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In this paper, we revisit our previous work in which we derive an effective macroscale description suitable to describe the growth of biological tissue within a porous tissue-engineering scaffold. The underlying tissue dynamics is described as a multiphase mixture, thereby naturally accommodating features such as interstitial growth and active cell motion. Via a linearization of the underlying multiphase model (whose nonlinearity poses a significant challenge for such analyses), we obtain, by means of multiple-scale homogenization, a simplified macroscale model that nevertheless retains explicit dependence on both the microscale scaffold structure and the tissue dynamics, via so-called unit-cell problems that provide permeability tensors to parameterize the macroscale description. In our previous work, the cell problems retain macroscale dependence, posing significant challenges for computational implementation of the eventual macroscopic model; here, we obtain a decoupled system whereby the quasi-steady cell problems may be solved separately from the macroscale description. Moreover, we indicate how the formulation is influenced by a set of alternative microscale boundary conditions.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task that is now becoming feasible. The advent of 10m-class telescopes and high sensitivity instruments is enabling the gathering of high quality spectra even for the faintest systems. In addition, advances in the modelling of stellar populations, stellar libraries, and full-spectral fitting codes are allowing the recovery of the stellar content shaping those spectra with unprecedented reliability. In this contribution we report on the extensive tests we have carried out using the inversion code STECKMAP. The similarities between the Star Formation Histories (SFH) recovered from STECKMAP (applied to high-quality spectra) and deep Colour-Magnitude diagrams fitting (resolved stars) in two Local Group dwarf galaxies (LMC and LeoA) are remarkable, demonstrating the impressive performance of STECKMAP. We exploit the capabilities of STECKMAP and perform one of the most complete and reliable characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep spectroscopic data. We measure radial and rotation velocities, SFHs and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (∼ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ∼ -1.1) and alpha-enhanced ([Mg/Fe]∼ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ∼ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
We derive an effective macroscale description for the growth of tissue on a porous scaffold. A multiphase model is employed to describe the tissue dynamics; linearisation to facilitate a multiple-scale homogenisation provides an effective macroscale description, which incorporates dependence on the microscale structure and dynamics. In particular, the resulting description admits both interstitial growth and active cell motion. This model comprises Darcy flow, and differential equations for the volume fraction of cells within the scaffold and the concentration of nutrient, required for growth. These are coupled with Stokes-type cell problems on the microscale, incorporating dependence on active cell motion and pore scale structure. The cell problems provide the permeability tensors with which the macroscale flow is parameterised. A subset of solutions is illustrated by numerical simulations.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The modified TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the Bulk heterojunction system of P3HT:PCBM to improve the performance of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. The organically-modified TiO2 nanoparticle compounds were synthesized in aqueous media at room temperature. These TiO2 compounds in various solution concentrations were deposited on the top of the P3HT:PCBM active layer by spin coating. The performance of organic solar cells was carefully investigated in the respect of the scattering and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that couple strongly to the incident light. In addition to the device, P3HT:PCBM solar cells with the use of the TiO2 nanoparticles, enhanced Fill Factor (FF) due mainly to improved shunt resistance (Rsh). The TiO2 plays a critical role in improving the interface between P3HT:PCBM active layer and Al electrode.
Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite material was prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline with ZnO nano-particles doping. Surface Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherms of Polyaniline (PANi) and Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite shows phase transformations of monolayer during compression process. Multiple isotherms indicate that the monolayer of the composite material can retain its configuration during compression-expansion cycles. The structural, topographical and electrical properties of these deposited Langmuir Blodgett films were studied and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Conductive Atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) respectively. For detailed investigations of the LB film properties, Conductive AFM is used to measure the I-V relationship of a surface of Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of Polyaniline and Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite. The contact size of the AFM cantilever tip can be as small as a few nanometers, so, the local variation of the electrical property, which is unseen in the macroscopic level, can be observed by the I-V curve. A current ranging up to 3 nA and 20 nA have been observed in the case of PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film, respectively. Conductive data images of the ITO substrate, PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film on the ITO substrate obtained with an applied bias voltage of 4V showed that the distribution of current on the whole surface is almost uniform and very less inhomogeneities have been observed in the surface conductance of the PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film.
Intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) has found a wide range of photoelectronic utility. One of the most notable examples includes the natural photosynthesis, where PeT between chlorophyll and quinone triggers photon-to-chemical energy conversion. We observed that phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes exhibited efficient PeT to trigger a cascade of catalytic intermolecular electron transfer among electrochemically active molecules. To establish the photoelectronic utility of PeT, a series of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes were prepared and evaluated for photoelectrocatalytic conversion of dithienylethene (DTE) compounds. Selective photoexcitation of the Ir(III) complexes facilitated ultrafast PeT from DTE. The oxidative PeT initiated electrocatalytic cycloreversion of DTE, yielding one order of magnitude enhancement in quantum yields relative to direct photochromic conversion.
Light management in a photovoltaic device is much about efficient light harvesting by increasing internal reflection and absorption. Structured architectures aids in enhancing internal reflection hence higher light absorption. Various techniques have been employed to fabricate these structures. In this work, organic photoactive materials were electrosprayed, utilizing a high voltage electric field to charge a droplet suspended through a nozzle, at various solution concentrations. Various process parameters like applied voltage, flow rate, tip to collector distance were optimized to obtain hierarchical structures. Morphological and optical properties of these optimized structures were analyzed to get interesting pattern with enhancement in surface area and light absorption. These structures were further evaluated in photovoltaic device architecture.
A new donor-acceptor structured conjugated polymer (PDODTBI) with trifluoromethylated benzimidazole and benzo[1,2-b;3,4-b']dithiophene (BDT) unit have been designed and synthesized using Stille coupling polymerization reaction. The polymer is highly soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform, tetrahydrofuran and chlorobenzene with good film forming properties. The structure of the polymer is elucidated by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The introduction of a trifluoromethyl group at 4th position of the benzimidazole unit has significantly altered the optical and electrochemical properties of polymer. Polymer film showed broad absorption band in the range of 400-680 nm. Optical band gap of the polymer estimated from the absorption band edge and is found to be ∼1.88 eV. Polymer exhibited deeper HOMO (-5.0 eV) and the LUMO (-3.12 eV) energy levels. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell device with PDODTBI as a donor and PC61BM as an acceptor were evaluated.
Metal nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxides are promising materials for use in various optoelectronic applications because of their unique plasmonic properties. In this paper, a simple, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxide that can be used to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) is reported. Here, the amino acid glycine is empolyed as an environmentally friendly reducing reagent for the reduction of gold ions in the graphene oxide solutions. Furthermore, these nanocomposites are empolyed as the anode buffer layer in OPVs to trigger surface plasmonic resonance, which improved the efficiency of the OPVs. The results indicate that such nanomaterials appear to have great potential for application in OPVs.
Direct heteroarylation polymerization was employed to synthesize a novel low bandgap polymer, used as a p-type material of polymer photovoltaic cells. To achieve low bandgap of conjugated polymers, electron donor-acceptor (D-A) alternating strategy was used. The electron-donating 3-alkylthiophene and electron-withdrawing cyanothiophene were coupled to be polymerized via direct heteroarylation polymerization. The cyano moiety of the polymer backbone allowed a strong intermolecular interaction between neighboring chains and improved the structural perfection of the crystal structure on the substrate. The solar cell devices of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al were fabricated on ITO-coated glass substrate.