A cluster of Legionnaires' disease (LD) with 10 confirmed, three probable and four possible cases occurred in August and September 2016 in Dendermonde, Belgium. The incidence in the district was 7 cases/100 000 population, exceeding the maximum annual incidence in the previous 5 years of 1.5/100 000. Epidemiological, environmental and geographical investigations identified a cooling tower (CT) as the most likely source. The case risk around the tower decreased with increasing distance and was highest within 5 km. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, ST48, was identified in a human respiratory sample but could not be matched with the environmental results. Public health authorities imposed measures to control the contamination of the CT and organised follow-up sampling. We identified obstacles encountered during the cluster investigation and formulated recommendations for improved LD cluster management, including faster coordination of teams through the outbreak control team, improved communication about clinical and environmental sample analysis, more detailed documentation of potential exposures obtained through the case questionnaire and earlier use of a geographical information tool to compare potential sources and for hypothesis generation.