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We recently reported on the radio-frequency attenuation length of cold polar ice at Summit Station, Greenland, based on bi-static radar measurements of radio-frequency bedrock echo strengths taken during the summer of 2021. Those data also allow studies of (a) the relative contributions of coherent (such as discrete internal conducting layers with sub-centimeter transverse scale) vs incoherent (e.g. bulk volumetric) scattering, (b) the magnitude of internal layer reflection coefficients, (c) limits on signal propagation velocity asymmetries (‘birefringence’) and (d) limits on signal dispersion in-ice over a bandwidth of ~100 MHz. We find that (1) attenuation lengths approach 1 km in our band, (2) after averaging 10 000 echo triggers, reflected signals observable over the thermal floor (to depths of ~1500 m) are consistent with being entirely coherent, (3) internal layer reflectivities are ≈–60$\to$–70 dB, (4) birefringent effects for vertically propagating signals are smaller by an order of magnitude relative to South Pole and (5) within our experimental limits, glacial ice is non-dispersive over the frequency band relevant for neutrino detection experiments.
Commercialization of 2,4-D-resistant soybean varieties allows for postemergence (POST) applications of 2,4-D in soybean. With the increase in POST applications of 2,4-D in soybean, shifts in weed populations may occur. A long-term field trial was conducted over 7 yr in a corn-soybean rotation. Weed populations were subjected to four herbicide strategies with variable levels of 2,4-D reliance. The strategies used included 1) diversified glyphosate strategy with six herbicide sites of action (SOAs); 2) 2,4-D reliant strategy with three SOAs; 3) diversified 2,4-D reliant strategy with seven SOAs; and 4) fully diversified strategy with eight SOAs. Soil residual herbicides were used for both corn and soybean years, except for the 2,4-D-reliant strategy, which used only a residual herbicide during the corn years. A 52% or greater reduction in weed densities for all herbicide strategies, except the 2,4-D-reliant strategy, was observed by the end of the study. However, the density of weeds tolerant to 2,4-D, such as monocots, increased after 3 yr of selection pressure, and more than doubled after 5 yr of selection pressure in the 2,4-D-reliant strategy. Additionally, in the 2,4-D-reliant strategy with three SOAs, species richness was 30% higher in the soil seedbank compared to herbicides strategies with six or more SOAs. In order to delay weed shifts, diversified herbicide strategies with more than three SOAs that include residual herbicides should be used in corn:soybean rotational systems that use 2,4-D-resistant soybean.
A one-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) channel is recommended during electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings principally to help establish ECG or pulse wave contamination of the ECG EEG. However, the ECG recording, in itself, provides useful clinical information, principally the detection of arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation (AF), which indicates heart disease that can predispose to embolic stroke and systemic embolism. We sought to determine the prevalence of AF routine recordings in our EEG laboratory in a general hospital.
We reviewed the consecutive EEG reports for the past 7 years to determine how often AF was detected in various age groups.
We found AF in 0–0.2% per decade of life until age 60–69 years, 2.7% for 70–79 years, 5% for 80–89 years, and 8% for 90–99 years.
We suggest that the ECG trace should be carefully analyzed for AF, especially in patients over 60 years of age. When detected, it should be brought to the referring doctor’s attention.
Cover crops can be utilized to suppress weeds via direct competition for sunlight, water, and soil nutrients. Research was conducted to determine if cover crops can be used in label-mandated buffer areas in 2,4-D-resistant soybean cropping systems. Delaying termination of cover crops containing cereal rye to at or after soybean planting resulted in a 25 to more than 200 percentage point increase in cover crop biomass compared to a control treatment. Cover crops generally improved horseweed control when 2,4-D was not used. Cover crops reduced grass densities up to 54% at four of six site-years when termination was delayed to after soybean planting. Cover crops did not reduce giant ragweed densities. Cover crops reduced waterhemp densities by up to 45%. Cover crops terminated at or after planting were beneficial within buffer areas for control of grasses and waterhemp, but not giant ragweed. Yield reductions of 14% to 41% occurred when cover crop termination was delayed to after soybean planting at three of six site-years. Terminating the cover crops at planting time provided suppression of grasses and waterhemp within buffer areas and had similar yield to the highest-yielding treatment in five out of six site-years.
Rapid vegetative growth and adverse application conditions are common factors leading to the failure of postemergence herbicides on Palmer amaranth. A sequential herbicide application, or respray, is often necessary to control weeds that have survived the initial herbicide application to protect crop yield and minimize weed seed production. The optimum timing after the initial application and the most effective herbicide for control of Palmer amaranth has not been characterized. The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimum herbicide for treating Palmer amaranth regrowth, the optimum timing for each of those herbicides, and how the initial failed herbicide might affect efficacy of a second herbicide application. Bare ground field experiments were performed in 2017 and 2018 in which glufosinate or fomesafen herbicide failure was induced on Palmer amaranth plants that were 30 cm in height. Respray treatments of glufosinate, fomesafen, lactofen, 2,4-D, and dicamba were applied once at timings of 4 to 5 d, 7 d, or 11 d after the initial spray application. Nearly all herbicide treatment and timing combinations increased control by at least 13 percentage points compared to no respray herbicide treatment. Regardless of initial herbicide, glufosinate applied as a respray treatment was the most consistent and efficacious with up to 97% control. The specific herbicide used in the second application impacted final weed control more so than timing of the respray application. For instance, control by glufosinate respray treatments was 10 to 18 percentage points greater than control from lactofen respray treatments, whereas control decreased by 3 percentage points when respray applications of any herbicide were made 11 d after initial application of glufosinate compared to 4 to 5 and 7 d after initial application of glufosinate. In the event of failure to control Palmer amaranth with glufosinate or fomesafen, glufosinate should be applied in order to maximize control.
As herbicide-resistant weeds become more problematic, producers will consider the use of cover crops to suppress weeds. Weed suppression from cover crops may occur especially in the label-mandated buffer areas of dicamba-resistant soybean where dicamba use is not allowed. Three cover crops terminated at three timings with three herbicide strategies were evaluated for their effect on weed suppression in dicamba-resistant soybean. Delaying termination until soybean planting or after and using cereal rye or cereal rye + crimson clover increased cover-crop biomass by at least 40% compared to terminating early or using a crimson clover–only cover crop. Densities of problematic weed species were evaluated in early summer before a blanket POST application. Plots with cereal rye had 75% less horseweed compared to crimson clover at two of four site-years. Cereal rye or the mixed cover crop terminated at or after soybean planting reduced waterhemp densities by 87% compared to early termination timings of crimson clover and the earliest termination timing of the mix at one of two site-years. Cover crops were not as effective in reducing waterhemp densities as they were in reducing horseweed densities. This difference was due to a divergence in emergence patterns; waterhemp emergence generally peaks after termination of the cover crop, whereas horseweed emergence coincides with establishment and rapid vegetative growth of cereal rye. Cover crops alone were generally not as effective as was using a high-biomass cover crop combined with an herbicide strategy that contained dicamba and residual herbicides. However, within label-mandated buffer areas where dicamba cannot be used, a cover crop containing cereal rye with delayed termination until soybean planting combined with residual herbicides could be used to improve suppression of horseweed and waterhemp.
Weed control of paraquat can be erratic and may be attributable to differing species sensitivity and/or environmental factors for which minor guidance is available on commercial labels. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to quantify selectivity of paraquat across select weed species and the influence of environmental factors. Experiments were performed under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and growth chamber. Compared with purple deadnettle (dose necessary to reduce shoot biomass by 50% = 39 g ai ha−1), waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, and horseweed were 4.9, 3.3, 1.9, and 1.3 times more sensitive to paraquat, respectively. The injury progression rate over 3 d after treatment (DAT) was a more accurate predictor of final efficacy at 14 DAT than the lag phase until symptoms first appeared. For example, at the 17.5 g ha−1 dose, the injury rate of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth was, on average, 3.6 times greater than that of horseweed and purple deadnettle. The influence of various environmental factors on paraquat efficacy was weed specific. Applications made at sunrise improved control of purple deadnettle over applications at solar noon or sunset. Lower light intensities (200 or 600 μmol m−2 s−1) surrounding the time of application improved control of waterhemp and horseweed more than 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1. Day/night temperatures of 27/16 C improved horseweed and purple deadnettle control compared with day/night temperatures of 18/13 C. Though control was positively associated with injury rates in the application time of day and temperature experiments, a negative relationship was observed for waterhemp in the light-intensity experiment. Thus, although there are conditions that enhance paraquat efficacy, the specific target species must also be considered. These results advocate paraquat dose recommendations, currently based on weed height, be expanded to address sensitivity differences among weeds. Moreover, these findings contrast with paraquat labels stating temperatures of 13 C or lower do not reduce paraquat efficacy.
The addition of dicamba as a weed control option in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable tool. However, this technology must be utilized with other herbicide sites of action (SOAs) to reduce selection pressure on weed communities and ensure its prolonged usefulness. A long-term trial was conducted for 7 yr in Indiana to evaluate weed community densities and species richness with four levels of dicamba selection pressure in a corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean rotation. Monocot densities and richness increased over time in the dicamba-reliant treatment. Dicot densities in the dicamba-reliant treatment declined over time, but dicot richness increased. The soil weed seedbank was affected by the varying herbicide strategies. The dicamba-reliant strategy had greater than 43% higher total weed density than all other treatments, primarily due to having a monocot density that was at least 71% higher than the other treatments. The fully diversified strategy with eight SOAs and residual herbicides used every year had the lowest total weed species richness in the soil seedbank, which supported the in-field observations.
Field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019 in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Tennessee to determine if cover-crop residue interfered with herbicides that provide residual control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp in no-till soybean. The experiments were established in the fall with planting of cover crops (cereal rye + hairy vetch). Herbicide treatments consisted of a nontreated or no residual, acetochlor, dimethenamid-P, flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone + flumioxazin, pendimethalin, metribuzin, pyroxasulfone, and S-metolachlor. Palmer amaranth took 18 d and waterhemp took 24 d in the cover crop–alone (nontreated) treatment to reach a height of 10 cm. Compared with this treatment, all herbicides except metribuzin increased the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. Flumioxazin applied alone or in a mixture with pyroxasulfone were the best at delaying Palmer amaranth growing to a height of 10 cm (35 d and 33 d, respectively). The herbicides that resulted in the lowest Palmer amaranth density (1.5 to 4 times less) integrated with a cover crop were pyroxasulfone + flumioxazin, flumioxazin, pyroxasulfone, and acetochlor. Those four herbicide treatments also delayed Palmer amaranth emergence for the longest period (27 to 34 d). Waterhemp density was 7 to 14 times less with acetochlor than all the other herbicides present. Yield differences were observed for locations with waterhemp. This research supports previous research indicating that utilizing soil-residual herbicides along with cover crops improves control of Palmer amaranth and/or waterhemp.
Foliar herbicide applications to waterhemp can result in inadequate control, leading to subsequent regrowth that often necessitates a second herbicide application to prevent crop interference and seed production. The most effective herbicides and application timings are unknown in situations where waterhemp has regrown from previous injury, such as failed applications of glufosinate or fomesafen. The objective of this research was to determine the optimum combination of herbicide and time from the first failed herbicide application to a sequential herbicide application for control of waterhemp regrowth. Reduced rates of either glufosinate or fomesafen were applied to 30-cm waterhemp plants to mimic failure of the initial herbicide application in separate bare-ground experiments. Respray treatments of glufosinate, fomesafen, lactofen, 2,4-D, or dicamba were applied 3, 7, or 11 d after the initial application. Glufosinate and fomesafen as respray treatments resulted in 90% to 100% control of waterhemp regardless of application timing following a failed glufosinate application. After a failed application of fomesafen, applying glufosinate or 2,4-D resulted in 87% to 99% control of waterhemp. Waterhemp control with fomesafen and lactofen was 13% to 21% greater, respectively, when those treatments followed glufosinate compared with fomesafen as the initial herbicides. On the basis of these results, glufosinate and fomesafen should be used for respray situations after inadequate control from glufosinate; and 2,4-D or glufosinate should be used for respray situations following inadequate control from fomesafen where crop tolerance and herbicide product labels allow. Although glufosinate followed by glufosinate was very effective for controlling waterhemp regrowth, caution should be exercised to avoid sequential application of herbicide with the same site of action.
Six experiments were conducted in 2018 on field sites located in Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, Nebraska, Ontario, and Wisconsin to evaluate the off-target movement (OTM) of dicamba under field-scale conditions. The highest estimated percentages of dicamba injury in non–dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean were 55%, 44%, 39%, 67%, 15%, and 44% injury for noncovered areas and 55%, 5%, 13%, 42%, 0%, and 41% injury for covered areas during dicamba application in Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, Nebraska, Ontario, and Wisconsin, respectively. The level of injury generally decreased as the downwind distance increased under covered and noncovered areas at all sites. There was an estimated 10% injury in non-DR soybean at 113, 8, 11, 8, and 8 m; and estimated 1% injury at 293, 28, 71, 15, and 19 m from the edge of treated fields downwind when plants were not covered during dicamba application in Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, Ontario, and Wisconsin, respectively. Assessment of filter-paper collectors placed from 4 to 137 m downwind from the edge of the sprayed area suggested the dicamba deposition reduced exponentially with distance. The greatest injury to non-DR soybean from dicamba OTM occurred at Nebraska and Arkansas (as far as 250 m). Non-DR soybean injury was greatest adjacent to the dicamba sprayed area, but injury decreased with no injury beyond 20 m downwind or in any other direction from the dicamba sprayed area in Indiana, Michigan, Ontario, and Wisconsin. The presence of soybean injury under covered and noncovered areas during the spray period for primary drift suggests that secondary movement of dicamba was evident at five sites. Additional research is needed to determine the exact forms of secondary movement of dicamba under different environmental conditions.
Management of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn may be problematic in soybean resistant to glyphosate and 2,4-D or dicamba, as auxinic herbicides often antagonize graminicide efficacy. Field and greenhouse trials were conducted using mixtures of 2,4-D or dicamba in combination with glyphosate and clethodim-A (formulated without an adjuvant) or clethodim-SM (adjuvant-inclusive formulation) to determine the effect on volunteer GR corn control. Neither auxinic herbicide reduced clethodim efficacy, regardless of clethodim rate or formulation in field trials. However, the addition of glyphosate to these mixtures at the 35 g ai ha−1 clethodim dose reduced control from clethodim-A and clethodim-SM by 62% to 75% and 27% to 47%, respectively. Increasing the clethodim dose to 105 g ha−1 or greater in combination with glyphosate and either auxinic herbicide generally restored clethodim efficacy (74% to 98% control); in one site-year, the addition of glyphosate plus dicamba to clethodim-A at 140 g ha−1 still reduced control by 34%. In greenhouse experiments, clethodim-A efficacy was reduced by 17% and 28% when applied with glyphosate plus 420 and 1,680 g ae ha−1 2,4-D, respectively, in the absence of crop oil concentrate (COC). Increasing the dose of dicamba in a similar mixture had a negligible effect. Irrespective of auxinic herbicide dose, the inclusion of COC to clethodim-A mixtures with glyphosate plus 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in ≥ 90% control. These results specify an enhanced risk of reduced clethodim efficacy on volunteer GR corn when glyphosate is added to mixtures containing 2,4-D or dicamba. To optimize control from these mixtures, clethodim should be applied at ≥ 105 g ha−1 and should include an activator adjuvant in the form of COC and/or an adjuvant-inclusive clethodim formulation. This recommendation contrasts with several labels of clethodim that do not require COC when applied with adjuvant-loaded glyphosate products.
The use of cover crops in soybean production systems has increased in recent years. There are many questions surrounding cover crops—specifically about benefits to crop production and most effective herbicides for spring termination. No studies evaluating cover crop termination have been conducted across a wide geographic area, to our knowledge. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin for spring termination of regionally specific cover crops. Glyphosate-, glufosinate-, and paraquat-containing treatments were applied between April 15 and April 29 in 2016 and April 10 and April 20 in 2017. Visible control of cover crops was determined 28 days after treatment. Glyphosate-containing herbicide treatments were more effective than paraquat- and glufosinate-containing treatments, providing 71% to 97% control across all site years. Specifically, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1 applied alone or with 2,4-D at 0.56 kg ha−1, saflufenacil at 0.025 kg ha−1, or clethodim at 0.56 kg ha−1 provided the most effective control on all grass cover crop species. Glyphosate-, paraquat-, or glufosinate-containing treatments were generally most effective on broadleaf cover crop species when applied with 2,4-D or dicamba. Results from this research indicate that proper herbicide selection is crucial to successfully terminate cover crops in the spring.
Halauxifen-methyl is an auxin herbicide for broadleaf weed control in preplant applications to corn and soybean. Our objective for this research was to characterize the phytotoxicity of halauxifen-methyl on horseweed, relative to 2,4-D and dicamba, in terms of weed height, the response to an auxin synergist, and root activity. The 50% reduction in plant growth (GR50) value for halauxifen-methyl on rosette-sized plants was 0.05 g ae ha−1, 100 times less than the labeled use rate of 5 g ae ha−1, compared with 36 and 31 g ha−1 for 2,4-D and dicamba, respectively. In a whole-plant bioassay, 240 g ae ha−1 of 2,4-D was calculated as the GR50 value on horseweed 20-cm tall, whereas applications of only 53 and 0.40 g ae ha−1 were necessary for dicamba and halauxifen-methyl, respectively, to achieve the same response. As weed size decreased, there was a concomitant reduction in the estimated herbicide dose for the GR50 with similar differences observed between halauxifen-methyl and the other two auxin herbicides. The addition of diflufenzopyr, an auxin synergist, to 2,4-D and dicamba resulted in a synergistic response on horseweed. However, the addition of diflufenzopyr to halauxifen-methyl resulted in an additive or antagonistic effect, depending on rate of diflufenzopyr, demonstrating a distinctive physiological pathway for halauxifen-methyl compared with 2,4-D and dicamba. In the agar-based bioassays, GR50 values for horseweed root length for 2,4-D and dicamba were 0.16 and 0.19 µM, respectively, whereas only 0.004 µM halauxifen-methyl was required for a comparable root response. These results indicate that horseweed exhibits a high level of sensitivity to halauxifen-methyl and suggest the activity of halauxifen-methyl is different from that of 2,4-D and dicamba. These differences in herbicide activity may reflect differential absorption, translocation, metabolism, or targeting of auxin receptors found in horseweed.
Synthetic-auxin herbicides are often applied for horseweed control before soybean planting. However, certain days of planting interval must be maintained before soybean planting, depending on the product and rate used, because of potential crop phytotoxicity. Halauxifen-methyl is a new synthetic-auxin herbicide for horseweed control in preplant applications in soybean. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Indiana to evaluate soybean phytotoxicity in response to applications of halauxifen-methyl (5 g ae ha−1) at five preplant intervals (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks before planting [WBP]). In 2015, soybean phytotoxicity was not observed for any of the preplant intervals at any of the sites. In 2016, 0% to 15% phytotoxicity was observed at 14 d after planting (DAP) when halauxifen-methyl was applied at planting, 1 WBP, and 2 WBP at different sites. Soybean phytotoxicity was expressed in the unifoliate leaves only at 14 DAP. However, the first trifoliate did not show any injury symptoms at 21 DAP from any preplant application timing. Preplant application intervals for halauxifen-methyl did not affect soybean stand counts or grain yield in any site-year. Therefore, field results indicated that halauxifen-methyl applied alone can cause slight soybean phytotoxicity in preplant applications. In growth-chamber bioassays, reductions in soybean biomass, plant length, and emergence were accentuated at 30 C, compared with 20 or 15 C, when halauxifen-methyl was applied at 20 or 40 g ae ha−1. These results contradict the currently held paradigm in which lower temperatures generally increase crop phytotoxicity levels to herbicide soil residual.
In recent years, the use of cover crops has increased in U.S. crop production systems. An important aspect of successful cover crop establishment is the preceding crop and herbicide program, because some herbicides have the potential to persist in the soil for several months. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of cover crops to common residual herbicides used in soybean production. The same field experiment was conducted in 2016 in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, and repeated in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, and Missouri in 2017 to evaluate the potential of residual soybean herbicides to carryover and reduce cover crop establishment. Herbicides applied during the soybean growing season included acetochlor; acetochlor plus fomesafen; chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron; fomesafen; fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor; imazethapyr; pyroxasulfone; S-metolachlor; S-metolachlor plus fomesafen; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor. Across all herbicide treatments, the sensitivity of cover crops to herbicide residues in the fall, from greatest to least, was forage radish = turnip > annual ryegrass = winter oat = triticale > cereal rye = Austrian winter pea = hairy vetch = wheat > crimson clover. Fomesafen (applied 21 and 42 days after planting [(DAP]); chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron and pyroxasulfone applied 42 DAP; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor caused the highest visual ground cover reduction to cover crop species at the fall rating. Study results indicate cover crops are most at risk when following herbicide applications in soybean containing certain active ingredients such as fomesafen, but overall there is a fairly low risk of cover crop injury from residual soybean herbicides applied in the previous soybean crop.
Timely results from whole-plant, herbicide-resistant weed screenings are crucial to heighten grower awareness. However, the high degree of physiological dormancy of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) seed exacerbates this process. The most effective methods for alleviating dormancy, to date, are either labor-intensive (embryo excision) or require several weeks (soil stratification). This research describes a conditioning process involving clipping and aeration of seed in water that is highly effective at alleviating dormancy and requires less skill and time compared with previous techniques. Ambrosia trifida seeds were collected over 2 yr at two different collection timings (September 25, “early”; October 25, “late”), subjected to various treatments intended to release dormancy, and evaluated for emergence over 18 d in the greenhouse. The use of germination-promoting chemicals (ethephon, gibberellic acid, and thiourea) generally provided no increase in emergence compared with water and occasionally produced seedlings with abnormal growth unsuitable for further experimentation. Conditioning yielded between 30% and 33% emergence for both early and late collections of seeds with no afterripening period compared with 0% emergence for seeds imbibed in water. Following an 8-wk period of dry storage at 4 C, conditioning yielded nearly 80% emergence for both collection timings, while emergence of seeds imbibed in water was 10% and 27% for early and late collections, respectively. Soil stratification in moist soil for 8 wk at 4 C was the second most effective treatment, yielding 46% to 49% emergence across both collections. Parameters of the Weibull function further indicated the conditioning treatment had the fastest rate of emergence and shortest lag phase between planting and first emergence. Methods to germinate A. trifida without an afterripening period have previously been unsuccessful. Therefore, the seed-conditioning method outlined in this work will be useful in expediting the confirmation of herbicide-resistant A. trifida incidences.
Evolution of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds, such as horseweed, presents major challenges in no-till soybean production systems. Effective GR horseweed control with preplant burndown applications is necessary to prevent potential soybean yield losses due to competition and to manage the soil weed seedbank. Halauxifen-methyl is a new synthetic auxin herbicide for broadleaf weed control in preplant burndown applications for soybean and other crops at low use rates (5 g ae ha–1). Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide treatments containing halauxifen-methyl for control of GR horseweed in comparison to existing herbicide treatments utilized in no-till GR soybean systems. Glyphosate alone controlled horseweed 33%. Herbicide treatments that included halauxifen-methyl, dicamba, or saflufenacil in combination with glyphosate controlled horseweed 87% to 96%, 89%, and 93%, respectively, 35 d after burndown application (DAB). Horseweed control, horseweed density reduction, and ground cover reduction by halauxifen-methyl plus glyphosate was similar to dicamba plus glyphosate. Horseweed control was greater for halauxifen-methyl plus glyphosate than for 2,4-D plus glyphosate. Cloransulam, cloransulam plus flumioxazin, and cloransulam plus sulfentrazone added to halauxifen-methyl plus glyphosate increased horseweed control and reduced horseweed density. No herbicide injury or soybean yield reduction was observed for treatments containing halauxifen-methyl.