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To assess whether infection control indicators are associated with the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in French hospitals.
We linked the database for the 2006 national prevalence survey of nosocomial infection with the database of infection control indicators (comprised of ICALIN, an indicator of infection control organization, resources, and action, and ICSHA, an indicator of alcohol-based handrub consumption) recorded from hospitals by the Ministry of Health. Data on MRSA infection were obtained from the national prevalence survey database and included the site and origin of infection, the microorganism responsible, and its drug resistance profile. Because the prevalence of MRSA infection was low and often nil, especially in small hospitals, we restricted our analysis to hospitals with at least 300 Patients. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient-level variables (eg, age, sex, or infection) and hospital-level variables (infection control indicators).
Two hundred two hospitals had at least 300 patients, for a total of 128,631 Patients. The overall prevalence of MRSA infection was 0.34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29%-0.39%). The mean value for ICSHA was 7.8 L per 1,000 patient-days (median, 6.1 L per 1,000 patient-days; range, 0-33 L per 1,000 patient-days). The mean value for ICALIN was 92 of a possible 100 points (median, 94.5;range, 67-100). Multilevel analyses showed that ICALIN scores were associated with the prevalence of MRSA infection (odds ratio for a score change of 1 standard deviation, 0.80;95% CI, 0.69-0.93). We found no association between prevalence of MRSA infection and ICSHA. Other variables significantly associated with the prevalence of MRSA infection were sex, vascular or urinary catheter, previous surgery, and the McCabe score.
We found a significant association between the prevalence of MRSA infection and ICALIN that suggested that a higher ICALIN score may be predictive of a lower prevalence of MRSA infection.
To describe the French program for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic resistance and provide results for some of the indicators available to evaluate the program. In addition to structures and process indicators, the 2 outcome indicators selected were the rate of surgical site infection and the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates among the S. aureus isolates recovered.
Descriptive study of the evolution of the national structures for control of healthcare-associated infections since 1992. Through national surveillance networks, process indicators were available from 1993 to 2006, surgical site infection rates were available from 1999 to 2005, and prevalence rates for MRSA infection were available from 2001 to 2007.
A comprehensive national program has gradually been set up in France during the period from 1993 to 2004, which included strengthening of organized infection control activities at the local, regional, and national levels and developing large networks for surveillance of specific infections and antibiotic resistance. These achievements were complemented by instituting mandatory notification for unusual nosocomial events, especially outbreaks. The second phase of the program involved the implementation of 5 national quality indicators with public reporting. Surgical site infection rates decreased by 25% over a 6-year period. In France, the median proportion of MRSA among S. aureus isolates recovered from patients with bacteremia decreased from 33.4% to 25.7% during the period from 2001 to 2007, whereas this proportion increased in many other European countries.
Very few national programs have been evaluated since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. Although continuing efforts are required, the French program appears to have been effective at reducing infection rates.
The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is changing, with evidence of increased incidence and severity. However, the understanding of the magnitude of and reasons for this change is currently hampered by the lack of standardized surveillance methods.
Objective and Methods.
An ad hoc C. difficile surveillance working group was formed to develop interim surveillance definitions and recommendations based on existing literature and expert opinion that can help to improve CDAD surveillance and prevention efforts.
Definitions and Recommendations.
A CDAD case patient was defined as a patient with symptoms of diarrhea or toxic megacolon combined with a positive result of a laboratory assay and/or endoscopic or histopathologic evidence of pseudomembranous colitis. Recurrent CDAD was defined as repeated episodes within 8 weeks of each other. Severe CDAD was defined by CDAD-associated admission to an intensive care unit, colectomy, or death within 30 days after onset. Case patients were categorized by the setting in which C. difficile was likely acquired, to account for recent evidence that suggests that healthcare facility-associated CDAD may have its onset in the community up to 4 weeks after discharge. Tracking of healthcare facility–onset, healthcare facility–associated CDAD is the minimum surveillance required for healthcare settings; tracking of community–onset, healthcare facility–associated CDAD should be performed only in conjunction with tracking of healthcare facility–onset, healthcare facility–associated CDAD. Community–associated CDAD was defined by symptom onset more than 12 weeks after the last discharge from a healthcare facility. Rates of both healthcare facility–onset, healthcare facility–associated CDAD and community–onset, healthcare facility–associated CDAD should be expressed as case patients per 10,000 patient–days; rates of community-associated CDAD should be expressed as case patients per 100,000 person-years.
The infectious diseases community shares a wide consensus about the need for control of antimicrobial use. However, current practices toward this goal remain controversial. This “Reality Check” session assessed attendees of the 4th Decennial Conference regarding their knowledge and practices about control of antimicrobial use in hospitals.
To evaluate the impact of a program on basic handwashing quality, a before-after audit was performed in a university hospital. We defined a 13-step protocol to describe a proper basic handwash (BHW). The proportion of BHW that satisfied this checklist increased significantly, from 4.2% before the program to 18.6% after, but these low proportions suggest that simpler alternatives to BHW should be studied
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