutionalized elderly in Spain
Institutionalized elderly with depression are largely treated with ISRS. It is believed that the use of trazadone is linked with the effects on sleep and anxiety.
The high prevalence of depression, its overlapping with other processes and the comorbility of residents requires a careful search and approach in NH which implies a challenge for professionals in order to treat it.
Determine the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), using the NPI-NH(Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home(NH) Version),in order to provide a multidimensional profile in behavioural symptoms in residents and to calculate its prevalence in Spanish NH.
From randomized population of RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH) a multi-central, cross-sectional and observational study was carried out. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representative the Spanish state participated.NPS was determinated by NPI Cummings NH version. This version includes upsets in sleep and feeding patterns.
992 residents were examined (Median age 83.4yo, 66.6% women, 91.8% received at least one type of treatment, 61.7% with dementia). 523 (52.7%) presented at least one type of NPS. In order of greatest frequency, the following were noted: alterations in sleep patterns (41.7%), depression/disphoria (31.4%), anxiety (31.2%), agitation/aggressiveness (29.6%), apathy/indifference (25.8%), delirious ideas (23.7%), irritability (22.4%), feeding/appetite upsets (18.5%), anomalous motor behaviour (15.3%), hallucinations (13.8%), desinhibition (11.1%), euphoria (4.4%).
35.9% of residents received benzodiapines, 26.7% antidepressants. Atypical neuroleptics were used in 15.8%, in contrast with 7.4% of the use of classic ones.
NPS ´s reached a high prevalence in NH and it is usual that more than one co-exists in the patients.
Alterations in sleep patterns, depression, anxiety, agitation/aggressiveness affect approximately one in three residents.
It is useful and recommendable to evaluate the 12 behavioural areas from the NH version of the NPI scale. This instrument was chosen as a sifting measure to establish neuropyschiatric symptomology in residences.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric chronic disorder of childhood that persists into adolescence and adulthood in the most part of cases. There are various ways of treating ADHD.
Assess the effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine long-term and routine clinical practice in adult ADHD treatment. Study the clinical profile of the patients who take atomoxetine.
The aim of this is to study the treatment of ADHD in adults with a non-stimulant drug atomoxetine.
We obtain results from 126 patients recruited from July 2009 to May 2013 who have been prescribed Atomoxetine as a treatment for ADHD from the hospital pharmacy.
Comorbid disorders were presented in 57.1% of the patients included at the study (25.3% of which belong to the group of anxiety disorders). The use of other psychotropic drugs associated with atomoxetine was observed in 54.8% of patients. The 62.7% of the patients concerned continued treatment beyond 225 weeks (4 years 3 months) of observation. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale (CGI-I) and side effects determine monitoring treatment. A total of 61.9% of patients responded satisfactory to treatment with atomoxetine getting the CGI-I scale a score of 1-2. The duration of therapy and patient age are factors that influence the response. Furthermore, the clinical profile of patients treated with atomoxetine is characterized by different comorbidities, anxious symptomatology and personality disorders. Atomoxetine treatment with has also been shown its effectiveness and safe despite the presence of concomitant comorbidities and psychopharmacological treatment.
Atomoxetine treatment with has been effective and has proven good tolerability profile during treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of seasonal suicide patterns among multiple geographically, demographically and socioeconomically diverse populations.
Weekly time-series data of suicide counts for 354 communities in 12 countries during 1986–2016 were analysed. Two-stage analysis was performed. In the first stage, a generalised linear model, including cyclic splines, was used to estimate seasonal patterns of suicide for each community. In the second stage, the community-specific seasonal patterns were combined for each country using meta-regression. In addition, the community-specific seasonal patterns were regressed onto community-level socioeconomic, demographic and environmental indicators using meta-regression.
We observed seasonal patterns in suicide, with the counts peaking in spring and declining to a trough in winter in most of the countries. However, the shape of seasonal patterns varied among countries from bimodal to unimodal seasonality. The amplitude of seasonal patterns (i.e. the peak/trough relative risk) also varied from 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33–1.62) to 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.1) among 12 countries. The subgroup difference in the seasonal pattern also varied over countries. In some countries, larger amplitude was shown for females and for the elderly population (≥65 years of age) than for males and for younger people, respectively. The subperiod difference also varied; some countries showed increasing seasonality while others showed a decrease or little change. Finally, the amplitude was larger for communities with colder climates, higher proportions of elderly people and lower unemployment rates (p-values < 0.05).
Despite the common features of a spring peak and a winter trough, seasonal suicide patterns were largely heterogeneous in shape, amplitude, subgroup differences and temporal changes among different populations, as influenced by climate, demographic and socioeconomic conditions. Our findings may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of seasonal suicide patterns and aid in improving the design of population-specific suicide prevention programmes based on these patterns.
On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall on Puerto Rico as a category 4 storm, resulting in serious widespread impact across the island, including communication and power outages, water systems impairment, and damage to life-saving infrastructure. In collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, the Public Health Branch (PHB), operating under the Department of Health and Human Services Incident Response Coordination Team, was tasked with completing assessments of health-care facilities in Puerto Rico to determine infrastructure capabilities and post-hurricane capacity. Additionally, in response to significant data entry and presentation needs, the PHB leadership worked with the Puerto Rico Planning Board to develop and test a new app-based infrastructure capacity assessment tool. Assessments of hospitals were initiated September 28, 2017, and completed November 10, 2017 (n = 64 hospitals, 97%). Assessments of health-care centers were initiated on October 7, 2017, with 186 health-care centers (87%) assessed through November 18, 2017. All hospitals had working communications; however, 9% (n = 17) of health-care centers reported no communication capabilities. For the health-care centers, 114 (61%) reported they were operational but had sustainment needs. In conclusion, health-care facility assessments indicated structural damage issues and operational capacity decreases, while health-care centers reported loss of communication capabilities post-Hurricane Maria.
Polypyrrole (PPy) thin films were synthetized by plasma and simultaneously doped with Iodine to enhance electromagnetic absorption and charge transfer capability in a resistive coupling cylindrical reactor. Pyrrole monomer and Iodine were the principal reagents used and the chemical reactions were created by high frequency plasma. Micrographs show an irregular surface formed by semi-spherical protrusions with tiny particles in the PPy/I samples and a rather smooth surface with wrinkles and less participation of tiny particles to PPy ones. Infrared spectroscopy analysis reveals important absorption peaks at 3253, 2932, 1668 and 635 cm-1 corresponding to the chemical bonds N-H and C-H, C-H aliphatic, C=C and C-I, respectively, belonging to the chemical structure of Pyrrole. Electrical conductivity of PPy increased from 10-10 to 10-8 S/cm due to Iodine doping. Electromagnetic absorption showed a higher response between 340 and 800 nm in the visible region. Activation energy was calculated in the range from -0.09 to 0.49 eV.
Prevention of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) foodborne outbreaks is hampered by its complex epidemiology. We assessed the distribution of virulence genes (VGs), main serogroups/serotypes for public health [haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)-related], antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns in a collection of STEC isolates obtained from cattle hide (n = 149) and faecal (n = 406) samples collected during a national survey conducted in Spain in 2011 and 2013. Isolates were cultured using McConkey and CT-SMAC agar after enrichment, and confirmed as STEC by PCR. STEC prevalence in hides (15·4%) was higher than in faeces (10·7%) and O157:H7 was more frequent in the former (2·7% vs. 0·99%). Non-O157 HUS-related serogroups were present albeit at low frequencies. The non-O157 isolates were more heterogeneous than O157:H7 in their VG patterns, with 25/64 presenting VGs from both STEC and enterotoxigenic pathotypes (hybrid isolates). Of the STEC isolates, 62·5% were resistant at least to one antimicrobial, and no differences in AMR between O157:H7 and non-O157 were detected. All isolates had different profiles by PFGE and did not form a cluster. Overall, our results demonstrated that STEC in the cattle reservoir is still a matter of concern for human health due to the presence of HUS-related serogroups, the occurrence of certain VGs, AMR and the additional risks that hybrid isolates may pose, and thus warrants further investigation.
The objectives were to assess the following: (1) the relationship between sward height and chemical composition of four pasture types in association with grazing behaviour and body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows, and (2) the possibility of developing predictive equations of the nutrient intake and grazing behaviour within a continued grazing system. Pasture type had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on nutrient supply from January to June for all pastures investigated. Ryegrass–white clover pasture (RW) had the highest metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy, followed by kikuyu pasture (KP), which was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than native pastures 1 and 2 (NP1 and NP2). The highest values for effective grazing time, bite rate and BCS were found when dairy cows grazed RW followed by KP, NP2 and NP1. The results suggested that pasture type and sward height influenced grazing behaviour and BCS of dairy cows during the dry season. In the same vein, RW showed higher effective grazing time, bite rate, nutrient intake and BCS than the other three pastures suggesting that RW pastures that appear to be more expensive than native pastures could result in superior cow performance.
Porous silicon (PSi) combines the potential of miniaturization with a very large surface area. The PSi surface can be chemically modified resulting in a high sensitivity (low detection threshold) device for chemical and biomolecular sensing. In previous work, we have shown that redox proteins and fluorescent ligands can be infiltrated into PSi (PSiMc) structures. The hybrid devices have shown interesting new properties produced by the coupling of the individual properties of PSi nanostructures and the modifiers. In this work, we have obtained a PSiMc/redox protein bioelectrode, which presents a quasi-reversible electrochemical response. This effect was attributed to the semiconducting nature of the PSi substrate and to the functional groups of the crosslinking molecules (MPTS), which together produce a capacitive effect on the device. On the other hand, the chemical modification of PSiMc with fluorescent ligands allowed us to fabricate fluorescent PSi hybrid nanostructures, which were tested for the detection of environmental pollutants such as heavy metals (specifically Hg2+). We found that the selectivity of this optical device depends on the selected recognizing molecule. The captured metal induces the formation of a metallic complex that shows higher fluorescence compared with the sensor device. These results demonstrate the viability of using porous silicon as optical sensors and electrochemical biosensors. The infiltration of fluorescent recognizing molecules and proteins into the PSi matrix were evaluated by specular reflectance, FTIR spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.
Stegophorus macronectes (Johnston & Mawson, 1942) is a gastrointestinal parasite found in Antarctic seabirds. The original description of the species, which was based only on females, is poor and fragmented with some unclear diagnostic characters. This study provides new morphometric and molecular data on this previously poorly described parasite. Nuclear rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions) were isolated from S. macronectes specimens collected from the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica Forster on Deception Island, Antarctica. Using 18S rDNA sequences, phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference) of the order Spirurida were performed to determine the phylogenetic location of this species. Primer pairs of the ITS regions were designed for genus-level identification of specimens, regardless of their cycle, as an alternative to coprological methods. The utility of this molecular method for identification of morphologically altered specimens is also discussed.
Huauzontle (Chenopodium berlandieri ssp. nuttalliae) is a locally important vegetable crop native to the highland valleys of Central Mexico and a potential source of genes for improving its Andean sister crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). A previous work involving two huauzontle lines identified one waxy genotype that lacked amylose due to mutations in granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), major amylose-synthesis genes with two constituent subgenomes, A and B. We conducted this study to determine the extent of waxy genotypes and cryptic GBSSI mutations in 11 huauzontle accessions or landrace populations extending from Puebla in the southeast to Jalisco in the northwest. This represents one of the first published studies of genetic variation in C. berlandieri ssp. nuttalliae. Accessions were phenotyped for opaque versus translucent seed morphology and their seed starches were stained with Lugol's Stain. In addition, complete or partial GBSSI genes from their A and B genomes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Seven accessions were either wholly or partially non-waxy while six were either entirely or partially waxy. All waxy accessions carried the same putatively null alleles, designated gbssIa-tp (A-genome) and gbssIb-del (B-genome). The identification of publicly available genotypes carrying gbssIa-tp and their potential use in breeding waxy grain quinoa is discussed.
Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and is considered rare and locally extirpated from most of its historic range in Costa Rica. We conducted camera-trap and track surveys at 38 forested sites in and around the San Juan–La Selva Biological Corridor in the Northern Zone of Costa Rica. Cameras were set along established game trails and natural funnels and operated for 14–38 days per site. Additionally, we documented tapir tracks at many sites. We used survey photographs and track presence to create detection histories to estimate the habitat and survey-specific variables that influence the probability of detection and the probability of occurrence of Baird's tapir. The two major protected areas within and adjacent to the corridor were most positively associated with tapir occurrence, and forest cover and native and exotic tree plantations were also positively associated with tapirs’ use of sites. Although the Baird's tapir is rare, our findings suggest that it is more resilient and better able to use available habitat in the fragmented corridor than previously thought. This is most likely a consequence of increased forest cover from reforestation and tree plantations and limited hunting pressure. Given its charismatic nature we recommend that Baird's tapir could be used as a flagship species for the San Juan–La Selva Biological Corridor, to raise local awareness about conservation and increase economic growth from ecotourism.
Preterm birth, low birthweight, intrauterine growth retardation and small for gestational age are birth phenotypes that significantly contribute to life-long morbidity and mortality. This review examines the epidemiologic and biologic evidence of folic acid (FA) as a potential population-based intervention to curtail some adverse birth phenotypic expressions, and by extension, their later physical and neurodevelopmental consequences. We outlined a feto-placental adaptation categorization taking into account how prenatal insults may be encoded in fetal development, the adaptive success of the feto-placental response, and subsequent expression in the health of the fetus. Although there are plausible biological pathways that can be implicated, we found that the epidemiological evidence on the role of perinatal FA nutriture and fetal programming of adverse birth phenotypes is still inconclusive. Because biologic and epidemiological considerations alone do not suffice in deciphering the utility of FA in averting adverse birth phenotypes, we proposed a biopsychosocial model that takes into account multi-layered psychosocial contexts for improving subsequent research studies in this area.
Neurological soft signs (NSS) have been inconsistently reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but may make an impact on treatment response.
The current study examined the presence of NSS in two independent European samples of OCD patients (combined 85 patients and 88 matched healthy controls) using a standardized instrument and conducted a meta-analysis of all published studies identified in the literature with the aim to provide a more definitive answer to the question of whether OCD patients are characterized by increased NSS.
Both empirical studies found elevated NSS scores in patients compared with matched controls. The results of the meta-analysis, which included 15 studies (combined 498 patients and 520 controls) showed large effect sizes (Hedges' g=1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.80–1.75), indicating that OCD patients have significantly higher rates of NSS than matched controls on both sides of the body and in multiple domains (motor coordination, sensory integration and primitive reflexes). The results were robust and remained largely unchanged in our reliability analyses, which controlled for possible outliers. Meta-regression was employed to examine the role of potential variables of interest including sociodemographic variables, symptom severity, medication effects and the use of different instruments, but none of these variables was clearly associated with NSS.
As a group, OCD patients are characterized by increased rates of NSS, compared with healthy controls. However, their origins and potential clinical importance remain to be clarified. Future directions for research are discussed.