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Yield losses due to weeds are a major threat to wheat production and economic well-being of farmers in the United States (US) and Canada. The objective of this Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) Weed Loss Committee report is to provide estimates of wheat yield and economic losses due to weeds. Weed scientists provided both weedy (best management practices but no weed control practices) and weed-free (best management practices providing >90% weed control) average yield from replicated research trials in both winter and spring wheat from 2007 to 2017. Winter wheat yield loss estimates ranged from 2.9 to 34.4%, with a weighted average (by production) of 25.6% for the US, 2.9% for Canada, and 23.4% combined. Based on these yield loss estimates and total production, the potential winter wheat loss due to weeds is 10.5, 0.09, and 10.5 billion kg with a potential loss in value of US$ 2.19, 0.19, and 2.19 billion for the US, Canada, and combined, respectively. Spring wheat yield loss estimates ranged from 7.9 to 47.0%, with a weighted average (by production) of 33.2% for the US, 8.0% for Canada, and 19.5% combined. Based on this yield loss estimate and total production, the potential spring wheat loss is 4.8, 1.6, and 6.6 billion kg with a potential loss in value of US$ 1.14, 0.37, and 1.39 billion for the US, Canada, and combined, respectively. Yield loss in this analysis is greater than some previous estimates, likely indicating an increasing threat from weeds. Climate impacts yield loss in winter wheat in the Pacific Northwest, with percent yield loss highest in wheat-fallow systems with less than 30 cm of annual precipitation. Continued investment in weed science research for wheat is critical for continued yield protection.
This research communication describes the lactating intramammary (IMM) antibiotic formulation most used by Irish dairy farmers at farm level through interviewing 202 dairy farmers. The IMM antibiotic usage data is not easily available to the researcher and farming community. This study determined that three commercial formulations (Synulox ™, Tetra Delta™ and Terrexine) made up 81% of the products used at farm level. The formulation Synulox™ was the most used at 34% first preference and 32% second preference and contains amoxicillin/clavulanic, a standard broad spectrum antibiotic, for which mastitis pathogen resistance remains low. The aminoglycosides were used in four of the IMM formulations analysed, including Tetra Delta™ and Terrexine. Of the 12 antibiotics identified in the IMM formulations studied, three including cefalexin, benzylpenicillin and penethamate are classified as highly important antibiotics (HIA) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) whilst the other 8 (dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin, neomycin, framycetin, kanamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and cefquinome), are considered critically important (CIA) for use in human health. This study has generated knowledge of the preferences of lactating IMM formulations used at farm level.
Factorial experiments were carried out on spring- and winter-sown oat crops in Ireland in 2016–2019 to identify plant responses in yield formation and grain filling procedures. Two cultivars (Husky and Keely), three seed rates (250, 350 and 450 seeds/m2), six applied nitrogen (N) rates (40, 70, 100, 130, 160 and 190 kg N/ha) with a plant growth regulator (PGR) were examined in spring and winter sowings, using the same cultivars at five rates of applied N (80, 110, 140, 170 and 200 kg N/ha). The applied N rate and seed rate significantly (P < 0.05) modified the yield components determining grains/m2 in spring- and winter-sown crops with increases in panicle number of key importance. Increases were also observed in the proportion of primary grain by weight (0.9–1.6%) and number (0.7–1.4%) ratios in spring-sown crops in response to applied N rate, with winter-sown crops exhibiting a more consistent pattern of grain fill. Seed rate and PGR application had minor effects on yield components and panicle conformation. Grain fill procedures played an important role in the maximization of grain yield under seasonal conditions. Significant positive correlations were observed between the number of aborted grain sites and yield under drought conditions (0.22), with negative associations observed in near-optimal conditions (−0.22 to −0.41). Agronomic effects on grain site abortion were minimal in comparison with seasonal effects. In seasons characterized by cool, consistent conditions, grain yield was maximized by the utilization of all available grain sites. Where assimilate shortages were encountered during grain fill the abortion of grains sites was positively associated with grain yield.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work will inform the ongoing development of adaptive capacity and preparedness of the CTSA Program and other clinical and translational research organizations in their quest of improving processes that drive outcomes and impacts, shaping effective programs and services, and strengthening their emergency readiness and sustainability. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: -Share the progress and preliminary findings of an ‘Adaptive Capacity and Preparedness of CTSA Hubs’ CTSA Working Group; -Improve our awareness and understanding of the efficient and effective changes helping CTSA hubs build robust capacity to address METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A multi-case study including: - Triangulating multiple sources of information and mixed methods (survey/interviews of research administrators, researchers, evaluators, and other key stakeholders), literature review, document and M&E system information analysis, and expert review; - Describing CTSA hubs’ experiences as related to research implementation, translation, and support during the time of emergency; - Administering a comprehensive survey of the CTSAs addressing their challenges, lessons learned, and practices that work in various program components/areas. Data collection includes aggregate and cross-sectional data, with representation based on CTSA size, maturity, and population density. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The described approach shows sound promise to investigate and share strategies and best practices for building adaptive capacity and preparedness of CTSAs -- across various scientific sectors, translational research spectrum, and the goals outlined by NCATS for the CTSA program. The anticipated results of this research will include the identified/shared innovative solutions and lessons learned for this rapidly emerging, high-priority clinical and translational science issue. ‘High-quality lessons learned’ are those that represent principles extrapolated from multiple sources and triangulated to increase transferability to new contexts and situations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The project provides useful knowledge and tools to research organizations and stakeholders across multiple disciplines -- for mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 disaster via effective adjusting programs, practices, and processes, and building capacity for future successful, ‘emergency ready and responsive’ research and training.
The medium- to long-term consequences of COVID-19 are not yet known, though an increase in mental health problems are predicted. Multidisciplinary strategies across socio-economic and psychological levels may be needed to mitigate the mental health burden of COVID-19. Preliminary evidence from the rapidly progressing field of psychedelic science shows that psilocybin therapy offers a promising transdiagnostic treatment strategy for a range of disorders with restricted and maladaptive habitual patterns of cognition and behaviour, notably depression, addiction and obsessive compulsive disorder. The COMPASS Pathways (COMPASS) phase 2b double-blind trial of psilocybin therapy in antidepressant-free, treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is underway to determine the safety, efficacy and optimal dose of psilocybin. Results from the Imperial College London Psilodep-RCT comparing the efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin therapy to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram will soon be published. However, the efficacy and safety of psilocybin therapy in conjunction with SSRIs in TRD is not yet known. An additional COMPASS study, with a centre in Dublin, will begin to address this question, with potential implications for the future delivery of psilocybin therapy. While at a relatively early stage of clinical development, and notwithstanding the immense challenges of COVID-19, psilocybin therapy has the potential to play an important therapeutic role for various psychiatric disorders in post-COVID-19 clinical psychiatry.
The concentration of radiocarbon (14C) differs between ocean and atmosphere. Radiocarbon determinations from samples which obtained their 14C in the marine environment therefore need a marine-specific calibration curve and cannot be calibrated directly against the atmospheric-based IntCal20 curve. This paper presents Marine20, an update to the internationally agreed marine radiocarbon age calibration curve that provides a non-polar global-average marine record of radiocarbon from 0–55 cal kBP and serves as a baseline for regional oceanic variation. Marine20 is intended for calibration of marine radiocarbon samples from non-polar regions; it is not suitable for calibration in polar regions where variability in sea ice extent, ocean upwelling and air-sea gas exchange may have caused larger changes to concentrations of marine radiocarbon. The Marine20 curve is based upon 500 simulations with an ocean/atmosphere/biosphere box-model of the global carbon cycle that has been forced by posterior realizations of our Northern Hemispheric atmospheric IntCal20 14C curve and reconstructed changes in CO2 obtained from ice core data. These forcings enable us to incorporate carbon cycle dynamics and temporal changes in the atmospheric 14C level. The box-model simulations of the global-average marine radiocarbon reservoir age are similar to those of a more complex three-dimensional ocean general circulation model. However, simplicity and speed of the box model allow us to use a Monte Carlo approach to rigorously propagate the uncertainty in both the historic concentration of atmospheric 14C and other key parameters of the carbon cycle through to our final Marine20 calibration curve. This robust propagation of uncertainty is fundamental to providing reliable precision for the radiocarbon age calibration of marine based samples. We make a first step towards deconvolving the contributions of different processes to the total uncertainty; discuss the main differences of Marine20 from the previous age calibration curve Marine13; and identify the limitations of our approach together with key areas for further work. The updated values for ΔR, the regional marine radiocarbon reservoir age corrections required to calibrate against Marine20, can be found at the data base http://calib.org/marine/.
Weed management during spring crop production in eastern Washington presents many challenges. Many spring crops are weak competitors with weeds. In May of 2010 and 2011, two spring crop trials were initiated near Pullman, WA, to compare the relative competitiveness of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), and pea (Pisum sativum L.) using cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) as a surrogate for wild oat (Avena fatua L.) competition. The experiment was arranged as a split-block split-plot design with four replications. One set of main plots included three oat density treatments (0, 63, and 127 plants m−2), while a second set included each crop species. Crop species main plots were then split into subplots of two different seeding rates (recommended and doubled). Crop populations decreased as oat density increased and increased as crop seeding rate increased. As oat density increased, preharvest crop biomass decreased for all crops, while oat biomass and yield increased. Oat biomass and yield were greater in legume plots compared with cereal plots. Increasing oat density decreased yields for all crops, whereas doubling crop seeding rate increased yields for barley and wheat in 2010 and barley in 2011. Compared with legumes, cereals were taller, produced more biomass, and were more competitive with oat.
The developmental status of perennial weeds such as rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.) can influence herbicide absorption and translocation. Differential efficacy between fall and spring applications suggests vernalization impacts herbicide absorption and translocation in other perennial asters. Clopyralid and aminopyralid absorption and translocation were quantified in nonvernalized and vernalized plants following application of 14C-labeled herbicides 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 h after treatment. Less 14C clopyralid was absorbed, and at a slower rate, in vernalized plants. Movement out of the treated leaf was slower, with 14C clopyralid translocating more rapidly than 14C aminopyralid. More 14C moved to the roots in nonvernalized plants compared with vernalized plants, regardless of herbicide. Increased translocation to belowground survival structures is needed for effective control of C. juncea.
In Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS; onset before the 18th birthday) late brain maturational changes may interact with disease mechanisms leading to a wave of back to front structural changes during adolescence. To further explore this effect we examined the relationship between age of onset and duration of illness on brain morphology in adolescents with EOS.
Subjects and methods
Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 40 adolescents with EOS. We used Voxel Based Morphometry and multiple regressions analyses, implemented in SPM, to examine the relationship between gray matter volume with age of onset and illness duration.
Age of onset showed a positive correlation with regional gray matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule (Brodmann Area 7). Duration of illness was inversely related to regional gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 11/47).
Parietal gray matter loss may contribute to the onset of schizophrenia while orbitofrontal gray matter loss is associated with illness duration.
Objective. To identify clinically useful predictors of adherence to medication among persons with schizophrenia. Method. We evaluated levels of compliance with neuroleptic medication among 32 consecutive admissions with DSM-III-R schizophrenia from a geographically defined catchment area using a compliance interview. We also assessed symptomatology, insight, neurological status and memory. Results. Less than 25% of consecutive admissions reported being fully compliant. Drug attitudes were the best predictor of regular compliance, symptomatology the best predictor of noncompliance, and memory the best predictor of partial compliance with neuroleptic medication. Conclusions. These data emphasise the complexity of factors that influence whether a person adheres to his medication regimen. Furthermore, they suggest that these factors may vary within the same person over time.
Parents of children with life threatening illness or injuries are at elevated risk of distress reactions, involving symptoms of acute stress disorder, depression and anxiety. Currently, the impact of child illness factors is unclear, and to date research systematically examining the prevalence of these psychological reactions across different illness groups with an acute life threat is sparse. This is important to explore given that studies show that parent functioning impacts on the psychological adjustment and recovery of the ill child.
What does this study add?
At four weeks following a child's diagnosis of a serious illness, 49–54% of parents met DSM-IV criteria for acute stress disorder, across a number of illness groups, whereas 15–27% of parents were in the moderate/severe range for depression and anxiety, and 25–31% for stress. Results from this study demonstrate that rates and severity of these psychological reactions in parents of seriously ill children do not vary according to illness type.
A life threatening childhood illness/injury can lead to significant distress reactions in parents, with independent studies finding such reactions in several different illness groups. To date, there is limited research systematically comparing the prevalence of adverse parental psychological reactions across different childhood illness groups with an acute life threat. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of symptoms of acute traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and general stress in parents, following admission of their child to hospital for a life threatening illness. The study also aimed to explore the relationship between these symptoms, and to determine whether they differ according to illness/injury.
Cross-sectional data from a prospective, longitudinal study are reported. Participants were 194 parents of 145 children (49 couples), admitted to cardiology (n = 53), oncology (n = 40) and pediatric intensive care units (n = 52), for serious illnesses/injuries. Parents completed self-report questionnaires within four weeks of hospital admission.
Rates of acute traumatic stress (P = 0.262), depression (P = 0.525), anxiety (P = 0.453) and general stress symptoms (P = 0.720) in parents were comparable across illness type, with 49–54% reaching criteria for acute stress disorder, 15–27% having clinical levels of depression and anxiety, and 25–31% for general stress. Anxiety was most strongly associated with acute traumatic stress (r = 0.56), closely followed by stress (r = 0.52) and depression (r = 0.49), with all correlations highly significant (P < 0.001).
These findings provide evidence that the child's medical condition is not associated with parents’ experience of clinically significant psychological symptoms, and emphasize the importance for health care providers to be aware of these potential psychological reactions in parents, regardless of the type of illness.
Interpreting middens, feasting events, ritual, or terminal deposits in the Maya world requires an evaluation of faunal remains. Maya archaeologists consistently evaluate other artifact classes, but often offer simply number of identified specimens values for skeletal elements recovered from these deposits. To further understand their archaeological significance, we analyzed faunal materials from deposits at the sites of Baking Pot and Xunantunich in the Upper Belize River Valley. We identified the species, bone elements, bone or shell artifacts, taphonomic signatures, and quantitative ratios recovered to test whether a deposit can be identified as a midden, part of a feasting ritual, terminal ritual, or other rituals significant to the Maya. Our analyses allow us to begin building a system for using faunal remains as a proxy for interpreting the significance of these deposits. In this paper, we present our results and hope to open the conversation for future evaluations of faunal remains in similar deposits.
Technological progress has enabled researchers to use new unobtrusive measures of relationships between actors in social network analysis. However, research on how these unobtrusive measures of peer connections relate to traditional sociometric nominations in adolescents is scarce. Therefore, the current study compared traditional peer nominated networks with more unobtrusive measures of peer connections: Communication networks that consist of instant messages in an online social platform and proximity networks based on smartphones’ Bluetooth signals that measure peer proximity. The three social network types were compared in their coverage, stability, overlap, and the extent to which the networks exhibit the often observed sex segregation in adolescent social networks.
Two samples were derived from the MyMovez project: a longitudinal sample of 444 adolescents who participated in the first three waves of the first year of the project (Y1; 51% male; Mage = 11.29, SDage = 1.26) and a cross-sectional sample of 774 adolescents that participated in fifth wave in the third year (Y3; 48% male; Mage = 10.76, SDage = 1.23). In the project, all participants received a research smartphone and a wrist-worn accelerometer. On the research smartphone, participants received daily questionnaires such as peer nomination questions (i.e., nominated network). In addition, the smartphone automatically scanned for other smartphones via Bluetooth signal every 15 minutes of the day (i.e., proximity network). In the Y3 sample, the research smartphone also had a social platform in which participants could send messages to each other (i.e., communication network).
The results show that nominated networks provided data for the most participants compared to the other two networks, but in these networks, participants had the lowest number of connections with peers. Nominated networks showed to be more stable over time compared to proximity or communication networks. That is, more connections remained the same in nominated networks than in proximity networks over the three waves of Y1. The overlap between the three networks was rather small, indicating that the networks measured different types of connections. Nominated and communication networks were segregated by sex, whereas this was less the case in proximity networks.
The communication and proximity networks seem to be promising unobtrusive measures of peer connections and are less of a burden to the participant compared to a nominated network. However, given the structural differences between the networks and the number of connections per wave, the communication and proximity networks should not be used as direct substitutes for sociometric nominations, and researchers should bear in mind what type of connections they wish to assess.
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Cross] is a winter annual grass relatively new to the inland Pacific Northwest that is capable of displacing desired vegetation. Indaziflam was evaluated for the management of V. dubia on two Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sites near Moscow, ID, and Pullman, WA. While perennial grasses were dormant, applications of indaziflam in mixture with various herbicides were made in spring 2016. Treatment effects were evaluated for 2 yr by visual assessments of community composition and canopy cover of V. dubia and other non-weedy species (assessments occurred 3 to 6 mo after treatment, depending on location) and by representative cover class assessments. Biomass samples of all plant species were collected in the summer of 2017. Reduced V. dubia cover was observed in 2016, except when glyphosate was used alone. In 2017 indaziflam applied alone or in mixture with rimsulfuron effectively controlled V. dubia with minimal impact on desirable vegetation. Plant biomass from nontreated plots averaged 40 g m−2 for V. dubia and 100 to 179 g m−2 for perennial grasses. Plant biomass averaged <11 g m−2 for V. dubia and 371 to 490 g m−2 for perennial grasses when indaziflam at 102 g ai ha−1 plus glyphosate at 474 g ai ha−1 was applied. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) biomass was positively associated with the reduction of V. dubia, and there was a decrease in diversity associated with the removal of V. dubia through effective treatments. Indaziflam is an effective tool for the management of V. dubia in perennial grass stands, and spring applications of indaziflam should be in mixture with herbicides with POST activity.
The psychedelic research renaissance is gaining traction. Preliminary clinical studies of the hallucinogenic fungi, psilocybin, with psychological support, have indicated improvements in mood, anxiety and quality of life. A seminal, open-label study demonstrated marked reductions in depression symptoms in participants with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The associated neurobiological processes involve alterations in brain connectivity, together with altered amygdala and default mode network activity. At the cellular level, psychedelics promote synaptogenesis and neural plasticity. Prompted by the promising preliminary studies, a randomized, double-blind trial has recently been launched across Europe and North America to investigate the efficacy of psilocybin in TRD. One of these centres is based in Ireland – CHO Area 7 and Tallaght University Hospital. The outcome of this trial will determine whether psilocybin with psychological support will successfully translate into the psychiatric clinic for the benefit of patients.
Introduction and regular application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of bronchoalveolar specimens for community-acquired respiratory viruses in January 2017 led to the identification of adenovirus in multiple patients in a surgical intensive unit in July 2017, which was attributed to a pseudo-outbreak.
In 2010, South Africa (SA) hosted the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup (soccer). Emergency Medical Services (EMS) used the SA mass gathering medicine (MGM) resource model to predict resource allocation. This study analyzed data from the World Cup and compared them with the resource allocation predicted by the SA mass gathering model.
Prospectively, data were collected from patient contacts at 9 venues across the Western Cape province of South Africa. Required resources were based on the number of patients seeking basic life support (BLS), intermediate life support (ILS), and advanced life support (ALS). Overall patient presentation rates (PPRs) and transport to hospital rates (TTHRs) were also calculated.
BLS services were required for 78.4% (n = 1279) of patients and were consistently overestimated using the SA mass gathering model. ILS services were required for 14.0% (n = 228), and ALS services were required for 3.1% (n = 51) of patients. Both ILS and ALS services, and TTHR were underestimated at smaller venues.
The MGM predictive model overestimated BLS requirements and inconsistently predicted ILS and ALS requirements. MGM resource models, which are heavily based on predicted attendance levels, have inherent limitations, which may be improved by using research-based outcomes.
We report here for the first time the presence of Ophelimus mediterraneus sp. n. in Mediterranean Europe. This species appears to be closely related to Ophelimus maskelli, a well-known invasive pest of Eucalyptus. Based on molecular (cytochrome oxidase I, 28S), morphological (multivariate ratio analysis) and bio-ecological investigations, our study gives unambiguous relevant criteria that allow the discrimination between these two species. A full description of O. mediterraneus sp. n. is also provided. The geographic distribution of O. mediterraneus sp. n. as well as its impact on Eucalyptus species needs to be more widely assessed since its presence may have been confused with O. maskelli in their sympatric introduced areas. Further investigations of potential parasitoids in the native area may thus be welcomed to evaluate classical biological control achievability.