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Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an issue of major concern to colleges worldwide, we lack detailed information about the epidemiology of NSSI among college students. The objectives of this study were to present the first cross-national data on the prevalence of NSSI and NSSI disorder among first-year college students and its association with mental disorders.
Data come from a survey of the entering class in 24 colleges across nine countries participating in the World Mental Health International College Student (WMH-ICS) initiative assessed in web-based self-report surveys (20 842 first-year students). Using retrospective age-of-onset reports, we investigated time-ordered associations between NSSI and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-IV) mood (major depressive and bipolar disorder), anxiety (generalized anxiety and panic disorder), and substance use disorders (alcohol and drug use disorder).
NSSI lifetime and 12-month prevalence were 17.7% and 8.4%. A positive screen of 12-month DSM-5 NSSI disorder was 2.3%. Of those with lifetime NSSI, 59.6% met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Temporally primary lifetime mental disorders predicted subsequent onset of NSSI [median odds ratio (OR) 2.4], but these primary lifetime disorders did not consistently predict 12-month NSSI among respondents with lifetime NSSI. Conversely, even after controlling for pre-existing mental disorders, NSSI consistently predicted later onset of mental disorders (median OR 1.8) as well as 12-month persistence of mental disorders among students with a generalized anxiety disorder (OR 1.6) and bipolar disorder (OR 4.6).
NSSI is common among first-year college students and is a behavioral marker of various common mental disorders.
To investigate the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB; i.e. suicidal ideation, plans or attempts) in the Spanish adult general population during the first wave of the Spain coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (March−July, 2020), and to investigate the individual- and population-level impact of relevant distal and proximal STB risk factor domains.
Cross-sectional study design using data from the baseline assessment of an observational cohort study (MIND/COVID project). A nationally representative sample of 3500 non-institutionalised Spanish adults (51.5% female; mean age = 49.6 [s.d. = 17.0]) was taken using dual-frame random digit dialing, stratified for age, sex and geographical area. Professional interviewers carried out computer-assisted telephone interviews (1–30 June 2020). Thirty-day STB was assessed using modified items from the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Distal (i.e. pre-pandemic) risk factors included sociodemographic variables, number of physical health conditions and pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders; proximal (i.e. pandemic) risk factors included current mental disorders and a range of adverse events-experiences related to the pandemic. Logistic regression was used to investigate individual-level associations (odds ratios [OR]) and population-level associations (population attributable risk proportions [PARP]) between risk factors and 30-day STB. All data were weighted using post-stratification survey weights.
Estimated prevalence of 30-day STB was 4.5% (1.8% active suicidal ideation; n = 5 [0.1%] suicide attempts). STB was 9.7% among the 34.3% of respondents with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, and 1.8% among the 65.7% without any pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorder. Factors significantly associated with STB were pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders (total PARP = 49.1%) and current mental disorders (total PARP = 58.4%), i.e. major depressive disorder (OR = 6.0; PARP = 39.2%), generalised anxiety disorder (OR = 5.6; PARP = 36.3%), post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 4.6; PARP = 26.6%), panic attacks (OR = 6.7; PARP = 36.6%) and alcohol/substance use disorder (OR = 3.3; PARP = 5.9%). Pandemic-related adverse events-experiences associated with STB were lack of social support, interpersonal stress, stress about personal health and about the health of loved ones (PARPs 32.7–42.6%%), and having loved ones infected with COVID-19 (OR = 1.7; PARP = 18.8%). Up to 74.1% of STB is potentially attributable to the joint effects of mental disorders and adverse events−experiences related to the pandemic.
STB at the end of the first wave of the Spain COVID-19 pandemic was high, and large proportions of STB are potentially attributable to mental disorders and adverse events−experiences related to the pandemic, including health-related stress, lack of social support and interpersonal stress. There is an urgent need to allocate resources to increase access to adequate mental healthcare, even in times of healthcare system overload.
Lungworms can exert a negative impact on wild ruminant fitness; for this reason, the diagnosis of the associated diseases is an important prevention measure. The Baerman–Wetzel technique is the most usual method for the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary nematodes and is based on the active migration and movement of their first-stage larvae. Pulmonary tissue samples are frequently used for the post-mortem diagnosis of these parasites, but this kind of sample is not always available and easy to obtain. Faecal samples represent a more accessible choice for parasite monitoring. This work aimed to evaluate the agreement between the results obtained by the Baermann–Wetzel technique when samples of lung parenchyma or faeces from wild ruminants are used. A good level of agreement as well as a similar sensitivity between the two types of sample were observed, validating the use of faecal samples as a less invasive and cost-effective alternative for the monitoring of lungworm in wild ruminant populations.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45.
We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) in 23 population-based cross-sectional World Mental Health Surveys. Internalizing disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We applied latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and investigated the characteristics of identified classes using logistic or linear regression.
The best-fitting LCGA solution identified eight classes: a healthy class (81.9%), three childhood-onset classes with mild (3.7%), moderate (2.0%), or severe (1.1%) internalizing comorbidity, two puberty-onset classes with mild (4.0%) or moderate (1.4%) comorbidity, and two adult-onset classes with mild comorbidity (2.7% and 3.2%). The childhood-onset severe class had particularly unfavorable sociodemographic outcomes compared to the healthy class, with increased risks of being never or previously married (OR = 2.2 and 2.0, p < 0.001), not being employed (OR = 3.5, p < 0.001), and having a low/low-average income (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001). Moderate or severe (v. mild) comorbidity was associated with 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 1.9 and 4.8, p < 0.001), disability (B = 1.1–2.3, p < 0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001 for severe comorbidity only). Adult (v. childhood) onset was associated with lower rates of 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001).
We identified eight transdiagnostic trajectories of internalizing psychopathology. Unfavorable outcomes were concentrated in the 1% of participants with childhood onset and severe comorbidity. Early identification of this group may offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Shortfalls in treatment quantity and quality are well-established, but the specific gaps in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are poorly understood. This paper analyzes the gap in treatment coverage for MDD and identifies critical bottlenecks.
Seventeen surveys were conducted across 15 countries by the World Health Organization-World Mental Health Surveys Initiative. Of 35 012 respondents, 3341 met DSM-IV criteria for 12-month MDD. The following components of effective treatment coverage were analyzed: (a) any mental health service utilization; (b) adequate pharmacotherapy; (c) adequate psychotherapy; and (d) adequate severity-specific combination of both.
MDD prevalence was 4.8% (s.e., 0.2). A total of 41.8% (s.e., 1.1) received any mental health services, 23.2% (s.e., 1.5) of which was deemed effective. This 90% gap in effective treatment is due to lack of utilization (58%) and inadequate quality or adherence (32%). Critical bottlenecks are underutilization of psychotherapy (26 percentage-points reduction in coverage), underutilization of psychopharmacology (13-point reduction), inadequate physician monitoring (13-point reduction), and inadequate drug-type (10-point reduction). High-income countries double low-income countries in any mental health service utilization, adequate pharmacotherapy, adequate psychotherapy, and adequate combination of both. Severe cases are more likely than mild-moderate cases to receive either adequate pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy, but less likely to receive an adequate combination.
Decision-makers need to increase the utilization and quality of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Innovations such as telehealth for training and supervision plus non-specialist or community resources to deliver pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy could address these bottlenecks.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
Mixed Bipolar patients are those who have co-existing depressive symptoms during mania. These patients are supposed to have a worse evolution.
The objective of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients who had at least one mixed episode with those who experienced only pure manic episodes.
169 outpatients diagnosed of Bipolar I disorder and treated at least during two years were included. 120 patients (71%) complited the follow-up over 10 years. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were included.
The patients with mixed episodes (37%) had a significantly younger mean age at onset comparing with those with manic episodes (25.3 years vs. 30.8 years; p=0.025) they also had more previous mood- incongruent psychotic symptoms χ2= 6.77, p=0.034), more number of hospitalizations (OR= 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14; -1.63; p< 0.001), and more number of episodes (OR= 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10-1.31; p< 0.001). There were no significant differences relating to depressive episodes, alcohol use, drug abuse, suicidal behaviour and suicide attempts.
Age at onset differed significantly between the mixed episode and pure mania groups, with mixed episode patients having a younger age of onset. This is interesting as one of the major results of the study we have found that age at onset mediates some of the factors classically related to outcome in mixed episodes like alcohol abuse and suicide attempts. However, independently of age at onset, these patients represent a especially severe type of bipolar disorder.
Folie á deux is a rare mental syndrome, firstly described by Falret in France on 1997, and renamed in the DSM-IV as shared psychotic disorder, and in the ICD-10 as induced delusional disorder; in which a paranoid or delusional belief is shared by two people with a very close relationship, and usually belonging to the same family. Social withdrawal is a common characteristic of both persons during the initial stage of the disorder.
A 16 years-old adolescent boy, born in Russia, and having this syndrome is presented in this study. After his arrival to Spain, he lived with his father with important social isolation for six months, and he begun to report delusional ideas with mystical-religious and ufological content. His father was diagnosed as having a delusional disorder with the same contents. Both patients received behavioural-cognitive therapy (CBT) with the aim of modifying their delusional beliefs, even that they went on living together. No antipsychotic medication was needed.
Clear changes were observed in their delusional system, particularly in the degree of conviction, as well as in distress, thought interference, and anxiety, and also an improvement was observed in the understanding of their beliefs, and in their social relationship with peers.
Social withdrawal as well as cultural differences associated to their immigrant condition played a critical role in the establishment of the induced delusional disorder, and CBT modified the delusional system, even father and son continued living together.
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder's (ADHD) prevalence in Bipolar Disorders (BD) and relatives.
78 admissions for Bipolar Disorder (DSM-IV) in Impatient Psychiatric Unit, in Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valladolid (Spain). Only 36/78 patients participate in study. Demographic, social and clinical information were registered. ADHD symptomatology was evaluated from patient and descendant (Conners short version).
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in childhood/adolescence were detected in 13,9% (5/36). Conners score were negative (below 15) in all case.
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in their children were detected in 6,25% (n=3). Conner score were positive in 2,1%. Family psychiatry history in 72,2% (n=26), affective disorder in 60,52% (n=23). No family history with ADHD diagnosis. Only one case (2,8%) with symptomatology suggestive of ADHD in relatives.
The ADHD prevalence in our sample of BD and relatives weren’t higher than general population.
- Frontiers Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. Cathryn A. Galanter, MDa, Ellen Leibenluft, MD. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17 (2008) 325-346.
- Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children.
Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. In 1993, Bleuler emphasized its importance in his “Suicidal behavior is the most serious symptom of schizophrenia”. Since then, various studies have confirmed importance of suicide in schizophrenia, and today it's clear that his research and knowledge is one of the great challenges of psychiatry.
- Establish clinical-socio-demographic profile and risk factors for psychotic people with autolytic behaviors.
- Determine frequency of suicides in psychotic disorders in our area of care.
Material and methods
Retrospective study(3 years evolution) that includes psychotic patients(diagnosed according DSM IV-TR) admitted to the HCU of Valladolid. With data provided by hospital medical records, analyzed socio-demographic variables and clinics. Study consists of two groups:group of cases(those patients who have suicidal behavior) and control group (those that haven't autolytic gesture during the study period). Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS.
- The sample includes 191 patients:41(21%) have attempted suicide.
- Of them:73% are males;88% singles;51% have basic studies;61% we re unemployed;37% were 31-40 aged;54% started disease 21-30 aged and 63.5% are schizophrenic.
- Considering statistical study we find that suicidal patient profile is male(p = 0.039),diagnosed with schizophrenia(p = 0.033),with previous suicide attempts(p = 0.009)and lack of social support(p = 0.007).
- 21% of hospitalized psychotic patients have presented some autolytic attempt.
- Profile of suicidal psychotic patient is a male, single, 21-40 aged, primary education, unemployed, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, particularly paranoid, with ten years evolution,without acceptable social support, number of revenues higher than non-suicidal psychotic and a personal history of previous autolytic attempts.
Recovery from a psychotic episode is a dynamic process after the devastating effects of being diagnosed with a serious mental illness, or the trauma of being hospitalized, rather than a cure or the absence of symptoms. Psychological recovery implies finding and maintaining hope, the reestablishment of a positive identity, finding meaning in life, and taking responsibility for one's life.
The stages of the subjective psychological process of recovery after the first psychotic episode were explored; since psychological functioning, as well as symptoms and social functioning in the critical period probably are the most important long-term outcome predictor variables.
The RSQ (Drayton, et al., 1998) and the STORI (Andresen, et al., 2006) were used to assess 30 patients (72.4% males) recovering from the first episode of a non-affective psychosis, 3 to 9 months after their clinical discharge. The mean age was 24.34 (SD=4.5, range=17-34).
The RSQ stages of recovery were: Tendency toward sealing-over (7.7%), Mixed, sealing-over predominates (42.3%), Mixed, integration predominates (38.5%), and Tendency toward integration (11.5%). The STORI stages of recovery were: Moratorium (11.5%), Awareness (31.0%), Preparation (27.0%), Rebuilding (11.5%), and Growth (19.0%). Significant correlations were found between better recovery stages and patient's adherence to treatment (X2 = 9.579, p = 0.008). Correlations between recovery stages and symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and other variables were also explored.
Recovery styles of Integration and Growth significantly correlate with treatment adherence, a better symptomatic (less negative and general symptoms) and functional recovery, but not with DUP, stigma, or neuropsychological variables.
UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
The poorly understood aetiology of schizophrenia is known to involve a major genetic contribution even though the genetic factors remain elusive. Most genetic studies are based on Mendelian rules and focus on the nuclear genome, but current studies indicate that other genetic mechanisms are probably involved. This review focuses on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a maternally inherited, 16.6-Kb molecule crucial for energy production that is implicated in numerous human traits and disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise the studies that have explored mtDNA in schizophrenia patients and those which provide evidence for its implication in this illness. Alterations in mitochondrial morphometry, brain energy metabolism, and enzymatic activity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggest a mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia that could be related to the genetic characteristics of mtDNA. Moreover, evidence of maternal inheritance and the presence of schizophrenia symptoms in patients suffering from a mitochondrial disorder related to an mtDNA mutation suggest that mtDNA is involved in schizophrenia. The association of specific variants has been reported at the molecular level; however, additional studies are needed to determine whether the mitochondrial genome is involved in schizophrenia.
Alexithymia is a term to describe a state of deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. It expresses the cognitive-emotional state of vulnerable subjects who prone to suffer from psychosomatic illnesses. It’s characterized by difficulties in relationship and emptiness of feelings. It has been incriminated in genesis and maintenance of various psychosomatic pathologies, included psoriasis. Psychological stress is important in onset and exacerbation of psoriasis. We assume hypothesis that emotions that cannot be expressed through the appropriate symbolic language will be expressed through a symbolic somatic symptom.
A case study of psoriasis in a woman of 27 years without a previous psychiatric history. She was treated jointly by the service of psychiatry and dermatology. Methodology: We performed a detailed history in the course of the disease, summarizing vital changes and outstanding events of her lifetime in the different vital areas (family, work, school and sex life).
From the comprehensive revision of the ailments and pathobiography we can establish a clear relationship between physical-psychological symptoms.
Skin is an envelope that represents the boundary line between body-psyche. Skin and psyche interact in many ways. The skin reacts to feelings and perceptions. Psychosomatic patients feel extreme anxiety when they have to cope with separation and merger situations. They experience these situations as if they were to lose their physical limit. Broadly speaking, because of their alexithymia, they cannot process a painful emotion properly, and though they will express it through somatisation disorders and the development of diseases. In the case of our patient, the skin verbalizes her emotional silence.
Known by many different names-culture broker, community interpreter, medical interpreter, and communication facilitator-the intercultural mediator has as a primary task the facilitation of communication and the therapeutic relationship in the presence of linguistic and/or cultural difference. The Immigration Plan of “la Caixa” Social and Cultural Outreach Projects has undertaken an ambitious project to train all of the cultural mediators in Spain, including both those currently working and those newly entering the field, to meet existing needs. In the first phase of the project, the training was developed in Catalunya, in collaboration with the the Catalan Department of Health, executed by the Psychiatry Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Autonomous University of Barcelona) and certified by the Health Studies Institute of the Department of Health. Drawing from the four years experience of the NGO SURT and the Department of Psychiatry of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, the program provides 200 hours of theoretical and 1200 hours of practical training. 50 currently employed intercultural mediators and 30 novices are being trained. In subsequent phases the training will be adapted to needs of other autonomous regions of Spain. Modules include medical anthropology, Western biomedicine, community health, linguistic interpretation, cultural competence, professional identity, and ethics. Small group supervision provides a supportive environment to facilitate the application of theory to practice. Finally, high quality training materials were developed specifically for the course. Preliminary evaluations of the project are positive despite some unanticipated complications.
Recent research suggests that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role in extinction learning. The goal of this study was to test whether variation in the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is related to treatment response to exposure-based cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), a form of extinction learning, in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
One hundred and six OCD patients from a specialized clinic, who underwent a standardized CBT treatment after partial or non-response to a 12-week pharmacological trial, were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and the relationship between genotype and treatment response was analyzed.
Among 98 CBT completers, 36% of those carrying the BDNF Met allele were rated as CBT responders compared to 60% of nonMet allele carriers (P = 0.027). When analyzing the different obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions, in patients with contamination/cleaning symptoms, the Met allele was associated with a significantly worse CBT response (P<0.0001) and a lower obsessions severity decrease from pre- to posttreatment (P = 0.046).
Genetic variation in BDNF may be associated with treatment response in exposure-based CBT in OCD, especially in those patients exhibiting contamination/cleaning symptoms.
Despite the high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms located around 2-3% of the population, there continue to be cases where the characteristics of the patient or the circumstances of their environment, they fall short queries mental health or when they do not for the disorder itself, but for another reason obsessional symptoms worsen.
Expose using clinical case, the existence of patients with obsessive pathology whose characteristics do not seek mental health consultation, until this is associated with a new disease that interferes significantly in vital organization.
We report the case of a man of 88 years old, married at 60, was admitted to the psychiatric consultation at the request of his wife 29 years his junior, for behavioral disorders several years of evolution and history of obsessive symptoms compulsive, which did not interfere with their daily lives by the lack of insight and poor social environment
OCD is included in anxiety disorders.
It is characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with personal, work and / or patient's social.
There are cases that own personality traits of the patient, this disorder is not diagnosed early and choose to go only when associated with worsening cognitive impairment rituals and interfere with family life.
Long-acting atypical antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of substance use disorders and comorbid psychosis.
To investigate the impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) on craving and satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. Craving and satisfaction levels in patients and relatives were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We used the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) to assess clinical severity and global improvement, and the GAF scale to assess global functioning. 35 patients completed the study and underwent a systematic assessment at baseline and after 3 and 6 months.
After 6 months of treatment, mean craving scores decreased in patients treated with PPLAI when compared to baseline scores (4.9 vs 2.3). Mean satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients increased (6.0 vs 9.1), and satisfaction levels in their relatives improved after 6 months (5.2 vs 9.5). Patients receiving PPLAI showed a statistically significant decrease in consumption relapses, had lower scores in CGI for clinical severity (CGISI), higher scores in global improvement (CGI-GI), and higher scores in global functioning.
After 6 months of PPLAI treatment, psychotic patients with substance use had lower craving levels. Satisfaction levels were higher in patients and their relatives. Consumption relapses decrease and patients had higher scores in global functioning.
In this exhibition we aim to describe a clinical case and the different consequences that may present additional problems with eating disorders, focusing with emphasis on development and clinical picture. This disorder usually occurs in non-obese adolescents accused, showing symptoms significantly related to interpersonal functioning of these adolescents, who tend to be isolated or seek company of younger guys. They are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorders related or unrelated to the food. Dietary restriction involves biological and physical changes, highlighting the alteration of hypothalamic and endocrine system, leading to signs and symptoms such as amenorrhea, cold intolerance, hypotension … Neurochemical changes have also been attributed to malnutrition.
The present case is a 31 year old woman. Initiates contact with Mental Health at age 15 by anorexia nervosa. Patient requests for worsening nutritional status, family relationships, and alcohol consumption, being the turning point and main motivation, the birth of his daughter. 8 months ago gave birth, being an unexpected delivery at home. Unaware that pregnancy, justifying as secondary amenorrhea eating disorder and abdominal inflammation malnutrition. Daughter born seven months income requires low weight and withdrawal symptoms during pregnancy as continuous with anxiolytic and antidepressant treatment.
It has a favorable, always maintaining therapeutic commitment announced at the beginning of tratamiento. Currently still in out patient reviews with Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology, Nursing and Nutrition.
Sexuality and emotional life are rarely focus on attention in people suffering from severe long-term mental diseases like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
53 patients and 47 matched controls were studied using a new questionnaire (SEXSAM Scale) measuring relevance of sexual and emotional relationships in patients’ daily life. A specific Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (PRSexDQ-SALSEX Montejo 2001-2008), Sexual Activity Assessment Scale modified from Kinsey (Montejo 2006) and the HONOS Scale measuring bio-psychosocial functioning were also applied.
Sexuality (physic and emotional) was scored as high valuable and the main motivation for sexual activity was looking for love and fondness in both groups. No differences were found in the value of more affective behaviours such as kissing, caressing, hugging or massaging. Global satisfaction in sexual and emotional life was significantly superior in control group and linked to the higher frequency of sexual relations. Many patients suffered for sexual dysfunction related to the treatment use and many of then were dissatisfied with their sexual life. Just a few numbers of patients had regular sexual intercourses. Patients describe an improvement in the self-perception of mood, appetite, sleep, anxiety level, humour sense and self-esteem when they have sexual relations. Predominant sexual activity for patients was masturbation. Prostitution use was higher in patient group. All these findings are negatively influencing personal satisfaction and quality of life.
Relevance of sexual and emotional life in patients is as high as in normal population. These patients are more concerned about affection and companionship than about physical pleasure.