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Tiafenacil is a recently developed protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide from the pyrimidinedione chemical class that is proposed for use as a preplant (PP) burndown in soybean. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed is a troublesome weed often found in no-till systems that can dramatically reduce soybean yield; control in soybean has been variable. Five field experiments were conducted over 2019 and 2020 in commercial soybean fields with GR horseweed to determine the biologically-effective-dose (BED) of tiafenacil and tiafenacil + metribuzin, and to compare their efficacy to currently accepted industry standard herbicide treatments in identity-preserved (IP, non-GMO), GR, and glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean systems. There was no soybean injury with treatments evaluated. The calculated doses of tiafenacil for 50, 80, and 95% control of GR horseweed control were 21, 147 and >200 g ai ha−1, respectively, at 8 weeks after application (WAA). Lower doses were calculated with the addition of metribuzin (400 g ai ha−1) to tiafenacil for 50 and 80% control, with no dose of tiafenacil + metribuzin providing 95% control. Tiafenacil + metribuzin at 25 + 400 and 50 + 400 g ai ha−1 controlled GR horseweed 88 and 93% , respectively which was similar to the industry standards of saflufenacil + metribuzin (25 + 400 g ai ha−1) and glyphosate/dicamba + saflufenacil (1200/600 + 25 g ai ha−1) that provided 98 to 100% control, respectively at 8 WAA. This study presents the potential utility of tiafenacil + metribuzin as a GR horseweed management strategy in soybean.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
The Hawaiian archipelago was formerly home to one of the most species-rich land snail faunas (> 752 species), with levels of endemism > 99%. Many native Hawaiian land snail species are now extinct, and the remaining fauna is vulnerable. Unfortunately, lack of information on critical habitat requirements for Hawaiian land snails limits the development of effective conservation strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the plant host preferences of native arboreal land snails in Puʻu Kukui Watershed, West Maui, Hawaiʻi, and compare these patterns to those from similar studies on the islands of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi. Concordant with studies on other islands, we found that four species from three diverse families of snails in Puʻu Kukui Watershed had preferences for a few species of understorey plants. These were not the most abundant canopy or mid canopy species, indicating that forests without key understorey plants may not support the few remaining lineages of native snails. Preference for Broussaisia arguta among various island endemic snails across all studies indicates that this species is important for restoration to improve snail habitat. As studies examining host plant preferences are often incongruent with studies examining snail feeding, we suggest that we are in the infancy of defining what constitutes critical habitat for most Hawaiian arboreal snails. However, our results indicate that preserving diverse native plant assemblages, particularly understorey plant species, which facilitate key interactions, is critical to the goal of conserving the remaining threatened snail fauna.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate SARS-CoV-2-exposed masks and respirators. We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The two arms of the study included: 1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment, and 2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination (5CD) to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on three N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and two medical mask (MM) models. We inoculated FFR and MM materials with three coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and treated with 10 µM MB and exposed to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5CD using multiple US and international test methods and compared to the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all three coronaviruses with 99.8 - to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and MMs tested. FFR and MM integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas one FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating three tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5CD. MBL decontamination is effective, low-cost and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in all-resource settings.
State formation occurred in Korea and Japan 1,000 years before it did in Europe, and it occurred for reasons of emulation and learning, not bellicist competition. State formation in historical East Asia occurred under a hegemonic system in which war was relatively rare, not under a balance-of-power system with regular existential threats. Korea and Japan emerged as states between the fifth and ninth centuries CE and existed for centuries thereafter with centralized bureaucratic control defined over territory and administrative capacity to tax their populations, field large militaries, and provide extensive public goods. They created these institutions not to wage war or suppress revolt: the longevity of dynasties in these countries is evidence of both the peacefulness of their region and their internal stability. Rather, Korea and Japan developed state institutions through emulation and learning from China. The elites of both copied Chinese civilization for reasons of prestige and domestic legitimacy in the competition between the court and the nobility.
To understand motivators, facilitators and challenges to dietary change amongst a diverse sample of New Zealanders with prediabetes participating in a primary care nurse-led individualised dietary intervention.
A qualitative study involving semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with a stratified sample of adults with prediabetes and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, purposefully selected from a larger 2-year primary care-based prediabetes dietary intervention study. Thematic analysis was undertaken. A socio-ecological model guided interpretation.
Hawke’s Bay, Aotearoa/New Zealand, April 2018–March 2020.
Fifty-eight people aged 28–69 years, with similar numbers of men and women, indigenous Māori and non-Māori, and those who had and had not regressed to normoglycaemia at 6 months.
Motivators for wanting to make dietary changes were determination not to progress to diabetes; wanting to be healthy and contribute to others and encouragement by others. Facilitators for adopting and maintaining changes were a strong desire to be healthy; personal determination and feeling supported. Challenges were compromised control over life and environmental factors; feeling unsupported by others; social occasions; financial constraints and living with other health conditions. Developing their own strategies to overcome challenges was empowering, enabling a sense of control. These factors were similar across demographic and glycaemic outcome groups.
Influences on dietary change involved personal, interpersonal, organisational, environmental and policy factors. Although findings appeared similar across groups, dietary interventions need to address the specific ways motivators, facilitators and challenges manifest for individuals and social groups and be tailored accordingly within the context of the wider obesogenic and socio-economic environment.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the LSU Agricultural Center H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station (RRS) near Crowley, LA. to evaluate the impact of reduced rates of halosulfuron on quizalofop activity in Louisiana rice production. Halosulfuron and a prepackaged mixture of halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron were evaluated at 0, 17, 35, or 53 g ai ha−1 and 34 or 53 g ai ha−1, respectively, in a mixture with quizalofop at 120 g ai ha-1. Control of (%) of barnyardgrass and red rice as well as two non-ACCase resistant rice lines, CL-111 and CLXL-745, were recorded at 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT). The red rice, CL-111, and CLXL-745 represented a weedy rice population. Across all species evaluated at 14 DAT, all halosulfuron and halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron containing mixtures resulted in antagonism with an observed control of 79 to 90%, compared to an expected control of 96 to 99%. At 28 DAT, all halosulfuron containing mixtures resulted in neutral interactions for barnyardgrass control. Quizalofop mixed with halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron at the lower rate of 34 g ha−1 was able to overcome the antagonism compared with the higher rate of 53 g ha−1 for barnyardgrass control at 28 DAT. Both the high and the low rate of halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron resulted in antagonistic interaction for red rice, CL-111, and CLXL-745 control at 28 DAT. This research suggests that mixing quizalofop with halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron should be avoided, especially at the higher rate of 53 g ha−1.
We present stable isotope and osteological data from human remains at Paloma, Chilca I, La Yerba III, and Morro I that offer new evidence for diet, lifestyle, and habitual mobility in the first villages that proliferated along the arid Pacific coast of South America (ca. 6000 cal BP). The data not only reaffirm the dietary primacy of marine protein for this period but also show evidence at Paloma of direct access interactions between the coast and highlands, as well as habitual mobility in some parts of society. By locating themselves at the confluence of diverse coastal and terrestrial habitats, the inhabitants of these early villages were able to broaden their use of resources through rounds of seasonal mobility, while simultaneously increasing residential sedentism. Yet they paid little substantial health penalty for their settled lifestyles, as reflected in their osteological markers of stature and stress, compared with their agriculturalist successors even up to five millennia later. Contrasting data for the north coast of Chile indicate locally contingent differences. Considering these data in a wider chronological context contributes to understanding how increasing sedentism and population density laid the foundations here for the emergence of Late Preceramic social complexity.
Investigations of the Proyecto Arqueológico Tlajinga Teotihuacan (PATT) in 2019 focused on the southern neighborhood center of this cluster of non-elite residences in the southern periphery of the ancient Mexican metropolis. Our objective was to better understand the social infrastructure of public space within the district and how it tied its inhabitants together. Our methods included excavations at two large architectural complexes, geophysical prospection of these and adjacent structures and plazas, and chemical residue analysis of floors and sediments. They revealed architecturally elaborate complexes decorated with mural painting that appear to have been the loci of civic-ceremonial activities. Materials from the excavated portions of the complexes are inconsistent with residential uses, although it is possible that local elites lived elsewhere in the complexes or in others located nearby. The investigations therefore demonstrate that the semipublic spaces of neighborhood centers were distributed as distantly as this periphery of Teotihuacan and could be as elaborate as those in the urban epicenter, underscoring the city's more muted social inequality.
To prioritise and refine a set of evidence-informed statements into advice messages to promote vegetable liking in early childhood, and to determine applicability for dissemination of advice to relevant audiences.
A nominal group technique (NGT) workshop and a Delphi survey were conducted to prioritise and achieve consensus (≥70% agreement) on 30 evidence-informed maternal (perinatal and lactation stage), infant (complementary feeding stage) and early years (family diet stage) vegetable-related advice messages. Messages were validated via triangulation analysis against the strength of evidence from an Umbrella review of strategies to increase children’s vegetable liking, and gaps in advice from a Desktop review of vegetable feeding advice.
A purposeful sample of key stakeholders (NGT workshop, n=8 experts; Delphi survey, n=23 end-users).
Participant consensus identified the most highly ranked priority messages associated with the strategies of: ‘in-utero exposure’ (perinatal and lactation, n=56 points); and ‘vegetable variety’ (complementary feeding, n=97 points; family diet, n=139 points). Triangulation revealed two strategies (‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’) and their associated advice messages suitable for policy and practice, 12 for research and four for food industry.
Supported by national and state feeding guideline documents and resources, the advice messages relating to ‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’ to increase vegetable liking can be communicated to families and caregivers by healthcare practitioners. The food industry provides a vehicle for advice promotion and product development. Further research, where stronger evidence is needed, could further inform strategies for policy and practice, and food industry application.
Recent advances in statistical approaches called phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have provided paleontologists with a powerful set of analytical tools for investigating evolutionary tempo and mode in fossil lineages. However, attempts to integrate PCMs with fossil data often present workers with practical challenges or unfamiliar literature. This Element presents guides to the theory behind and the application of PCMs with fossil taxa. Based on an empirical dataset of Paleozoic crinoids, example analyses are presented to illustrate common applications of PCMs to fossil data, including investigating patterns of correlated trait evolution and macroevolutionary models of morphological change. The authors emphasize the importance of accounting for sources of uncertainty and discuss how to evaluate model fit and adequacy. Finally, the authors discuss several promising methods for modeling heterogeneous evolutionary dynamics with fossil phylogenies. Integrating phylogeny-based approaches with the fossil record provides a rigorous, quantitative perspective on understanding key patterns in the history of life.
The complementary activity of 4-hydroxphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitors and atrazine is well documented, but the use of atrazine is restricted in some geographical areas including the province of Quebec in Canada necessitating the evaluation of atrazine alternatives and their interactions with HPPD inhibitors. The objectives of this study were to determine if mixing HPPD-inhibitors with atrazine alternative photosystem II (PS II)-inhibitors, such as metribuzin and linuron applied PRE, or bromoxynil and bentazon applied POST, results in similar control of multiple-herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] in corn. Ten field trials, five with herbicides applied PRE and five with herbicides applied POST, were conducted in Ontario, Canada in fields infested with MHR A. tuberculatus. Isoxaflutole, applied PRE, controlled MHR A. tuberculatus 58% to 76%; control increased 17% to 34% with the addition of atrazine, metribuzin, or linuron at three of five sites across 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after application (WAA). The interaction between isoxaflutole and PS II-inhibitors, applied PRE, was additive for MHR A. tuberculatus control, and biomass and density reduction. Mesotrione, tolpyralate, and topramezone, applied POST, controlled MHR A. tuberculatus 54% to 59%, 61%, and 44% to 45%, respectively, at two of five sites across 4, 8, and 12 WAA. The addition of atrazine, bromoxynil, or bentazon to mesotrione improved MHR A. tuberculatus control 29%, 34%, and 22%, to tolpyralate improved control 2%, 20%, and 10%, and to topramezone improved control 3%, 14%, and 8%, respectively. Interactions between HPPD- and PS II-inhibitors were mostly additive; however, synergistic responses were observed with mesotrione + bromoxynil or bentazon, and tolpyralate + bromoxynil. Mixing atrazine alternatives, metribuzin or linuron with isoxaflutole, applied PRE, and bromoxynil or bentazon with mesotrione or tolpyralate, applied POST, resulted in similar or better control of MHR A. tuberculatus in corn (Zea mays L.).
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new viral entity, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), to be a worldwide pandemic. The characteristics of this virus, as well as its short- and long-term implications, are not yet well understood. The objective of the current paper was to provide a critical review of the emerging literature on COVID-19 and its implications for neurological, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive functioning.
A critical review of recently published empirical research, case studies, and reviews pertaining to central nervous system (CNS) complications of COVID-19 was conducted by searching PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and bioRxiv.
After considering the available literature, areas thought to be most pertinent to clinical and research neuropsychologists, including CNS manifestations, neurologic symptoms/syndromes, neuroimaging, and potential long-term implications of COVID-19 infection, were reviewed.
Once thought to be merely a respiratory virus, the scientific and medical communities have realized COVID-19 to have broader effects on renal, vascular, and neurological body systems. The question of cognitive deficits is not yet well studied, but neuropsychologists will undoubtedly play an important role in the years to come.
The field of sclerochronology has long been known to paleobiologists. Yet, despite the central role of growth rate, age, and body size in questions related to macroevolution and evolutionary ecology, these types of studies and the data they produce have received only episodic attention from paleobiologists since the field's inception in the 1960s. It is time to reconsider their potential. Not only can sclerochronological data help to address long-standing questions in paleobiology, but they can also bring to light new questions that would otherwise have been impossible to address. For example, growth rate and life-span data, the very data afforded by chronological growth increments, are essential to answer questions related not only to heterochrony and hence evolutionary mechanisms, but also to body size and organism energetics across the Phanerozoic. While numerous fossil organisms have accretionary skeletons, bivalves offer perhaps one of the most tangible and intriguing pathways forward, because they exhibit clear, typically annual, growth increments and they include some of the longest-lived, non-colonial animals on the planet. In addition to their longevity, modern bivalves also show a latitudinal gradient of increasing life span and decreasing growth rate with latitude that might be related to the latitudinal diversity gradient. Is this a recently developed phenomenon or has it characterized much of the group's history? When and how did extreme longevity evolve in the Bivalvia? What insights can the growth increments of fossil bivalves provide about hypotheses for energetics through time? In spite of the relative ease with which the tools of sclerochronology can be applied to these questions, paleobiologists have been slow to adopt sclerochronological approaches. Here, we lay out an argument and the methods for a path forward in paleobiology that uses sclerochronology to answer some of our most pressing questions.
Our objective was to compare patterns of dental antibiotic prescribing in Australia, England, and North America (United States and British Columbia, Canada).
Population-level analysis of antibiotic prescription.
Outpatient prescribing by dentists in 2017.
Patients receiving an antibiotic dispensed by an outpatient pharmacy.
Prescription-based rates adjusted by population were compared overall and by antibiotic class. Contingency tables assessed differences in the proportion of antibiotic class by country.
In 2017, dentists in the United States had the highest antibiotic prescribing rate per 1,000 population and Australia had the lowest rate. The penicillin class, particularly amoxicillin, was the most frequently prescribed for all countries. The second most common agents prescribed were clindamycin in the United States and British Columbia (Canada) and metronidazole in Australia and England. Broad-spectrum agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and azithromycin were the highest in Australia and the United States, respectively.
Extreme differences exist in antibiotics prescribed by dentists in Australia, England, the United States, and British Columbia. The United States had twice the antibiotic prescription rate of Australia and the most frequently prescribed antibiotic in the US was clindamycin. Significant opportunities exist for the global dental community to update their prescribing behavior relating to second-line agents for penicillin allergic patients and to contribute to international efforts addressing antibiotic resistance. Patient safety improvements will result from optimizing dental antibiotic prescribing, especially for antibiotics associated with resistance (broad-spectrum agents) or C. difficile (clindamycin). Dental antibiotic stewardship programs are urgently needed worldwide.