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To document long-term prevalence trends and changes in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Current Major Depression (MD), Agoraphobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Panic Disorder, in two groups of people with different levels of exposure to a massive terrorist attack.
Cohort study. Two random samples of people exposed to a terrorist attack, the injured (n = 127) and community residents (n = 485) were followed and assessed, 2 and 18 months after the event.
Among the injured, 2 and 18 months after the attack, the prevalences were respectively, PTSD: 44.1% and 34%, MD: 31.5% and 23.7%, Agoraphobia: 23.8% and 20.7%, GAD: 13.4% and 12.4% and Panic Disorder: 9.4% and 11.3%. The corresponding figures among residents were PTSD: 12.3% and 3.5%, MD: 8.5% and 5.4%, Agoraphobia: 10.5% and 8.7%, GAD: 8.6%, and 8.2% and Panic Disorder 2.1% and 2.7%.
Two months after the event, the prevalence of mental disorders among both injured and residents was higher than expected levels at baseline conditions. Eighteen months after the event, psychopathological conditions did not change significantly among the injured but returned to the expected baseline rates among community residents.
To determine the change in prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in victims of the March 11 attacks and their relatives, 1 and 6 months after the attacks.
Subjects and methods
Evaluation of PTSD symptoms using the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in a sample of 56 patients admitted to an emergency room of a general hospital, and assessment of PTSD symptoms in relatives of the patients.
At Month 1, 41.1% of patients (31.3% of males and 54.2% of females) presented with PTSD. At Month 6, this figure was 40.9% (30.4% of males and 52.4% of females). There was a significant improvement in perception of health among females between Month 1 and Month 6. Relatives presented similar DTS scores at baseline and at 6 months.
We verified that rates of PTSD did not vary substantively between the two evaluations. PTSD symptoms positively correlated with psychological health involvement. This correlation points out that both PTSD symptoms and subjective general health involvement are part of the psychological response to trauma.
The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was high and remained stable between Month 1 and Month 6, while subjective perception of health improved significantly.
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders in which abnormal events occur during sleep, due to inappropriately timed activation of physiological systems.
we report the case of a 41-year-old female who has no psychiatric history. The patient went to emergency department because when she was starting to sleep, in the first state of sleep, she felts a sensation of paralysis in all her body, with incapacity for breathing, chest oppression and tactile hallucinations like something or someone was touching her entire body. Due to that, the patient awoke frightened, with high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, choking feeling, sweating, nausea and fear of dying. When the patient arrived to the emergency department, she was suffering a panic attack, thinking that she could have some kind of neurological disease or she was suffering a heart attack.after treating the panic attack with 1 mg of lorazepam, all the symptoms subsided gradually.
in this case report, we present a patient with a new-onset parasomnia, with hypnagogic hallucinations and a panic attack at the awakening. It is known that stress factors are closely associated with parasomnias, as we can see in this case because the patient was moving and she was sleeping in a new place.
Parasomnias are very frequently present in general population and they can trigger intense anxiety status that can lead to panic attacks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that differences in residual feed intake (RFI) of beef steers are related to diet sorting, diet nutrient composition, energy intake and apparent digestibility. To phenotype steers for RFI, 69 weaned Angus × Hereford steers were fed individually for 56 days. A finishing diet was fed twice daily on an ad libitum basis to maintain approximately 0.5 to 1.0 kg refusals. Diet offered and refused was measured daily, and DM intakes (DMI) were calculated by difference. Body weights were recorded at 14-day intervals following an 18-h solid feed withdrawal. The residual feed intake was determined as the residual of the regression of DMI versus mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and average daily gain (ADG). Particle size distributions of diet and refusals were determined using the Penn State Particle Separator to quantify diet sorting. Sampling of diet, refusals and feces were repeated in four sampling periods which occurred during weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of the study. Particle size distributions of refusals and diet were analyzed in weeks 2, 4 and 6, and sampling for chemical analysis of refusals and feces occurred in all four periods. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber (288 h in situ) was used as an internal marker of apparent digestibility. We conclude that preference for the intakes of particles > 19 mm and 4 to 8 mm were negatively correlated to RFI and ADG, respectively. Although steers did sort to consume a different diet composition than offered, diet sorting did not impact intake energy, digestible energy or DM digestibility.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
The application of clay minerals in therapeutics is becoming important due to their structural and surface physicochemical properties. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a very common pharmaceutical drug and is used worldwide. The interactions between the 5-ASA molecule and both the aluminol and siloxane surfaces of kaolinite are studied by means of atomistic calculations using force fields based on empirical interatomic potentials and quantum mechanics calculations based on density functional theory. A conformational analysis of 5-ASA has been performed and the anion of 5-ASA was also studied. The calculated adsorption energy values indicate that 5-ASA is likely to be adsorbed on the kaolinite surfaces with greater affinity to the aluminol surface. Hence, kaolinite may be considered as a promising pharmaceutical carrier of 5-ASA.
The low-charge dioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates are an important group of clay minerals that have a low degree of cation substitution and very weak interlayer interatomic interactions which are difficult to reproduce with quantum mechanical calculations. In order to study the crystallographic properties of these compounds with density functional theory (DFT) quantum-mechanical methods, an optimization of norm-conserving pseudopotentials of Al, Si, O, H and Na atoms has been carried out, and an optimization of the cutoff radii of the basis sets has been accomplished. Crystallographic properties and vibrational stretching frequencies of the OH groups, ν(OH), have been calculated, being consistent with previous computational and experimental results. All frequencies can be related to the different molecular environment of the OH groups. The effect of octahedral Fe3+ substitution on the ν(OH) frequency is reproduced. Several configurations of cation substitutions and interlayer cation (IC) positions are studied in low-charge dioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates, such as Al4(Si7–xAlx)O20(OH)4Nax, with x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75, indicating that the IVAl3+ is highly dispersed and the IC tends to be in the substituted ditrigonal hole. For the Al4(Si7Al)O20(OH)4Na composition, the trans-vacant form is more stable than the cis-vacant one.
The structural and thermodynamic properties of minerals are strongly affected by cation site-ordering processes. We describe methods to determine the main interatomic interactions that drive the ordering process, which are based on parameterizing model Hamiltonians using empirical interatomic potentials and/or ab initio quantum mechanics methods. The methods are illustrated by a number of case study examples, including Al/Si ordering in aluminosilicates, Mg/Ca ordering in garnets, simultaneous Al/Si and Mg/Al ordering in pyroxenes, micas and amphiboles, and Mg/Al non-convergent ordering in spinel using only quantum mechanical methods.
This paper reviews recent applications of Monte Carlo methods for the study of cation ordering in minerals. We describe the program Ossia99, designed for the simulation of complex ordering processes and for use on parallel computers. A number of applications for the study of long-range and short-range order are described, including the use of the Monte Carlo methods to compute quantities measured in an NMR experiment. The method of thermodynamic integration for the determination of the free energy is described in some detail, and several applications of the method to determine the thermodynamics of disordered systems are outlined.
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8–13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 19·8 and 19·1 %, respectively. FTO, MC4R and TMEM18 risk allele frequency was 17, 9·8 and 89·5 %, respectively. A significant association between FTO homozygous and MC4R heterozygous risk alleles and obesity was found (OR 3·9; 95 % CI 1·46, 10·22, and OR 2·1; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·71; respectively). The FTO heterozygous subjects showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, compared with the homozygous for the ancestral allele subjects. These results remain significant after considering adiposity as a covariate. The FTO and MC4R genotypes were not significantly associated with total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentration. No association was found between TMEM18 risk allele and obesity and/or metabolic alterations. Our results show that, in addition to a higher BMI, there is also an association of the risk genotype with blood pressure in the presence of the FTO risk genotype. The possible presence of a risk genotype in obese children must be considered to offer a more comprehensive therapeutic approach in order to delay and/or prevent the development of chronic diseases.
The Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) research program on prehistoric art conducts chronological studies of parietal representations with their associated archaeological context. This multidisciplinary approach provides chronological arguments about the creation period of parietal representations. This article presents chronological investigations carried out in several decorated caves in France (La Grande Grotte, Labastide, Lascaux, La Tête-du-Lion, Villars) and Spain (La Garma, Nerja, La Pileta, Urdiales). Several types of organic materials, collected from different areas of the caves close to the walls and in connection with parietal art, were dated to determine the periods of human presence in the cave, a presence that may have been related to artistic activities. These new radiocarbon results range from 33,000–29,000 (La Grande Grotte) to 16,000–14,000 cal BP (Urdiales).
Introduction: Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat spinal metastases. The aim of this study was to compare conventional dosimetry (posterior–anterior fields) with an optimized three-dimensional conformal plan (using oblique fields).
Material and Methods: Fifteen patients were selected, and split into three groups of five based on tumour localization: cervical, dorsal and lumbar. Reference planning comprised of two fields: anterior–posterior. The planning target volume (PTV) was covered with 90% of the prescribed doses, minimizing anterior field weight and not exceeding 120%. The alternative consisted of three fields: two oblique posterior fields with wedge and anterior field. The PTV was covered with 95% of the prescription dose, minimizing the anterior field weight with 107% of overdose as a limit. The patient received 8 Gy in one fraction; retreatment with an additional fraction was feasible, safe and effective if persistent or recurrent bone pain was present. Five fractions of 4 Gy were used for cervical cases. To consider the future patients toxicity we evaluated the mean dose, V90 and V70 parameters in each plan.
Results: Dosimetric parameters of organs at risk were not significantly different from one trial to another. The optimized plan followed ICRU criteria, reaching PTV coverage of 95–107% range of the prescription dose. In the conventional plan, high dose had to be accepted to obtain 90% of coverage in the target.
Conclusions: In contrast with the anterior–posterior configuration, oblique fields improve dose conformity and limit high dose all of the body except the spinal cord.
Chemical gardens are biomimetic structures in the form of plants formed by a combination of salts which precipitate by a combination of convection forced by osmosis, free convection and chemical reactions. Chemical gardens may be implicated in other phenomena of industrial interest which involve precipitation across a colloidal gel membrane which separates two different aqueous solutions, for example, in cement technology and metal corrosion process. However, the variation in chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of the different surfaces of these formations is not well known yet. Several salts in different concentrations and conditions have been explored under terrestrial gravity and microgravity. The chemical garden structures have been characterised by morphology analysis, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and x-ray diffraction, correlating these data with the biomimetic growth and the physical-chemical nanoprocesses involved in it. This approach can also be useful for the analysis of biomaterials with interesting biomechanical properties.
Fall-calving multiparous Angus × Hereford cows 3 to 10 years of age were stratified by age in a three by two factorial treatment arrangement to evaluate the efficacy of modifying stocking rate and supplementation strategy to manage cow body condition and production parameters over a 5-year study. Efficacy was evaluated quarterly in association with calving, breeding, weaning, and mid way between weaning and calving (i.e. in August). Three protein supplementation strategies (none, standard, strategic) were imposed across both a moderate (0·3 cows per ha) and a high (0·4 cows per ha) stocking rate. In the strategically supplemented group, protein supplement was provided to cows with a body condition score <5·5 at the quarterly evaluations. There was an effect of supplementation on pregnancy rate, which in combination with previously established culling practices resulted in different age profiles amongst supplementation strategies in years 2 to 5 (P < 0·01). Two statistical analyses were therefore conducted to dissociate the confounding effects of supplementation strategy and age. One model included the effect of stocking rate, supplementation strategy, production year, and all interactions; the second included the addition of age and its interactive effects. Stocking rate and supplementation strategy affected pregnancy rate in each of the models (P = 0·003 and P = 0·10, respectively). Standard, non-supplemented and strategically supplemented animals had estimated pregnancy rates of 0·83, 0·76, and 0·79, respectively (P = 0·10). The effects of nutrition on both calving interval and birth weight were independent of the model employed. Animals that were not supplemented had extended calving intervals (P = 0·06), but there was no effect of stocking rate (P > 0·10). Birth weight was not affected by supplementation strategy or stocking rate (P > 0·10). The lower 205-day weights of calves on a heavy compared with moderate stocking rate was independent of age (P = 0·02). However, the increased 205-day weight of calves born to strategically supplemented cows compared with those born to unsupplemented cows was only evident when data were not corrected for differences in age among groups (P = 0·03). Likewise, analyses of cow condition parameters using models without and with age resulted in different interpretations. These results suggest that strategic and standard supplementation result in similar animal performance and that the improvement in herd productivity associated with altering stocking rate and supplementation may partially be due to altered herd age dynamics.
Advances in radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have made it possible to date prehistoric cave paintings by sampling the pigment itself instead of relying on dates derived from miscellaneous prehistoric remains recovered in the vicinity of the paintings. The work at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) concentrated on prehistoric charcoal cave paintings from southern France and northern Spain. In most caves, pigment samples were collected from several paintings, and in some instances the sample size allowed for multiple independent measurements on the same figure, so that the coherence of the calculated dates could be tested. Before being dated, each specimen was subjected to a thermal treatment preceded by an acid and basic treatment of intensity commensurate with the sample size.
Nine bison drawings from three caves in the Cantabrian region of Spain—two from Covaciella, three from Altamira, and four from El Castillo—were sampled and dated. The 27 dates fell between 13,000 and 14,500 BP, allowing us to attribute the drawings to the Magdalenian period. The 24 dates for 13 drawings in the Cosquer cave indicated two distinct periods of painting activity—one around 28,000 BP and the other around 19,000 BP. The Chauvet cave paintings turned out to be the oldest recorded to date, as five dates fell between 32,000 and 31,000 BP. After discussing the sample preparation protocol in more detail, we will discuss the ages obtained and compare them with other chronological data.
The association between the rate of protein degradation and the
of the calpain system
in lambs fed at sub-maintenance, maintenance and supra-maintenance levels
of nutrition was investigated. Weights of the cold carcass, liver, kidney,
m. semitendinosus increased with
nutritional level (P<0·05). The rate of protein degradation
hind-limb was determined using
an in vivo arterio-venous method. Blood flow, protein gain
and protein synthesis across the hind-limb
increased with nutritional status (P<0·05). There was
increase in the amount of protein
synthesised per unit of RNA (mg RNA/g protein) with improved nutritional
status. The rate of protein degradation across the hind-limb increased
sub-maintenance and maintenance
treatments (P<0·05) but there was no further increase
above maintenance (P>0·10). The activity
of the components of the calpain system was determined after
separation on a DEAE-Sepharose
column with a stepwise gradient with increasing NaCl concentrations.
Although there were no
significant effects of nutritional status on the components of the calpain
system, there was a negative
association between the rate of protein degradation and the activity of
P<0·005) and a weak positive association between calpastatin
activity and protein gain (R2=0·44;
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