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Identifying dietary patterns in different environments attended by children is relevant to guide public politics. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with dietary patterns of children under 2 years of age in childcare centres and at homes. This transversal study was enrolled in municipal childcare centres of Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Food consumption data from 256 children were obtained by the food record method. From the consumption data, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component method in each environment. ‘Traditional’ patterns were observed in both environments; the ‘less healthy’ pattern was found only at homes. Other patterns identified in childcare centres include ‘snacks’, ‘nutritive’ and ‘pasta and meats’; at homes, it was possible to identify patterns such as ‘milk and cereals’ and ‘mixed’. Children over 12 months presented higher scores for all the patterns in both environments. Obese children had lower scores for all the patterns in childcare centres. There was an association between maternal age below 21 years and higher adherence to a ‘less healthy’ pattern, maternal level of education less than 8 years and lower adherence to the ‘mixed’ pattern and lower familiar income per capita and higher adherence to the ‘snacks’ and ‘traditional’ patterns in childcare centres. In conclusion, adherence to dietary patterns was associated with socio-economic, demographic variables and nutritional status and further studies are needed, especially those with a longitudinal design, enabling the monitoring of dietary patterns.
Amidst widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds in the United States, the use of PRE herbicides and cover crops have resurged once again as important strategies for weed management in cropping systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the length of soil residual weed control from PRE soybean herbicides and the detrimental impact of these herbicides on cover crop species using field treated soil in greenhouse bioassays. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using soil from field experiments conducted in 2018 and 2019 at Arlington and Lancaster, WI. PRE herbicides consisted of imazethapyr, chlorimuron-ethyl, and cloransulam-methyl (acetolactate synthase [ALS]-inhibitors), metribuzin (photosystem II [PSII]-inhibitor), sulfentrazone, flumioxazin, and saflufenacil (protoporphyrinogen oxidase [PPO]-inhibitors), acetochlor, S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, and pyroxasulfone (very long-chain fatty acid [VLCFA]-inhibitors), and a nontreated control. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using soil (0-10 cm depth) sampled at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 d after treatment (DAT). Palmer amaranth and giant foxtail (weeds), and radish and cereal rye (cover crops) were used as bioindicators of herbicide levels in the soil. Bioassay results showed extended soil residual control of Palmer amaranth with sulfentrazone and pyroxasulfone; extended residual control of giant foxtail was observed with pyroxasulfone and S-metolachlor. Chlorimuron-ethyl and metribuzin were the most injurious herbicides to radish and cereal rye shortly after application, respectively, but minimal injury was observed from soil samples collected 50 DAT indicating the use of PRE and fall seeded cover crops in southern Wisconsin can be compatible. These results can support growers and practitioners with selection of effective PRE herbicides for Palmer amaranth and giant foxtail control and reduced impact on fall seeded radish and cereal rye cover crops altogether leading to more effective, diverse and sustainable weed management programs.
Nicotine is the main psychoactive substance present in cigarette smoke that is transferred to the baby by breast milk. In rats, maternal nicotine exposure during breastfeeding induces obesogenesis and hormone dysfunctions in adult male offspring. As glucocorticoid (GC), insulin, and vitamin D change both adipogenesis and lipogenesis processes, we assessed parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) of adult male and female rats in a model of neonatal nicotine exposure. At postnatal (PN) day 2, dams were kept with six pups (three per sex) and divided into nicotine and control groups for implantation of osmotic minipumps that released 6 mg/kg nicotine or saline, respectively. At PN180, fat mass, hormone levels, and protein contents of biomarkers of the GC activation and receptor (11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptor alpha), insulin signaling pathway [insulin receptor beta (IRβ), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (pAKT), serine/threonine kinase, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4)], and vitamin D activation and receptor (1α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor) were evaluated. While nicotine-exposed males showed increased fat mass, hypercorticosteronemia, hyperinsulinemia, and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D, these alterations were not observed in nicotine-exposed females. Nicotine-exposed males only showed lower IRS1 in VAT, while the females had hyperglycemia, higher pAKT in VAT, while lower IRβ, IRS1, and GLUT4 in SAT. Parameters related to metabolism and action of GC and vitamin D were unaltered in both sexes. We evidence that exposure exclusively to nicotine during breastfeeding affects the hormone status and fat depots of the adult progeny in a sex-dependent manner.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
Deaf people communicate naturally using visual-spatial languages, called sign languages (SL). Although SLs are recognized as a language in many countries, the problems faced by Deaf people for accessing information remain. As a result, they have difficulties exercising their citizenship and access information in SLs, which usually leads to linguistic and knowledge acquisition delays. Some scientific works have been developed to address these problems related to the machine translation of spoken languages to sign languages. However, the existing machine translation platforms have some limitations, especially in syntactic and lexical nature. Thus, this work aims to develop a mechanism for machine translation to Libras, the Brazilian Sign Language, with syntactic-semantic adequacy. It consists of an automatic translation component for Libras based on syntactic-semantic translation rules and a formal syntactic-semantic rule description language. As proof of concept of the proposed approach, we created a specific grammar for Libras translation exploring these aspects and integrating these elements into VLibras Suite, a service for machine translation of digital content in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) to Libras. We performed several tests using this modified version of VLibras to measure the level of comprehension of the output generated by the new translator mechanism. In the computational experiments, as well as in the actual tests with Deaf and hearing users, the proposed approach was able to improve the results of the current VLibras version.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
Collagen extraction depends on the state of bone preservation, and the acidity of Brazilian soils often prevents the use of this material for radiocarbon dating. When available, however, bone samples constitute very important chronological records for both archaeological sites and natural depositional sites of specific animals. The extraction of collagen was performed using two filters, the first aiming to remove insoluble contaminants, and the second, a vivaspin ultrafilter 30KD to retain large molecular weight materials. The collagen was liofilized and converted to CO2 by combustion in sealed quartz tubes with CuO and Ag. The graphite was produced by zinc reduction in independently sealed Pyrex™ tubes. In order to verify the accuracy of this protocol, we analyzed a modern bone and four previously dated fragments, including those from the Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI), and a fragment of human bone from the Amourins site, a Brazilian shellmound. The results for the known age material are in agreement with the expected and the studied sector of Amourins shellmound was dated 4100–3900 years cal BP from a chronological model performed with charcoal dating found in different stratigraphic layers. Samples were dated at the radiocarbon laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
It was aimed to simultaneously study standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan (Trp) and lysine (Lys) for gilts. A digestibility assay was previously conducted to determine the SID amino acid in the basal diet (low levels of SID Trp and Lys). Sixty-four gilts (15.04 ± 1.44 kg) were allotted to 16 diets in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement (1.55, 1.85, 2.15 and 2.45 g/kg SID Trp and 9.72, 11.12, 12.52 and 13.92 g/kg SID Lys) with four replicates per treatment. Performance, longissimus muscle (LM), backfat thickness (BF) and blood variables were evaluated. An interaction was observed for G:F, and by response surface model, the optimum Trp level was achieved at 2.15 g/kg (0.159 g/MJ of ME). A quadratic effect of Trp was observed on body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG); the daily feed intake increased linearly as Trp increased. The optimum Trp levels of 2.25 and 2.24 g/kg were estimated for BW and ADG, respectively. The BF increased with increasing levels of Trp. There was a quadratic and linear effect of Trp and Lys, respectively, on the LM, in which the optimum Trp level was determined as 2.05 g/kg in the diet. Plasma urea nitrogen decreased as Trp and Lys levels increased. Using estimates provided by response surface, maximized G:F ratio was obtained at 2.15 g SID Trp/kg of diet and at least 13.92 g SID Lys/kg of diet is necessary to optimize the G:F for 15–30 kg gilts, providing a Trp:Lys ratio of 15.4:100.
A stakeholder survey was conducted from April through June of 2018 to understand stakeholders’ perceptions and challenges about cropping systems and weed management in Brazil. The dominant crops managed by survey respondents were soybean (73%) and corn (66%). Approximately 75% of survey respondents have grown or managed annual cropping systems with two to three crops per year cultivated in succession. Eighteen percent of respondents manage only irrigated cropping systems, and over 60% of respondents adopt no-till as a standard practice. According to respondents, the top five troublesome weed species in Brazilian cropping systems are horseweed (asthmaweed, Canadian horseweed, and tall fleabane), sourgrass, morningglory, goosegrass, and dayflower (Asiatic dayflower and Benghal dayflower). Among the nine species documented to have evolved resistance to glyphosate in Brazil, horseweed and sourgrass were reported as the most concerning weeds. Other than glyphosate, 31% and 78% of respondents, respectively, manage weeds resistant to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors and/or acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. Besides herbicides, 45% of respondents use mechanical, and 75% use cultural (e.g., no-till, crop rotation/succession) weed control strategies. Sixty-one percent of survey respondents adopt cover crops to some extent to suppress weeds and improve soil chemical and physical properties. Nearly 60% of survey respondents intend to adopt the crops that are resistant to dicamba or 2,4-D when available. Results may help practitioners, academics, industry, and policy makers to better understand the bad and the good of current cropping systems and weed management practices adopted in Brazil, and to adjust research, education, technologies priorities, and needs moving forward.
The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
Use of synthetic auxin herbicides has increased across the midwestern United States after adoption of synthetic auxin-resistant soybean traits, in addition to extensive use of these herbicides in corn. Off-target movement of synthetic auxin herbicides such as dicamba can lead to severe injury to sensitive plants nearby. Previous research has documented effects of glyphosate on spray-solution pH and volatility of several dicamba formulations, but our understanding of the relationships between glyphosate and dicamba formulations commonly used in corn and for 2,4-D remains limited. The objectives of this research were to (1) investigate the roles of synthetic auxin herbicide formulation, glyphosate, and spray additives on spray solution pH; (2) assess the impact of synthetic auxin herbicide rate on solution pH; and (3) assess the influence of glyphosate and application time of year on dicamba and 2,4-D volatility using soybean as bioindicators in low-tunnel field volatility experiments. Addition of glyphosate to a synthetic auxin herbicide decreased solution pH below 5.0 for four of the seven herbicides tested (range of initial pH of water source, 7.45–7.70). Solution pH of most treatments was lower at a higher application rate (4× the labeled POST rate) than the 1× rate. Among all treatment factors, inclusion of glyphosate was the most important affecting spray solution pH; however, the addition of glyphosate did not influence area under the injury over distance stairs (P = 0.366) in low-tunnel field volatility experiments. Greater soybean injury in field experiments was associated with high air temperatures (maximum, >29 C) and low wind speeds (mean, 0.3–1.5 m s−1) during the 48 h after treatment application. The two dicamba formulations (diglycolamine with VaporGrip® and sodium salts) resulted in similar levels of soybean injury for applications that occurred later in the growing season. Greater soybean injury was observed after dicamba than after 2,4-D treatments.
This article proposes a method for incremental data dimensionality reduction in loop closure detection for robotic autonomous navigation. The approach uses dominant eigenvector concept for: (a) spectral description of visual datasets and (b) representation in low dimension. Unlike most other papers on data dimensionality reduction (which is done in batch mode), our method combines a sliding window technique and coordinate transformation to achieve dimensionality reduction in incremental data. Experiments in both simulated and real scenarios were performed and the results are suitable.
Failure to control Palmer amaranth with glyphosate and protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibitor herbicides was reported across southwestern Nebraska in 2017. The objectives of this study were to 1) confirm and 2) validate glyphosate and PPO-inhibitor (fomesafen and lactofen) resistance in 51 Palmer amaranth accessions from southwestern Nebraska using genotypic and whole-plant phenotypic assay correlations and cluster analysis, and 3) determine which agronomic practices might be influencing glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth accessions in that location. Based on genotypic assay, 88% of 51 accessions contained at least one individual with amplification (>2 copies) of the 5-enolypyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, which confers glyphosate resistance; and/or a mutation in the PPX2 gene, either ΔG210 or R128G, which endows PPO-inhibitor resistance in Palmer amaranth. Cluster analysis and high correlation (0.83) between genotypic and phenotypic assays demonstrated that EPSPS gene amplification is the main glyphosate resistance mechanism in Palmer amaranth accessions from southwestern Nebraska. In contrast, there was poor association between genotypic and phenotypic responses for PPO-inhibitor resistance, which was attributed to segregation for PPO-inhibitor resistance within these accessions and/or the methodology that was adopted herein. Genotypic assays can expedite the process of confirming known glyphosate and PPO-inhibitor resistance mechanisms in Palmer amaranth from southwestern Nebraska and other locations. Phenotypic assays are also a robust method for confirming glyphosate resistance but not necessarily PPO-inhibitor resistance in Palmer amaranth. Moreover, random forest analysis of glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth indicated that EPSPS gene amplification, county, and current and previous crops are the main factors influencing glyphosate resistance within that geographic area. Most glyphosate-susceptible Palmer amaranth accessions were found in a few counties in areas with high crop diversity. Results presented here confirm the spread of glyphosate resistance and PPO-inhibitor resistance in Palmer amaranth accessions from southwestern Nebraska and demonstrate that less diverse cropping systems are an important driver of herbicide resistance evolution in Palmer amaranth.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cactus (Opuntia spp) levels in total mixed ration silages based on Cactus and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud) on the fermentation profile, microbial populations, aerobic stability and taxonomic diversity. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 4 factorial design with four replications, being four rations with different levels of Cactus (15, 30, 45, 60% based on the dry matter) and four opening periods (0, 15, 30 and 60 days of fermentation). An interaction effect (P < 0.050) was observed among the diets and opening times for mould and yeast populations. An interaction effect for the levels of acetic acid was observed, where the diets 15, 30, 45 and 60% showed higher values at 60 days (0.44, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.40 g/kg DM, respectively). A significant difference was observed for the richness and diversity index (Chao1 and Shannon). The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Lactobacillus and Weissella. Cactus can be added in total mixed ration silages up to the level of 60% in a way that it positively affects the qualitative indicators of the silages, modulating the taxonomic communities and allowing the predominance of important groups for preservation of the ensiled mass.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.