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We detected CO line and 1.2-mm continuum emission from the two GRB host galaxies (GRB 020819B and GRB 051022) by using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). This is the first case for detecting molecular gas emission in GRB hosts. The ratio of molecular gas to dust mass of the GRB 020819B site is significantly lower than those of the Milky Way and nearby star-forming galaxies, suggesting that the star-forming environment where the GRB occur is different from those in local galaxies. The possible reason is that much of the dense gas is dissipated by a strong interstellar ultraviolet radiation field.
We present recent results on Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) deep S-band (2-4 GHz) observation towards a protocluster 4C23.56 at redshift z ∼ 2.5. The protocluster 4C23.56 is known to have a significant over density (∼ 5 times) of star-burst galaxies selected to be Hα line-bright by a Subaru narrow band imaging. Now we have found 25 HAEs associated with the protocluster. These starburst HAEs are likely to become massive ellipticals at z = 0 in a cluster. Various other galaxy populations also reside in this field and the fact makes the field very unique as a tool to understand galaxy formation in a over dense region. Subsequent deep 1100-μm continuum surveys by the ASTE 10-m dish have discovered that several submillimeter bright galaxies (SMGs) coincide with HAEs, suggesting HAEs undergoing dusty starbursts. As star formation rates (SFRs) of HAEs might have been underestimated, we use radio being resistant to dust extinction. We investigate the correlation between SFR1.4 GHz and SFRHα for radio index α = 0.8 to see if the correlation holds for the sources and to check the number of dusty star forming galaxies. Our final results will allow us to evaluate quantitatively how the galaxy formation channel may be different under the condition of over-densities.
Our new compilation of interferometric CO data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. Comparing the sizes of the molecular gas disk and gas mass fractions to early-type and late-type galaxies, about half of the sample show similar properties to early-type galaxies, which have compact gas disks and low gas mass fractions. We also find that sources with extended gas disks and large gas mass fractions may become disk-dominated galaxies.
Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are considered to be due to the death of massive stars. Therefore, GRBs are closely associated with the star formation of host galaxies. Since GRBs can be detected at cosmological distances, they are expected to be probes of the star formation history of the Universe. In order to determine the use of GRBs, it is essential to understand the star formation of their hosts. Multi-wavelength observations have shown that the star formation rates (SFRs) of GRB hosts derived from submillimeter/radio observations are generally higher than those from optical/UV observations (Berger et al. 2003). This implies that GRB hosts have a large amount of molecular gas and massive star formation obscured by dust. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to derive the SFRs in a method which is independent of existing methods and not affected by dust extinction.
We observed 12CO (J = 3–2) line emission from the host galaxy of GRB 980425 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Five points were observed covering the entire region of the galaxy, and we find possible emission features (S/N ~ 3 σ) at the velocity range corresponding to the redshift of the galaxy. By combining all spectra of five points, we obtain a global spectrum with a ~4 σ emission feature. If the features are real, this is the first detection of CO among GRB hosts. We derive the total gas mass of M(H2)=7 ± 2× 108M⊙ assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor of αCO = 8.0M⊙ (K km s−1 pc2)−1, which is deduced using the correlation between the αCO and the metallicity. The dynamical mass is calculated to be Mdyn=2× 1010M⊙, and M(H2)/Mdyn~3% is consistent with those of nearby dwarfs and normal spirals. The derived SFR is 0.5 ± 0.1 M⊙ yr−1 based on the Schmidt law. This SFR agrees with the results of previous Hα observations, suggesting that there is no significant obscured star formation in this host galaxy. This result implies that there is a variety of GRB hosts in terms of the presence of obscured star formation.
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