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Patients with schizophrenia suffer from increased mortality rates equivalent to 15-20 years shorter life expectancy. Up to 60% of this excess mortality can be explained by preventable, somatic conditions like cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory comorbidities. As forensic psychiatric (FP) patients often experience the triple stigmatization of mental illness, substance misuse and criminal conviction, the risk of suboptimal diagnosis and treatment may be high. Although benefits from the addition of general practitioner (GP) services to non-FP wards have been shown elsewhere, this cross-sectoral approach has never been attempted in a Danish FP ward.
One purpose of this project is to evaluate the associations between self-reported quality of life and objective measures of somatic health.
A clinical intervention in which a GP consults patients in all medium secure wards in the Central Denmark Region (N=72). The consultation includes a physical examination, medication review, and evaluation of blood samples. Data is collected from: electronic patient files and questionnaires regarding quality of life (SF-12), lifestyle, and attitude towards GP services.
The population will be described in regards to socio-demographic, clinical, and forensic characteristics. Associations will be made between quality of life (SF-12), metabolic syndrome, blood markers, and heart-SCORE risk. Risk profiles for endocrinologic and coronary illness will be examined.
Results may guide future health interventions and will be used as a basis for adjustments to the current project.
Despite a high prevalence of problematic substance use among people living with HIV in South Africa, there remains limited access to substance use services within the HIV care system. To address this gap, our team previously developed and adapted a six-session, peer-delivered problem-solving and behavioral activation-based intervention (Khanya) to improve HIV medication adherence and reduce substance use in Cape Town. This study evaluated patient and provider perspectives on the intervention to inform implementation and future adaptation.
Following intervention completion, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with patients (n = 23) and providers (n = 9) to understand perspectives on the feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness of Khanya and its implementation by a peer. Patients also quantitatively ranked the usefulness of individual intervention components (problem solving for medication adherence ‘Life-Steps’, behavioral activation, mindfulness training, and relapse prevention) at post-treatment and six months follow-up, which we triangulated with qualitative feedback to examine convergence and divergence across methods.
Patients and providers reported high overall acceptability, feasibility, and appropriateness of Khanya, although there were several feasibility challenges. Mindfulness and Life-Steps were identified as particularly acceptable, feasible, and appropriate components by patients across methods, whereas relapse prevention strategies were less salient. Behavioral activation results were less consistent across methods.
Findings underscore the importance of examining patients’ perspectives on specific intervention components within intervention packages. While mindfulness training and peer delivery models were positively perceived by consumers, they are rarely used within task-shared behavioral interventions in low- and middle-income countries.
Optimizing research on the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) involves implementing initiatives maximizing the use of the available cohort study data; achieving sufficient statistical power to support subgroup analysis; and using participant data presenting adequate follow-up and exposure heterogeneity. It also involves being able to undertake comparison, cross-validation, or replication across data sets. To answer these requirements, cohort study data need to be findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR), and more particularly, it often needs to be harmonized. Harmonization is required to achieve or improve comparability of the putatively equivalent measures collected by different studies on different individuals. Although the characteristics of the research initiatives generating and using harmonized data vary extensively, all are confronted by similar issues. Having to collate, understand, process, host, and co-analyze data from individual cohort studies is particularly challenging. The scientific success and timely management of projects can be facilitated by an ensemble of factors. The current document provides an overview of the ‘life course’ of research projects requiring harmonization of existing data and highlights key elements to be considered from the inception to the end of the project.
This paper investigates how guides on Svalbard make sense of their relations to the environment whilst working with mass tourism. The Arctic is heating up more rapidly than any other part of the world, and over the last 30 years the effect of climate change has had a large impact on the environment in the Arctic. The guides as such find themselves living a paradox where their work destroys the nature that they care about and depend on. This paper analyses empirical data collected during four months of fieldwork amongst guides in Svalbard. Throughout the paper, two dimensions are explored: the guides’ relation to and understanding of the environment as well as their ways of caring for it. Building on illustrations of the guides’ preconceptions of the environment, it is shown how the guides in their everyday life are engaged in pro-environmental practices. These practices are embedded in the guides’ reciprocal relationship with the environment, where they negotiate between different trade-offs. The guides thus find a way to navigate the complexity of caring for the environment and working in tourism through their intimate relation to the environment.
Antipsychotics are primarily labelled for the treatment of severe mental illness and have documented clinical utility in certain neurological disorders or palliative care. However, off-label use of antipsychotics is common and increasing, and prior studies on antipsychotic utilisation have not specifically assessed users in neurology, palliative care or general practice. We aimed to explore diagnoses associated with antipsychotic use, treatment patterns and characteristics of users without diagnoses relevant to antipsychotic treatment.
Population-based study identifiying all users of antipsychotics in Denmark (pop 5.7 mio.) 1997–2018 in the Danish National Prescription Register (DNPR). Possible indications for antipsychotic therapy were evaluated using in- and outpatient contacts from the DNPR. Users were divided hierarchically into six groups: severe mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-spectrum disorders), chronic mental disorders (dementias, mental retardation, autism), other mental disorders (depression-spectrum, anxiety and personality disorders, etc.), selected neurological diseases, cancer and antipsychotic users without any of these diagnoses. This last group was characterised regarding demographics, antipsychotic use, health care utilisation and likely antipsychotic treatment initiator in 2018.
Altogether, 630 307 antipsychotic users were identified, of whom 127 649 had filled prescriptions during 2018. Users without diagnoses relevant to antipsychotic treatment comprised of the largest group (37%), followed by schizophrenia and bipolar-spectrum disorders (34%), other mental disorders (15%), dementia, autism and mental retardation (11%), cancer (2.2%) and neurological diagnoses (2.0%). Of 37 478 incident users in 2018, 39% had no diagnosis relevant to antipsychotic treatment, 7.9% had major depression, 7.7% neurotic/stress-related disorders and 7.5% dementia. Quetiapine was most commonly used, both overall (51%) and among users without diagnoses relevant to antipsychotic treatment (58%). Of 14 474 incident users in 2018 without diagnoses relevant to antipsychotic treatment, treatment was most likely initiated by a general practitioner (65%), with only 17% seeing a psychiatrist during the following year. As many as 18% of patients with adjustment disorders and 14% of those without relevant diagnoses for antipsychotic use, remained on antipsychotic treatment 5 years after their first prescription.
Over one-third of antipsychotic users in Denmark did not have psychiatric, neurological or cancer diagnoses as possible indications for antipsychotic therapy. Many antipsychotics are initiated or prescribed in general practice, and a concerningly large subgroup without documented diagnoses relevant for antipsychotics continued to receive them. Rational prescribing, adequate side effect monitoring and further research into reasons for the observed antipsychotic use patterns and their risk–benefit ratio are needed.
This study directly compares the effectiveness of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM) and paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP) on the validated and symptom-focused Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality-of-Life Scale (QLS) in schizophrenia.
A 28-week, randomized, open-label rater-blinded, head-to-head study (NCT01795547) of AOM and PP in adult patients (18-60 years) needing a change from current oral antipsychotic treatment for any reason. The study comprised oral conversion, initiation of AOM or PP treatment according to labels, and treatment continuation with injections every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint assessed non-inferiority and subsequently superiority on change from baseline to week 28 in QLS total score analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements.
Of 295 randomized patients, 100/148 (67.6%) of AOM and 83/147 (56.5%) of PP patients completed 28 weeks of treatment. In treated patients, adverse events (AEs) were the most frequent reason for discontinuation; AOM: 16/144 (11.1%), PP: 27/137 (19.7%). The difference in change from baseline to week 28 on QLS total score was statistically significant (4.67 [95%CI: 0.32;9.02], p=0.036), confirming non-inferiority and establishing superiority of AOM compared to PP. The respective changes were 7.47±1.53 for AOM and 2.80±1.62 for PP. AEs occurring at rates ≥5% in either group in the treatment continuation phase were weight increased (AOM: 12/119 [10.1%]; PP: 17/109 [15.6%]), psychotic disorder (AOM: 3/119 [2.5%]; PP: 6/109 [5.5%]) and insomnia (AOM: 3/119 [2.5%]; PP: 6/109 [5.5%]).
Superior improvements on the clinician-rated QLS and lower rates of all-cause discontinuation suggest greater overall effectiveness for aripiprazole once-monthly vs paliperidone palmitate.
Widowhood in old age increases mortality and adverse health effects, particularly depression and need for psychiatric care. The causes of this are poorly understood. To study risk factors and mechanisms, theories about what to study are needed. A qualitatively approach to widowhood from the widow/widower's perspective may uncover important knowledge.
To investigate risk factors of the adverse health effects associated with widowhood in old age from the perspective of the widower/widowers and to test the generalisability of the theories quantitatively.
This is a cross-country mixed methods study combining narrative interviews with Danish widows/widowers and a 50-year follow-up study from Sweden – The Lundby Study. Widows/widowers above 65 years of age referred to in- or outpatient treatment at the Department of Psychiatry at Odense or Aarhus University Hospital are included. Narrative interviews are conducted and analysed according to grounded theory. The qualitatively developed theories will then be tested quantitatively through the Lundby Study by comparing widows/widowers above 65 years with age-matched controls, who are still married.
In the Lundby Study, 597 persons above 65 years were identified in the latest follow-up: 176 (29.5%) were widow/widowers, 421 (70.5%) were married/cohabitating. Depending on the theories developed a total of 384 possible variables regarding physical health, mental health and general living circumstances are tested. Further results will be presented.
The causes of adverse health effects in widowhood are poorly understood. This study will potentially contribute to unravelling these by identifying possible risk factors.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The western societies have a rapidly aging population and an increasing number of elderly with alcohol use disorders.
The purpose of the elderly study is to develop and test an outpatient behavior therapy program for people with an alcohol use disorders.
Aim of this abstract
To investigate the association between ages, gender, drinking pattern and psychology distress.
The study is a randomized study expected to enroll and treat 1000 participants aged 60+ years before April 2017; 200 in USA; 400 in Germany and 400 in Denmark. To be included in the study the participants have to fulfil the DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder. All participants are examined at baseline, and at four follow up interviews. After the baseline interview all participants are randomized to Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET); or MET followed by 8 weeks of counseling based on the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) with a module added to address problems relevants to elderly people.
The presentation will include baseline characteristics of the Danish participants including demographics, expectations to treatment, history of drinking in the last 90 days before baseline and their psychological distress. We have now enrolled 259 participants in the Danish database. We expect to present results from 320 patients.
The data will present information about the profile of 60+ years’ individuals seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, and thereby provide knowledge about which characteristics that may be important when planning treatment for this age group.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Widowed people have increased mortality compared to married people of the same age. Although most widowed people are of older age, few studies include the oldest old. As life expectancy is increasing, knowledge of widowhood into older age is needed. This study aimed to examine mortality and widowhood in older age by comparing mortality in widowed and married people by sex, age, time since spousal loss and cause of death.
A Danish register-based matched cohort study of 10% of widowed persons ⩾65 years in the years 2000–2009. For each randomly drawn widowed person, five married persons were matched on sex and age. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Poisson regression, and stratified according to sex and 5-year age intervals. MRRs were furthermore calculated by time since spousal loss and by specific cause of death.
The study included 82 130 persons contributing with 642 914.8 person-years. The overall MRR between widowed and married persons with up to 16 years of follow-up was 1.25 (95% CI 1.23–1.28). At age ⩾95 years for men, and ⩾90 years for women, no differences in mortality rates were seen between widowed and married persons. Mortality in widowed persons was increased for most specific causes of death, with the highest MRR from external causes (MRR 1.53 [1.35–1.74]) and endocrine diseases (MRR 1.51 [1.34–1.70]).
Widowhood was associated with increased mortality in older age for both men and women until age ⩾95 and ⩾90 years, respectively. Increased mortality was observed for almost all causes of death.
The Weaklaw vent in SE Scotland (East Lothian coast), inferred to be Namurian, produced lava spatter and volcanic bombs. The latter commonly contained ultramafic xenoliths. All were metasomatised by carbonic fluids rich in incompatible elements. The lavas and xenoliths are inferred to have been basanites and lherzolites prior to metasomatism. The abundance and size of (carbonated) peridotite xenoliths at Weaklaw denotes unusual rapidity of magma ascent and high-energy eruption making Weaklaw exceptional in the British Isles. The lavas and xenoliths were altered subsequently by low-temperature (<200°C) carbo-hydrous fluids to carbonate, clay and quartz assemblages. A small irregular tuffisite ‘dyke’ that transects the ejecta is also composed dominantly of carbonates and clays. The peridotitic xenoliths are typically foliated, interpreted as originating as pre-entrainment mantle shear-planes.
Analyses of the relic spinels shows them to be compositionally similar to spinels in local unaltered lherzolites from near-by basanitic occurrences. Chromium showed neither significant loss nor gain but was concentrated in a di-octahedral smectite allied to volkonskoite. It is in the complex association of smectite with other clays, chlorite and possibly fuchsite that the diverse incompatible elements are concentrated.
We conclude that late Palaeozoic trans-tensional fault movement caused mantle shearing. Rapid ascent of basanite magma entrained large quantities of sheared lithospheric mantle. This was followed by ascent of an aggressive carbonate-/ hydroxyl-rich fluid causing pervasive metasomatism. The vent is unique in several ways: in its remarkable clay mineralogy and in displaying such high Cr-clays in a continental intra-plate setting; in being more productive in terms of its ‘cargo’ of peridotite xenoliths; in presenting an essentially un-eroded sequence of Namurian extrusives; and, not least, for giving evidence for post-eruptive, surface release of small-melt, deep-source fluids.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Early nutrition and growth have been found to be important early exposures for later development. Studies of crude growth in terms of weight and length/height, however, cannot elucidate how body composition (BC) might mediate associations between nutrition and later development. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during infancy were followed up for outcome variable, and were included in the statistical analysis. The study sample was restricted to mothers living in Jimma town who gave birth to a term baby with a birth weight ≥1500 g and no evident congenital anomalies. The relationship between the exposure and outcome variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression. Intervention studies are needed to assess whether nutrition interventions increasing FFM also increase cognitive development.
The aim of this study was to validate the estimated habitual dietary intake from a newly developed web-based FFQ (WebFFQ), for use in an adult population in Norway. In total, ninety-two individuals were recruited. Total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labelled water was used as the reference method for energy intake (EI) in a subsample of twenty-nine women, and multiple 24-h recalls (24HR) were used as the reference method for the relative validation of macronutrients and food groups in the entire sample. Absolute differences, ratios, crude and deattenuated correlations, cross-classifications, Bland–Altman plot and plots between misreporting of EI (EI–TEE) and the relative misreporting of food groups (WebFFQ–24HR) were used to assess the validity. Results showed that EI on group level was not significantly different from TEE measured by doubly labelled water (0·7 MJ/d), but ranking abilities were poor (r −0·18). The relative validation showed an overestimation for the majority of the variables using absolute intakes, especially for the food groups ‘vegetables’ and ‘fish and shellfish’, but an improved agreement between the test and reference tool was observed for energy adjusted intakes. Deattenuated correlation coefficients were between 0·22 and 0·89, and low levels of grossly misclassified individuals (0–3 %) were observed for the majority of the energy adjusted variables for macronutrients and food groups. In conclusion, energy estimates from the WebFFQ should be used with caution, but the estimated absolute intakes on group level and ranking abilities seem acceptable for macronutrients and most food groups.
The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010–2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a debilitating disorder (1). Based on neuromotor impairments it is divided to spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic types (2). Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs), monogenic and chromosomal disorders mimic CP (3). We aimed to identify causal genetic variants in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP in whom known IEMs were ruled out. Timely diagnosis is essential for proper management, especially in conditions that mimic CP and are treatable. Methods: We enrolled 23 patients with unexplained atypical dyskinetic CP, for whole exome sequencing. Variants were filtered against public and in-house databases to identify variants predicted as damaging (in silico tools and ACMG criteria). We applied a virtual gene panel of known and suspected CP and movement disorder genes and investigated each sample. Results: The participants presented with symptoms including: spasticity, dystonia, choera-athetosis, ataxia and cognitive delays. We identified 23 diagnoses: 13 dominant,6 recessive and 4 X-linked. 12 patients had movement disorders. In 4, the diagnoses enabled targeted treatment (neurotransmitter supplements in Unverricht Lundborg diseases (CSTB) and PAK3 deficiency, deep brain stimulation in GNAO1 deficiency, medical diet in Glutaric Aciduria (GCDH). Conclusions: Whole Exome Sequencing contributes to establishing diagnosis in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP resulting in precision medicine and improved health outcomes.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence estimates of cerebral palsy (CP) among 5-year-old children in northern Alberta; to provide congenital, gestational age– and birth weight–specific, and postneonatal CP rates; and to describe motor subtypes and function. Methods: This population-based prevalence estimate study, part of the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry, reports confirmed CP diagnoses at age 5 years made by pediatric rehabilitation and child neurology specialists. Prevalence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) used Alberta government denominators of same-age children and live births. Results: The Northern Alberta CP rate (birth years, 2008-2010) for 173 5-year-old children is 2.22 (95% CI 2.12, 2.32) per 1000 5-year-old children. The congenital CP rate is 1.99 (95% CI, 1.89-2.09) per 1000 live births; unilateral congenital CP, 1.0 (95% CI, 0.64-1.36) per 1000 live births; and postneonatal CP, 0.12 (95% CI, 0.1-0.14) per 1000 live births. Gestational age-specific rates are similar: age <28 weeks, 27.2 (95% CI, 23.05-31.35) and 28 to 31 weeks, 29.5 (95% CI, 25.78-33.22). Motor subtypes for 169 children (data missing, 4; male, 97; postnatal, 9) are: spastic, 148 (87.6%) including 31 (20.9%) with diplegia, 10 (6.8%) triplegia, 33 (22.2%) quadriplegia, 74 (50%) hemiplegia/monoplegia); and dyskinetic, 18 (10.6%) and ataxic, 3 (1.8%). A total of 107 (63.3%) ambulate without assistive devices and 111(65.7%) handle most objects with their hands independently. Conclusions: This is the fourth Canadian CP prevalence study; one from Quebec used a similar case ascertainment approach and two 1980s studies from Alberta and British Columbia used administrative databases. Northern Alberta CP rates are comparable with other developed countries. The hemiplegic subtype is the most common. Rates among preterm children have declined but are similar for the <28 and 28 to 31 gestation-week groups.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
The traditional Inuit diet in Greenland consists mainly of fish and marine mammals, rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory capacity but markers of inflammation have been found to be high in Inuit living on a marine diet. Yet, the effect of vitamin D on inflammation in Inuit remains unsettled. This led us to investigate the association between vitamin D and markers of inflammation in a population with a high intake of a marine diet. We studied 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in West and East Greenland. Information concerning dietary habits was obtained by interview-based FFQ. Blood samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were associated with vitamin D levels in serum (74·2, 69·8 and 52·9 nm; P < 0·001), hsCRP (1·6, 1·4 and 1·3 mg/l; P = 0·002) and YKL-40 (130, 95 and 61 ng/ml; P < 0·001), respectively. YKL-40 level decreased with rising vitamin D level in Inuit (Inuit diet P = 0·002; mixed diet P = 0·011). YKL-40 was lower in groups with higher vitamin D levels after adjusting for other factors known to influence inflammation (P < 0·001). This was not seen for hsCRP. In conclusion, vitamin D and markers of inflammation vary in parallel with the intake of the marine Inuit diet. Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with YKL-40 levels, but no association with hsCRP was found. The hypothesised anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D was not supported. Other factors in the marine diet may be speculated to influence inflammation.