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The pyriform aperture comprises the central area of facial bone structure. It is formed by the free corners of the nasal bone and the frontal processes of the maxillae, which articulate with each other at the nasomaxillary suture lines. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis might be linked to various craniofacial problems. This review presents all aspects of pyriform aperture stenosis and enlargement.
A literature search was conducted. Pyriform aperture definition, nasal development, congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and pyriform aperture enlargement were reviewed.
One of the most common abnormalities is holoprosencephaly, which is a midline developmental deficiency that may also be present in combination with facial clefting. The aetiology of nasal pyriform aperture stenosis remains unclear. When diagnosed, the choice of treatment is between non-surgical and operative methods, depending on the seriousness of the problem. Provided the sufferer can maintain a secure air passage with the help of specialised medical procedures and respiratory tract adjuvants, operative therapy may be delayed.
The operative outcomes are extremely good, and the prognosis relies mainly on coexisting neural and endocrine problems. This paper evaluates the nasal pyriform aperture in detail.
This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases.
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system.
Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats.
Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21–28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21–28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined.
The sneezing and nasal congestion scores were higher in the azelastine and curcumin treatment groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination showed focal goblet cell metaplasia on the epithelial surface in the azelastine group. In the curcumin group, there was a decrease in goblet cell metaplasia in the epithelium, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular proliferation in the lamina propria.
Curcumin is an effective treatment for experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in rats.
This paper presents a novel method for spreader graft placement without dorsum resection in patients who have a deviated septum with a narrow internal nasal valve angle.
A Killian incision was used for the endonasal septoplasty, and all spreader grafts were harvested from excised deviated septal cartilages. Procedures were conducted under general anaesthesia at the same centre by the same surgical team that performed the endonasal procedure. Successful placement of spreader grafts was achieved endonasally.
Although the endonasal placement of spreader grafts seems to be more difficult than placement conducted by an open approach technique, an endonasal procedure has many advantages. Our technique provides surgeons with the opportunity to shorten operation time, obtain autologous septal graft material and secure the columellar architecture. Surgeons familiar with the classical (endonasal) septoplasty procedure can easily apply this technique to widen a narrow internal nasal valve angle, without corrupting nasal integrity.
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome can lead to unhealthy open-mouth breathing. We investigated the possible relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and dental health. We also evaluated other clinical factors that may affect oral health.
We measured sleep using polysomnography and determined the apnoea–hypopnoea index for a total of 291 patients. We also recorded the demographic data, duration of snoring complaints, educational status and income levels for our patient cohort; finally, we calculated the decayed, missing and filled teeth index.
Forty-one patients presented with primary snoring (control group) and 250 patients (study group) presented with mild, moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. We found no correlation between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome severity and the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (p = 0.057). We also found no correlation between the apnoea–hypopnoea and decayed, missing and filled teeth indexes. Age and the duration of snoring complaints were positively correlated with the decayed, missing and filled teeth index while educational status and income levels were negatively correlated (p < 0.001).
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome does not negatively affect oral and dental health.
Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol. Natural sources of xylitol include plums, strawberries and raspberries. Xylitol is commercially available in chewing gums, lozenges, syrups, nasal sprays, toothpastes, mouthwashes and other products in some countries. It has gained relative prominence in the past decade as a naturally occurring antibacterial agent.
A review of contemporary literature was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of xylitol usage in ENT practice.
The English-language literature was searched using the following terms: xylitol, otitis media, nasal, sinusitis, dental caries and preventive therapy. The articles identified were included in this review.
Xylitol has no antibacterial properties of its own; rather, it appears to enhance the body's own innate immunity. Xylitol has anti-adhesive effects on micro-organisms like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans, inhibiting their growth. Xylitol has already been used for preventing otitis media, rhinosinusitis and dental caries. The worldwide spread of drug-resistant strains of pneumococci substantiates the need for new approaches to prevent ENT-related infectious diseases.
Xylitol may be a promising agent for this purpose in ENT practice, but further experimental and clinical studies are required.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship between swimming pool pollutants and allergic rhinitis in swimming pool workers.
Materials and methods:
Twenty-seven indoor pool workers (group 1) and 49 control subjects (group 2) were enrolled in the study. A skin prick test was performed and a nasal smear was obtained from each subject to evaluate rhinitis.
When the groups were compared in terms of epithelial cells, group 1 had significantly more epithelial cells than group 2. When the groups were compared with regard to eosinophils, group 1 had significantly more eosinophils than group 2. The skin prick test results for both groups were not significantly different.
Indoor pool workers showed severe symptoms of rhinitis and eosinophilic nasal cytology, likely due to chlorine. Nasal cytology is an easy-to-administer diagnostic test and can be used to follow up rhinitis in indoor pool workers, along with nasal endoscopy, a detailed clinical history and a skin prick test.
To assess the effect of chlorhexidine gluconate and benzydamine hydrochloride mouth spray, used in conjunction with antibiotic treatment, on the intensity of clinical signs and quality of life of patients with group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis.
Patients (n = 147) with streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis were recruited and randomly allocated to either the treatment group (penicillin plus chlorhexidine and benzydamine; n = 72) or control group (penicillin plus placebo; n = 75). Blinded assessments were conducted before and after 10 days' treatment, using an intensity rating scale for clinical sign severity, a visual analogue scale for subjective health state, the Short Form 36 Health Questionnaire for quality of life, and a customised questionnaire for side effects.
The treatment group showed a statistically significant reduction in the intensity of clinical signs, compared with the control group. On treatment day 7, there was no significant difference in quality of life between the treatment and control groups. The treatment drugs were well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were observed.
Chlorhexidine gluconate and benzydamine hydrochloride mouth spray, added to standard antibiotic treatment, significantly alleviate the intensity of clinical signs in patients with streptococcal pharyngitis. Further research is needed using larger sample sizes or alternative control groups.
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