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The most common treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressant medication (ADM). Results are reported on frequency of ADM use, reasons for use, and perceived effectiveness of use in general population surveys across 20 countries.
Face-to-face interviews with community samples totaling n = 49 919 respondents in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys asked about ADM use anytime in the prior 12 months in conjunction with validated fully structured diagnostic interviews. Treatment questions were administered independently of diagnoses and asked of all respondents.
3.1% of respondents reported ADM use within the past 12 months. In high-income countries (HICs), depression (49.2%) and anxiety (36.4%) were the most common reasons for use. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), depression (38.4%) and sleep problems (31.9%) were the most common reasons for use. Prevalence of use was 2–4 times as high in HICs as LMICs across all examined diagnoses. Newer ADMs were proportionally used more often in HICs than LMICs. Across all conditions, ADMs were reported as very effective by 58.8% of users and somewhat effective by an additional 28.3% of users, with both proportions higher in LMICs than HICs. Neither ADM class nor reason for use was a significant predictor of perceived effectiveness.
ADMs are in widespread use and for a variety of conditions including but going beyond depression and anxiety. In a general population sample from multiple LMICs and HICs, ADMs were widely perceived to be either very or somewhat effective by the people who use them.
Research has shown the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD), pointing out the overlapping nature and expression of both conditions. In order to understand their differences and similarities, we present a case of a 22-years-old patient with a history of repeated sexual trauma throughout all her adolescence, whose diagnose was changed from BPD to cPTSD after she was admitted in an acute inpatient mental health unit.
To gather the similarities between borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder.
A narrative review of the literature through the presentation of a case. Articles were chosen based on its clinical relevance.
cPTSD merges the clinical features and symptoms of PTSD with affect dysregulation, negative self-perception, unstable relationships and somatization, also present in BPD. Furthermore, BPD is known to frequently have a traumatic etiology.
It is not always simple to draw a clear line between cPTSD and BPD conditions. However, each diagnosis may have a different impact on patient understanding and treatment.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is today one of the main treatments available and used in psychiatry for serious mental illnesses. Eighty years after its introduction, the ECT procedure has evolved to become a safe option based on scientific evidence. Nowadays there are no absolute contraindications for ECT, regardless of the type of population and clinical situation.
To illustrate the electroconvulsive therapy in medical comorbidities context with a case report.
Descriptive case study.
We present a 66 years old patient who suffers from a psychiatric decompensation with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with psychotic symptoms. Due to her cardiological history (prolongation of the QT interval of possible psycopharmacological origin and a 2:1 AV block, that required the implantation of a definitive pacemaker) and partial response to psychotropic medication, the initiation of electroconvulsive therapy is proposed as the best alternative. The pacemaker was previously studied by cardiology for a very complete analysis before the procedure. It was recommended to convert it to fixed rate pacing by using a magnet. To do this, we placed it over the pacemaker during the technique. While waiting for a clinical improvement, no incidence has been produced during the sessions.
ECT should not be postponed as a last resort. Numerous studies conclude that ECT is globally the treatment of choice (70-85% response) in severe depressive conditions, over and above antidepressant drugs. The incidence of relevant cardiac complications on ECT is relatively rare (0.9%). Regarding the use of pacemakers, electroconvulsive therapy represents an effective and safe option for the patient.
As coronavirus pandemic burst in Spain in March 2020, Zamudio Hospital -a monographic psychiatric institution- was urged to create an specific Covid unit. It was destined to patients with psychiatric admission criteria, who in addition oscillated between positive asymptomatics or with mild symptoms to suspect cases or close contacts.
To describe and analyse the characteristics of the unit and the patients who were admitted during the confinement period by Covid-19, between March 14th and June 21st 2020.
The patients’ data were collected retrospectively. These data included: age; sex; admission criteria; diagnosis at discharge; confirmed/ suspected/contact case; presence/absence of symptoms; length of hospital stay; number of doctor on call assessment.
An area within the hospital wards was reserved to COVID cases / suspected / contact patients requiring psychiatric care. The storing of material and PPE was held in the forementioned area, according to protocolary measures. 26 Patients (11 women and 15 men) were admitted to the unit. Mean age was 44 years old. Diagnosis at discharge were mainly Schizophrenia (31%), Schizoaffective disorder (23%), other psicosis (11,5%) and Bipolar disorder (8%). The mean hospital stay was 5 days. There were a total of 7 confirmed positive cases, all with asyptomatic-mild course.
The establishment of this unit has ensured a proper psychiatric care and a strict control of Covid-19 transmission within patients and staff members.
The British Society for Parasitology (BSP) holds a biannual symposium devoted to the kinetoplastids, and seeks to cover the full gamut of research into these important organisms, and alternates with the Woods Hole Kinetoplastid Molecular Cell Biology meeting that serves a similar community. While normally embedded within the main BSP Spring meeting, on several occasions the symposium has enjoyed the opportunity of being hosted on mainland Europe. In 2020, the BSP was fortunate to spend some time in Granada in Spain, where a superb meeting with excellent science in a spectacular setting was overshadowed by news of an emerging novel coronavirus. In this editorial, we hope to have captured some of that excellent science and to highlight aspects of the many great papers and reviews in this special issue, as well as provide a few images from the meeting, which we hope for this who attended will bring back some fond memories.
Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could indirectly, as well directly, influence metabolic parameters related to health effects in response to selenium (Se) supplementation. This study aimed to investigate whether the selenoprotein SNPs were associated with the response of Se status biomarkers to the Brazil nut consumption in patients using statins and if the variation in Se homoeostasis could affect antioxidant protection, lipid profile, muscle homoeostasis and selenoproteins mRNA. The study was performed in the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital. Thirty-two patients using statins received one unit of Brazil nut daily for 3 months. Body composition, blood Se concentrations, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), creatine kinase (CK) activity and gene expression of GPX1 and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) were evaluated before and after Brazil nut consumption. The volunteers were genotyped for SNP in GPX1 (rs1050450) and SELENOP (rs3877899 and rs7579). SNPs in selenoproteins were not associated with plasma and erythrocyte Se, but SNPs in SELENOP influenced the response of erythrocyte GPX activity and CK activity, TAG and LDL after Brazil nut consumption. Also, Brazil nut consumption increased GPX1 mRNA expression only in subjects with rs1050450 CC genotype. SELENOP mRNA expression was significantly lower in subjects with rs7579 GG genotype before and after the intervention. Thus, SNP in SELENOP could be associated with interindividual differences in Se homeostasis after Brazil nut consumption, emphasising the involvement of genetic variability in response to Se consumption towards health maintenance and disease prevention.
Structure M13-1 is a public monumental building in the heart of ancient El Perú-Waka’, Petén, Guatemala, and is the location of Burial 61, an entombed Late Classic (seventh-century) ruler. In this report, we discuss mortuary evidence that we believe permits identification of the interred as the historically known queen, Lady K'abel.
The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Spanish validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in a Paraguayan population.
Participants were recruited through an Internet-based survey. All participants whose scores in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and The Fear Questionnaire (FQ) were greater than zero were included. 1245 subjects responded voluntarily: 1077 subjects, scoring >0, were considered.
To establish construct validity of the FCV-19S, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using the KMO test, which was adequate, and the Bartlett sphericity test, which was significant (p <.0001). The CFI, NFI, GFI, TLI and RMSEA indices were used to evaluate the model and showed good adjustment. Cronbach’s α showed valid internal consistency (α = 0.86). This validation was supported by significant correlation (p <.001) with the HADS scale for anxiety and depression and with the FQ scale for specific phobia.
The Spanish version of the FCV-19S is a 7-item scale with two dimensions, psychological symptoms and physiological symptoms, which demonstrated robust psychometric properties in a Paraguayan population.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, which has been theorized to be due to an underlying internalizing vulnerability. We aimed to identify groups of participants with differing vulnerabilities by examining the course of internalizing psychopathology up to age 45.
We used data from 24158 participants (aged 45+) in 23 population-based cross-sectional World Mental Health Surveys. Internalizing disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We applied latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and investigated the characteristics of identified classes using logistic or linear regression.
The best-fitting LCGA solution identified eight classes: a healthy class (81.9%), three childhood-onset classes with mild (3.7%), moderate (2.0%), or severe (1.1%) internalizing comorbidity, two puberty-onset classes with mild (4.0%) or moderate (1.4%) comorbidity, and two adult-onset classes with mild comorbidity (2.7% and 3.2%). The childhood-onset severe class had particularly unfavorable sociodemographic outcomes compared to the healthy class, with increased risks of being never or previously married (OR = 2.2 and 2.0, p < 0.001), not being employed (OR = 3.5, p < 0.001), and having a low/low-average income (OR = 2.2, p < 0.001). Moderate or severe (v. mild) comorbidity was associated with 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 1.9 and 4.8, p < 0.001), disability (B = 1.1–2.3, p < 0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001 for severe comorbidity only). Adult (v. childhood) onset was associated with lower rates of 12-month internalizing disorders (OR = 0.2, p < 0.001).
We identified eight transdiagnostic trajectories of internalizing psychopathology. Unfavorable outcomes were concentrated in the 1% of participants with childhood onset and severe comorbidity. Early identification of this group may offer opportunities for preventive interventions.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Shortfalls in treatment quantity and quality are well-established, but the specific gaps in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are poorly understood. This paper analyzes the gap in treatment coverage for MDD and identifies critical bottlenecks.
Seventeen surveys were conducted across 15 countries by the World Health Organization-World Mental Health Surveys Initiative. Of 35 012 respondents, 3341 met DSM-IV criteria for 12-month MDD. The following components of effective treatment coverage were analyzed: (a) any mental health service utilization; (b) adequate pharmacotherapy; (c) adequate psychotherapy; and (d) adequate severity-specific combination of both.
MDD prevalence was 4.8% (s.e., 0.2). A total of 41.8% (s.e., 1.1) received any mental health services, 23.2% (s.e., 1.5) of which was deemed effective. This 90% gap in effective treatment is due to lack of utilization (58%) and inadequate quality or adherence (32%). Critical bottlenecks are underutilization of psychotherapy (26 percentage-points reduction in coverage), underutilization of psychopharmacology (13-point reduction), inadequate physician monitoring (13-point reduction), and inadequate drug-type (10-point reduction). High-income countries double low-income countries in any mental health service utilization, adequate pharmacotherapy, adequate psychotherapy, and adequate combination of both. Severe cases are more likely than mild-moderate cases to receive either adequate pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy, but less likely to receive an adequate combination.
Decision-makers need to increase the utilization and quality of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Innovations such as telehealth for training and supervision plus non-specialist or community resources to deliver pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy could address these bottlenecks.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
To study whether there are personality characteristics that discriminate between IPV women and non-abused control women, taking into account the effect of emotional state (depressive symptoms).
A total of 176 women victim of IPV and 193 non-abused control women were assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II; Beck, 1996), and the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA; Hudson & McIntosh, 1981). Women victim of IPV were recruited from Domestic Violence Centers, and non-abused control women were recruited from Primary Care Centers and Mental Health Services. A two way analysis of variance (IPV * Depression) were used for detecting differences in personality traits taking into account the effect of depression (BDI ≥ 17).
After controlling for depression, IPV victims scored higher than control women in submissiveness (F=6.41; p=0.01), cognitive distortion (F=4.35; p=0.04), intimacy problems (F=27.02; p< 0.001), suspiciousness (F=5.02; p=0.03) and self-harm (F=4.93; p=0.03), and lower in rejection (F=14.66; p< 0.001).
IPV victims showed high submission, low hostility, intimacy problems, suspiciousness, tendency to depersonalization or derealization, and suicidal ideation and attempts, as a result of chronic abuse. Some of these aspects could be explained by the presence of PTSD, more than by pre-existing personality characteristics. Traumatic and chronic stress can alter functional aspects of the brain and lead to the development of dysfunctional cognitive and behavioral characteristics that may be considered in the psychotherapeutic approach.
Describe the prevalence and characteristics of psychotic symptoms in the context of cocaine injection use in a harm reduction program.
To find associations between intravenous cocaine use and other drug use in cocaine dependent patients suffering from cocaine induced psychosis (CIP). Cannabis was found to be a risk factor for developing CIP in non-intravenous cocaine dependence.
During a period of 6 months professionals from our Outpatient Drug Clinic completed a confidential questionnaire to describe the adverse clinical effects following cocaine injection. It included age, gender, ethnic group, daily consumption rate and other drugs used in the last 30 days.
Survey was achieved with a sample of 75 Caucasians patients, 69 men and 6 women with an average age of 32 years old. Seventeen percent (13/75) had psychotic symptoms, of which 84% (11/13) had hallucinations (visuals 4/11, auditive 7/11 and kinaesthetic 2/11), 15% (2/13) illusions.
Eighteen percent (14/75) had stereotypy movements and 3% (2/75) had aggressive behaviour. Drugs used by CIP patients, the previous 30 days were: 61% (8/13) cannabis, 31% (4/13) opiates and 15% (2/13) alcohol.
Intravenous cocaine use produced acute psychotic symptoms in 17% of our patients, of which 61% used cannabis. Despite the ethical and practical implications of this type of study, it is necessary to do more observational studies with bigger surveys to conclude these results with statistically significance.
There are few studies about the characteristics of Substance Use Disorder patients that relapse, defined by restart of the substance use that motivated the intake, after discharge from a Detoxification Unit.
To analyze the percentage of patients who had a relapse in the following 3 months after discharge and to describe their sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutical characteristics.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from June 2008 to August 2009. Data was gathered at admission on demographic (gender, age), clinical (main abused drug, psychiatric comorbidities, polydrug users) and therapeutical variables (hospitalisation duration, prescribed treatment). Patients were followed up for 3 months and assessed for relapse at 1 and 3 months by clinical interview, alcohol screening test and/or urinalysis. Results from patients with and without relapses were compared.
The study sample included 103 patients (77,7% men, average age 38,31±9). At month 3, 57,3% of the patients had relapsed. We found significant differences between the relapse and the non-relapse group on the percentage of polydrug users (68,6% vs 31,4%, p=0,05), on heroine as main drug of abuse (76% vs 24%, p=0,05) and psychiatric comorbidities (60,8% vs 39,2%, p=0,04), being psychotic disorders the most frequent. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups concerning therapeutical variables.
More than half of the patients that ended the detoxification process relapsed in the first 3 months. Polydrug use, opiate dependence and having a psychiatric comorbidity might be considered as risk factors for relapse.
To examine whether the postpartum depression (PPD) subgroup with positive antithyroid antibodies (Ab+) compared with the PPD subgroup without positive presence of Ab (Ab -) have a different psycho-social and psychopathological characteristics.
One hundred three (N=103) patients with PPD according with DSM-IV criteria were included. Autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies), severity of depression and anxiety (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton and STAI-S scales), psychosocial variables (Early Trauma Inventory, Saint Paul Ramsey Questionnaire, Marital Adjustment Test) were assessed joint with other several demographics and reproductive variables.
The presence of childhood sexual abuse in PPD women increase the probability of Ab(+) (OR= 2,528 ; 95% CI =1,00-6,39). The levels of Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) titers have a strongly correlation (p<0,000) with the levels of the Early Trauma Inventory.
The results of our study give a link between early stress, the immune system, and postpartum depression.The implication of the immunitary system in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the long lasting sensitization of the inflammatory response system and the endocrine system in front to stress behind the CNS and their transmisors and receptors activation is discussed.
To design a scale to measure perceived reasons to stay in violent partner relationships, and to carry out a preliminar analysis of its psychometric properties.
A 44 dicotomic items (true/false) self-report scale was designed (more a last open response question), elaborated according to published studies and open interviews with battered women. The questionnaire was administered to a pilot sample of 10 women to test its viability and comprehensibility. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of 132 battered women. Exploratory factorial analysis was used to establish the underlying empirical structure. Internal consistency was calculated by mean of Cronbach's alfa coefficient.
The factor analysis identified two empirical factors: external factor (situational factor) and internal factor (psychological factors). Cronbach's alphas were 0.856 and 0.811, respectively.
The Block Escape in Intimate Partner Violence Scale is a reliable and easily comprehensible instrument mesuring percibed reasons of permanence with the aggressor. Its usefulness in both setting, clinical and social, will allow design with great effectiveness intervention strategies suitable for each case.
This study was supported in part by grant-58/05 from the Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto de la Mujer.
To assess the adaptation of employed mothers one year after childbirth depending on 6-weeks psychiatric status and received treatment.
A prospective study was designed. A randomly stratified group (according to EPDS score) of 325 employed mothers was interviewed at 6-weeks postpartum to establish psychiatric diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria (SCID-I). Some cases were treated (mostly diagnosed of major depressive and panic attack disorders). 258 mothers were reassessed with the same procedure one year later. Chi-square was calculated to determine if psychiatric diagnosis one year after childbirth is related with psychiatric diagnosis at 6-weeks postpartum. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated to determine the increased risk of having a disorder at one year according to 6-weeks psychiatric diagnosis.
At one year, 50% of women in our sample were psychiatric cases and were significantly associated with clinical diagnosis at 6-weeks (X2=52.91; gl 2, p<0.001). The risk of being a psychiatric case at one year was three times higher (OR: 3.35; CI95%: 1.62-6.93) for non treated cases and nine times (OR: 9.46; CI95%: 4.96-18.06) for treated cases.
Half of our sample received a clinically relevant psychiatric diagnosis at one year.
Our results support the hypothesis that maternity is a vulnerable period for psychiatric disorders. Additionally many cases receiving treatment do not remit or remit partially and tend to chronification. The special characteristics of this population suggest that specific treatment units with specialized professionals are needed.
This study has been supported in part by grant 13/00 from Institute of Women, Spain.
To examine the postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and positive thyroid antibodies (Ab+) frequency in the Postpartum Depression (PPD) and to investigate if the PPD patients subgroup with PPTD and/or Ab+ have different characteristics.
Eighty one (N=81) patients with PPD, according with DSM-IV criteria, were included. Thyroid function (Free T3, Free T4,TSH), autoimmune status of the thyroid (Thyroperoxidasa antibodies, Thyroglobulin antibodies) and severity of depression (EPDS and 21-item Hamilton scales), were assessed joint with other several demographics, psycho-social and reproductive variables.
Twenty per cent of the patients with PPD had positive thyroid antibodies and 14% present PPTD. Prior history of early stressors in the PPD patients were significantly related with the presence of Ab+: the presence of childhood maltreatments and/or sexual abuse increased thirteen times the probability of Ab+ (OR: 13,01, 95% CI, 2.01-84.02). Greater number of total stressors were associated with Ab+ (p< 0,030), and Ab+ women showed a higher average of total stressors (2,1) than antibody negative women (1,52). Depressed women with PPTD had positive correlation with previous depressive episodes (p< 0,008).
The depressed postpartum women with dysregulation of pituitary-thyroid axis have more early childhood stressors and previous depressive episode. The implication of the inmunitary system and the HPT axis in the etiopathogenesis of the PPD through the activation of the response in front to stress is discussed.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is constituted by a set of specific metabolic alterations being postulated that the main dysfunction is insulin resistance. Estimates point to higher prevalence of MS in bipolar patients, between 30 to 35%. Cost-effective screening methods, not recurring to blood test, have been researched.
Analyse knowledge and importance given to MS in bipolar patients. Test the viability of MS screening without blood tests.
Observational, cross-sectional study. Random sample of 15 adult bipolar patients, in euthymic phase. Semi-structured interview, YMRS, HAMD were applied. MS diagnosis investigated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. MS screening was defined positive if blood pressure ≥ 130/85 or anti-hypertensive medication and abdominal perimeter > 90 in males or > 80 in females. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes and concerns on MS was applied.
14 patients completed the investigation protocol. Five (36%) met IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome. Screening sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Twelve patients (80%) were overweigh or obese. Mean IMC in patients that met IDF criteria for MS was 30 while in the other group mean IMC was 26. Only 3 (20%) have ever heard about MS, but the majority of the patients were concerned, in decreasing order, about weight gain, blood pressure cholesterol and hyperglycemia control.
Although limited by small sample size, this study strengthens the idea that MS screening can be effective in clinical practice, it also indicates the need to educate BP patients about MS and to prevent overweight.
The prevalence of mood disorders (anxiety and depression) during pregnancy seems to be similar to the women of the same group without pregnancy. Women with recurrent depression and euthimic women who discontinued antidepressants medication during pregnancy are particularly at high risk for depressive illness. Data about perinatal effects of SSRI antidepressants are gradually accumulating and are controversial. Two meta-analyses and some controlled studies don't find increased risk for major malformations in SSRI-exposed newborn. However, other studies find an increased risk of congenital malformations, poor birth outcomes and neonatal complications.
Neonatal morbidity in infant newborn of women treated with antidepressant drugs.
We examine the relation between the pharmacological treatment of the maternal anxiety/depression during the pregnancy and acute morbidity in infant newborns.
Materials and Methods
Study group of 66 infant newborn of pregnant women with a diagnoses of major depressive episode or defined anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, who were in treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy. Control group: 120 newborn of healthy pregnant women, who did not receive any treatment, and were contemporary of the same gestational age and sex. Criteria of exclusion: demonstrated toxic consumption (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, opiates, drug of synthesis). Studied variables: Type of childbirth and analgesia; weight and age of gestation; pH of umbilical artery and Apgar test; presence of malformations; morbidity; feeding; withdrawal syndrome.
Infant newborn of mothers exposed to the antidepressant treatment suffered from more pathology than those of the control group (16/66 vs. 14/114; 24.2% vs.12.3%; p=0.038). Two smaller malformations in the study group were observed, a preauricular appendix (group A) and one moderate pielocilicilar ectasy (group C), both in mothers who received paroxetine (2/60; 3.3% vs. 0/114; 0%, p=0.05, Fisher p=0.118, NS). Only one infant newborn displayed compatible clinical signs with moderate withdrawal syndrome (irritability, vomits) from a mother treated with venlafaxine. No case of convulsions was observed. Breast feeding was less frequent in the group of antidepressant treated mothers (38/66, 57.6% vs. 86/116, 74,1%, p=0.032).
The treatment with antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is necessary for some women. The clinician must weigh the relative risks of various treatment options and take into account individual patient wishes. Although the antidepressant drugs suppose an increased risk for the newborn, it could be assumable for the benefit that represents maintain the mother in an euthimic situation.
We propose to discuss the clinical management, as well as, the accuracy of the psychiatric and obstetric controls to minimize the neonatal complications.