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This study investigated the latent factor structure of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) and its measurement invariance across clinical diagnosis and key demographic variables including sex, race/ethnicity, age, and education for a typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research sample.
The NIHTB-CB iPad English version, consisting of 7 tests, was administered to 411 participants aged 45–94 with clinical diagnosis of cognitively unimpaired, dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or impaired not MCI. The factor structure of the whole sample was first examined with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and further refined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two groups were classified for each variable (diagnosis or demographic factors). The confirmed factor model was next tested for each group with CFA. If the factor structure was the same between the groups, measurement invariance was then tested using a hierarchical series of nested two-group CFA models.
A two-factor model capturing fluid cognition (executive function, processing speed, and memory) versus crystalized cognition (language) fit well for the whole sample and each group except for those with age < 65. This model generally had measurement invariance across sex, race/ethnicity, and education, and partial invariance across diagnosis. For individuals with age < 65, the language factor remained intact while the fluid cognition was separated into two factors: (1) executive function/processing speed and (2) memory.
The findings mostly supported the utility of the battery in AD research, yet revealed challenges in measuring memory for AD participants and longitudinal change in fluid cognition.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of (−)-OSU6162 in doses up to 30 mg b.i.d. in patients suffering from mental fatigue following stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI).
This 4 + 4 weeks double-blind randomised cross-over study included 30 patients afflicted with mental fatigue following a stroke or head trauma occurring at least 12 months earlier. Efficacy was assessed using the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS), the Self-rating Scale for Affective Syndromes [Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS)], the Frenchay Activity Index (FAI), and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Safety was evaluated by recording spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs).
There were significant differences on the patients’ total FAI scores (p = 0.0097), the subscale FAI outdoor scores (p = 0.0243), and on the trail making test (TMT-B) (p = 0.0325) in favour of (−)-OSU6162 treatment. Principal component analysis showed a clear overall positive treatment effect in 10 of 28 patients; those who responded best to treatment had their greatest improvements on the MFS. Reported AEs were mild or moderate in severity and did not differ between the (−)-OSU6162 and the placebo period.
The most obvious beneficial effects of (−)-OSU6162 were on the patients’ activity level, illustrated by the improvement on the FAI scale. Moreover, a subgroup of patients showed substantial improvements on the MFS. Based on these observed therapeutic effects, in conjunction with the good tolerability of (−)-OSU6162, this compound may offer promise for treating at least part of the symptomatology in patients suffering from stroke- or TBI-induced mental fatigue.
The purpose of the present study has been to assess the societal cost of major depression and the distribution into different cost components. The impact of adherence and treatment response was also explored.
Data were collected from a randomized controlled trial of patients with major depressive disorder who were treated in a naturalistic primary care setting. Resource use and quality of life were followed during the two-year trial.
The mean total cost per patient during two years was KSEK 363 (EUR 38 953). Indirect costs were the most important component (87%), whereas the cost of drugs was minor (4.5%). No significant differences in costs or quality of life between treatment arms or between adherent and non-adherent patients were demonstrated. However, treatment responders had 39% lower total costs per patient and experienced a larger increase in quality of life compared to non-responders.
Major depression has high costs for society, primarily due to indirect costs. Treatment responders have considerably lower costs per patient and higher quality of life than non-responders. This indicates that measures to increase response rates are also important from an economic perspective.
In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P < 0.0001, unpaired t-test), and so was housing (P < 0.001, test of similar proportions in independent samples). We found no significant positive correlation between subjective quality of life and standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P < 0.05; r = 0.40, Pearson correlation coefficient). The results suggest that, in 1997, people with longstanding psychiatric disability still had poorer quality of life than the general population. This may be due to factors other than outward standard of living.
There is a lack of evidence regarding which kind of psychotherapy that is the most effective when treating traumatized refugees. Studies on the effect of psychotherapy among other patient groups with PTSD suggest a good effect using cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). The competence center for transcultural psychiatry (CTP) has specialized in the treatment of traumatized refugees. The objectives were to study the effect of CBT with a focus on either stress management or cognitive restructuring in a clinical sample of traumatized refugees with PTSD and to identify predictors for the treatment effect.
All patients (n = 143) referred to CTP from June 2011–March 2012 and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were offered to participate in the study. Participants were offered combined treatment with a psychiatrist (psycho-education and psychopharmacological treatment when needed) and a psychologist (CBT). The duration of the treatment was 6–7 months. The participants were randomized to either CBT with a focus on stress management or cbt with focus on cognitive restructuring. The primary outcome was PTSD measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire.
The results are presently being analyzed and will be presented at the congress.
Both research results and the clinical experience at CTP suggest, that cognitive restructuring is not always a useful tool and that stress reducing techniques could be more useful. This hypothesis was tested in the present study.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Today we lack sufficient evidence to conclude which type of treatment approach that is most efficient when it comes to trauma-affected refugees. That is a problem for both patients and doctors as well as for society. Also there is a lack of studies, which examine the relation between psychosocial resources and treatment efficiency, in order to find reliable predictors of treatment outcome. This study therefore aims to produce new evidence within this field in order to optimise treatment for trauma-affected refugees with complex PTSD.
The study included 207 patients referred to Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry between April 2012 and September 2013. Patients were randomised into one of the two treatment groups: a sertraline group (n = 109) or a venlafaxine group (n = 98). Patients in both groups received the same manual based cognitive behavioural therapy, specially adapted to this group of patients. The trial endpoints were PTSD-and depression symptoms and social functioning, all measured on validated ratings scales. Furthermore the study examined the relation between expected outcome of treatment from a range of predictors and the relation to the treatment results for the individual patient.
Data are presently being analysed and results will be ready for the conference.
The study is among the largest randomised studies ever conducted on pharmacological treatment among traumatised refugees. It is expected to bring forward new knowledge about clinical evaluation and medical treatment of traumatised refugees.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Haplosporidian protist parasites are a major concern for aquatic animal health, as they have been responsible for some of the most significant marine epizootics on record. Despite their impact on food security, aquaculture and ecosystem health, characterizing haplosporidian diversity, distributions and host range remains challenging. In this study, water filtering bivalve species, cockles Cerastoderma edule, mussels Mytilus spp. and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, were screened using molecular genetic assays using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) markers for the Haplosporidia small subunit ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid region. Two Haplosporidia species, both belonging to the Minchinia clade, were detected in C. edule and in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis in a new geographic range for the first time. No haplosporidians were detected in the C. gigas, Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis or Mytilus hybrids. These findings indicate that host selection and partitioning are occurring amongst cohabiting bivalve species. The detection of these Haplosporidia spp. raises questions as to whether they were always present, were introduced unintentionally via aquaculture and or shipping or were naturally introduced via water currents. These findings support an increase in the known diversity of a significant parasite group and highlight that parasite species may be present in marine environments but remain undetected, even in well-studied host species.
If there is consensus about how to handle a patient with a specific condition, from the ambulance service point of view, it matters less for the patient which ambulance arrives to take care of the patient. Guidelines are a way of standardizing treatment or management of the patient for a given patient condition. Clear and implemented guidelines that promote the handling of the patients is done from best practice and are evidence-based according to the best ability of the organization.
The aim of the current study was to implement guidelines into an organization that was not currently using guidelines. The study was conducted as a collaborative effort between a Swedish pre-hospital training organization and the local ambulance service organization in Kosovo.
An iterative process of implementing the guidelines was applied:
1. Identify guidelines appropriate for the local organization. For each iteration, five guidelines are chosen.
2. Have the five guidelines translated into Albanian.
3. The guidelines are adapted to local conditions and context.
4. The five guidelines are approved by an expert group.
5. The five guidelines are implemented in the organization.
The initial iteration included was carried out in the form of a workshop where 22 persons (doctors and nurses) from the local ambulance service in Kosovo participated. During the workshop, the first three implementation steps were taken, while remaining steps were carried out by the local organization.
With the local management and ambulance personnel involved throughout the process, the implementation of guidelines were delivered in a more feasible way as well as more easily accepted and adhered to. Supporting a standardized treatment or management of the patient will benefit future patients. These standards should be based in evidence-based practice adopted to local conditions.
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)
An increased mortality risk associated with mental disorder has been reported for patients, but there are few studies are based on random samples with interview-based psychiatric diagnoses. Part of the increased mortality for those with mental disorder may be attributable to worse somatic health or hazardous health behaviour – consequences of the disorder – but somatic health information is commonly lacking in psychiatric samples. This study aims to examine long-term mortality risk for psychiatric diagnoses in a general population sample and to assess mediation by somatic ill health and hazardous health behaviour.
We used a double-phase stratified random sample of individuals aged 18–65 in Stockholm County 1970–1971 linked to vital records. First phase sample was 32 186 individuals screened with postal questionnaire and second phase was 1896 individuals (920 men and 976 women) that participated in a full-day examination (participation rate 88%). Baseline examination included both a semi-structured interview with a psychiatrist, with mental disorders set according to the 8th version of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-8), and clinical somatic examination, including measures of body composition (BMI), hypertension, fasting blood glucose, pulmonary function and self-reported tobacco smoking. Information on vital status was obtained from the Total Population Register for the years 1970–2011. Associations with mortality were studied with Cox proportional hazard analyses.
A total of 883 deaths occurred among the participants during the 41-year follow-up. Increased mortality rates were found for ICD-8 functional psychoses (hazard ratio, HR = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15–4.30); psycho-organic symptoms (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.31–2.87); depressive neuroses (HR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.23–2.39); alcohol use disorder (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.40–2.61); drug dependence (HR = 3.71, 95% CI: 1.80–7.65) and psychopathy (HR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.02–8.16). Non-participants (n = 349) had mortality rates similar to participants (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.81–1.18). In subgroup analyses of those with psychoses, depression or alcohol use disorder, adjusting for the potential mediators smoking and pulmonary function, showed only slight changes in the HRs.
This study confirms the increased risk of mortality for several psychiatric diagnoses in follow-up studies on American, Finnish and Swedish population-based samples. Only a small part of the increased mortality hazard was attributable to differences in somatic health or hazardous health behaviour measured at baseline.
The relative influence of amyloid burden, neuronal structure and function, and prior cognitive performance on prospective memory decline among asymptomatic late middle-aged individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently unknown. We investigated this using longitudinal cognitive data from 122 middle-aged adults (21 “Decliners” and 101 “Stables”) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention who underwent multimodality neuroimaging [11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] 5.7 ± 1.4 years (range = 2.9–8.9) after their baseline cognitive assessment. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses revealed that the only imaging measure that significantly distinguished Decliners from Stables (p = .027) was a Neuronal Function composite derived from FDG and fMRI. In contrast, several cognitive measures, especially those that tap episodic memory, significantly distinguished the groups (p's<.05). Complementary receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) Total (.82 ± .05, p < .001), the BVMT-R Delayed Recall (.73 ± .06, p = .001), and the Reading subtest from the Wide-Range Achievement Test-III (.72 ± .06, p = .002) as the top three measures that best discriminated the groups. These findings suggest that early memory test performance might serve a more clinically pivotal role in forecasting future cognitive course than is currently presumed. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–12)
A dietary survey was performed during a large screening study in Sweden among 13-year-old adolescents. The aim was to study how the intake of food groups was affected by a screening-detected diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) and its gluten-free (GF) treatment. Food intake was reported using a FFQ, and intake reported by the adolescents who were diagnosed with CD was compared with the intake of two same-aged referent groups: (i) adolescents diagnosed with CD prior to screening; and (ii) adolescents without CD. The food intake groups were measured at baseline before the screening-detected cases were aware of their CD, and 12–18 months later. The results showed that food intakes were affected by screen-detected CD and its dietary treatment. Many flour-based foods were reduced such as pizza, fish fingers and pastries. The results also indicated that bread intake was lower before the screened diagnosis compared with the other studied groups, but increased afterwards. Specially manufactured GF products (for example, pasta and bread) were frequently used in the screened CD group after changing to a GF diet. The present results suggest that changing to a GF diet reduces the intake of some popular foods, and the ingredients on the plate are altered, but this do not necessarily include a change of food groups. The availability of manufactured GF replacement products makes it possible for adolescents to keep many of their old food habits when diagnosed with CD in Sweden.
Bentonite is planned to be used in many countries as an important barrier in high-level waste repositories. Assessment of the barrier with regard to, inter alia, its ability to hinder transport of dissolved radionuclides leaking from a damaged canister containing spent nuclear fuel, requires quantitative data about the pore structure inside bentonite. The present NMR study was made in order to determine the number of distinguishable porewater phases in compacted water-saturated samples of MX-80 bentonite and Na-montmorillonite. The samples were compacted to dry densities in the interval 0.7-1.6 g/cm3 and subsequently saturated with Milli-Q water or 0.1 M NaCl solution in equilibrium cells. The NMR measurements were performed with a high-field 270 MHz NMR spectrometer using a short inter-pulse CPMG method to study proton T1ρ relaxation. The measured relaxation curves were found to consist of one faster and one slower proton relaxation. Subsequent analysis of the data indicated that the faster relaxation was associated with interlayer (IL) water between montmorillonite unit layers, while the slower one was associated with non-interlayer (non-IL) water located outside the interlayer spaces. The results indicate for compacted samples with a dry density of ≥ 1.0 g/cm3, that Na montmorillonite contains a larger relative volume of non-IL water than the corresponding MX-80 bentonite. This in turn, suggests that the stacking number in Na-montmorillonite is smaller than in MX-80 bentonite. Changing the porewater chemistry seemed to have some effect on the non-IL water content in the Na montmorillonite but not in the MX-80 bentonite.
Significant mortalities of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have been reported worldwide since the 1950s. The impact these re-occurring mortality events have had on the C. gigas industry has highlighted the necessity to determine the factors that may be causing these mortalities. This study investigated the possible role of ostreid herpes virus (OsHV-1) in C. gigas mortalities over 2 successive summers at 2 study areas in Ireland. A single sample of adult C. gigas, which had been experiencing mortalities at one of the sites was screened. Successive cohorts of C. gigas spat obtained from a hatchery outside Ireland was relayed to both sites in 2003 and in 2004. Spat were screened each year prior to relaying. Samples were collected every 2 weeks and mortality counts were recorded and observed at both sites. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and subsequent sequencing indicated that a previously undocumented variant genotype of OsHV-1 was present in the single cohort of adult C. gigas and in seed and juveniles at both sites, in both years. Analysis suggests that the Irish OsHV-1 μvar variant genotype is closely related to OsHV-1 μvar, first described in France in 2008.
The expansion of the European Union during the last 2 yr has resulted in the need for a revision of existing guidelines to further harmonize education and training in the specialty of anaesthesiology throughout the European Union. Although each individual country is responsible for its own training and certification, these guidelines are intended to reflect minimum criteria for specialist training. It is the opinion of the Section and Board of Anaesthesia that specialist training will need to be for a minimum of 5 yr.
The still ever increasing demand for sedation and/or analgesia for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures puts high pressure on anaesthesia care providers all over Europe. Since the capacity to provide that service by anaesthetists is limited in most European countries, guidelines for non-anaesthetist doctors who want to sedate patients on a high-quality level and especially in a safe way are mandatory. This paper, produced by a working party of the European Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS/UEMS), gives direction to those practitioners who feel responsibilities in this area of medicine. Close cooperation with anaesthesiologists seems mandatory to achieve and sustain a high-quality standard for our patients undergoing medical or surgical procedures under sedation.
Awareness of cognitive dysfunction shown by individuals with Mild
Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a condition conferring risk for
Alzheimer's disease (AD), is variable. Anosognosia, or unawareness of
loss of function, is beginning to be recognized as an important clinical
symptom of MCI. However, little is known about the brain substrates
underlying this symptom. We hypothesized that MCI participants'
activation of cortical midline structures (CMS) during self-appraisal
would covary with level of insight into cognitive difficulties (indexed by
a discrepancy score between patient and informant ratings of cognitive
decline in each MCI participant). To address this hypothesis, we first
compared 16 MCI participants and 16 age-matched controls, examining brain
regions showing conjoint or differential BOLD response during
self-appraisal. Second, we used regression to investigate the relationship
between awareness of deficit in MCI and BOLD activity during
self-appraisal, controlling for extent of memory impairment. Between-group
comparisons indicated that MCI participants show subtly attenuated CMS
activity during self-appraisal. Regression analysis revealed a highly
significant relationship between BOLD response during self-appraisal and
self-awareness of deficit in MCI. This finding highlights the level of
anosognosia in MCI as an important predictor of response to self-appraisal
in cortical midline structures, brain regions vulnerable to changes in
early AD. (JINS, 2007, 13, 450–461.)
The low-content free water and high swelling pressure in compacted bentonite, planned to be used as a buffer in nuclear waste repositories, create adverse conditions for direct measurements of the chemical conditions. This paper presents laboratory results from online measurements with Eh and pH electrodes in water-saturated compacted MX-80 bentonite. The Eh was measured with Au and Pt wires as electrodes, while the pH was determined with IrOx electrodes. The latter were prepared in accordance with the method by Yao et al. . The measurements were carried out in two types of cells: 'squeezing cells' and 'diffusion cells'. The squeezing cell excludes almost completely all chemical interactions between the sample and the surrounding environment outside the cell. The diffusion cell, on the other hand, contains a sample that stays in contact with an external solution and therefore allows following of the physico-chemical interaction between the sample and the external solution. The measuring electrodes were positioned inside the cell in the compacted bentonite, while the reference electrode was positioned outside the cell.