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Recent theories on the formation of the Solar System turned the attention to the study of low mass cloud cores in massive star forming regions. The Rosette Molecular Cloud is a well-known star forming area having highly filamentary structure with dense cores covering a wide range of masses. These pre- and protostellar cores were observed by Herschel and key core properties were derived from its data. With the Effelsberg 100m telescope a sample of these cores with masses ranging between 3-40 M⊙ were observed in ammonia inversion lines. In this work we are examining the correlations between these two datasets with the aim of gaining insight of the processes behind the star formation of the region.
Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD).
In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression.
Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure.
We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
In the fall of 2012 the Stanford University materials science course Solar Cells, Fuel Cells and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution was offered as a flipped class and a massively open online course (MOOC). To the best of our knowledge, this was the first materials science MOOC. Here we describe how the course was implemented, and present results on performance, demographics and other observations that were made. Finally, we provide some perspectives for the future of the implementation of these engineering MOOCs.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) using Aluminum (Al) and Aluminum-doped zinc Oxide (AZO) as Source-Drain (S-D) contacts are reported. The fabrication process was carried out using five photolithography steps with a maximum processing temperature of 100 °C, which makes the process compatible with flexible/transparent applications. The AZO and ZnO films were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Aluminum was deposited using ebeam. The devices showed mobilities >10 cm2/V-s, threshold voltage in the range of 7 V and On/Off current ratios >105. The resistance analysis showed that AZO is a better contact with lower contact resistance as identified in the TFTs. The AZO and ZnO stacks characterized by UV-V shows an optical transmission >80 %.
Cognitive reserve is thought to reflect life experiences. Which experiences contribute to reserve and their relative importance is not understood. Subjects were 652 autopsied cases from the Rush Memory and Aging Project and the Religious Orders Study. Reserve was defined as the residual variance of the regressions of cognitive factors on brain pathology and was captured in a latent variable that was regressed on potential determinants of reserve. Neuropathology variables included Alzheimer's disease markers, Lewy bodies, infarcts, microinfarcts, and brain weight. Cognition was measured with six cognitive domain scores. Determinants of reserve were socioeconomic status (SES), education, leisure cognitive activities at age 40 (CA40) and at study enrollment (CAbaseline) in late life. The four exogenous predictors of reserve were weakly to moderately inter-correlated. In a multivariate model, all except SES had statistically significant effects on Reserve, the strongest of which were CA40 (β = .31) and CAbaseline (β = .28). The Education effect was negative in the full model (β = –.25). Results suggest that leisure cognitive activities throughout adulthood are more important than education in determining reserve. Discrepancies between cognitive activity and education may be informative in estimating late life reserve. (JINS, 2011, 17, 615–624)
Studies of neuropathology-cognition associations are not common and have been limited by small sample sizes, long intervals between autopsy and cognitive testing, and lack of breadth of neuropathology and cognition variables. This study examined domain-specific effects of common neuropathologies on cognition using data (N = 652) from two large cohort studies of older adults. We first identified dimensions of a battery of 17 neuropsychological tests, and regional measures of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology. We then evaluated how cognitive factors were related to dimensions of AD and additional measures of cerebrovascular and Lewy Body disease, and also examined independent effects of brain weight. All cognitive domains had multiple neuropathology determinants that differed by domain. Neocortical neurofibrillary tangles were the strongest predictors of most domains, while medial temporal tangles showed a weaker relationship with episodic memory. Neuritic plaques had relatively strong effects on multiple domains. Lewy bodies and macroscopic infarcts were associated with all domains, while microscopic infarcts had more limited associations. Brain weight was related to all domains independent of specific neuropathologies. Results show that cognition is complexly determined by multiple disease substrates. Neuropathological variables and brain weight contributed approximately a third to half of the explained variance in different cognitive domains. (JINS, 2011, 17, 602–614).
Time-of-day effects have been identified as a possible confound in research on age-related differences in cognitive performance. Circadian rhythms have been related to time-of-day variations in sensory measures; however, more is known about the effect of circadian rhythms on vision than on hearing, and virtually nothing is known about whether time-of-day effects are potential confounds in studies of auditory aging. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether age-related differences in performance on auditory tasks are affected by time of day. A set of four auditory experiments was repeated three times over the course of one day with a group of Evening-type younger adults and a group of Morning-type older adults. The results replicated previous findings of age-related differences, but time of day did not affect the basic results. Thus, time of day does not confound the results observed in typical laboratory experiments investigating auditory aging.
Data on the efficacy of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for weed control in perennial crop nurseries in California are needed because few herbicides are registered for this purpose. Field studies were conducted from 2003 to 2006 in four commercial perennial crop nurseries in California. Treatments included a nonfumigated control; methyl bromide (98%) (MeBr) with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film; iodomethane (50%) + chloropicrin (50%) with HDPE film; 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with HDPE film; 1,3-D (61%) + chloropicrin (35%) with HDPE film; 1,3-D (62%) + chloropicrin (35%) subsurface drip; and 1,3-D (61%) + chloropicrin (35%) with virtually impermeable film (VIF). All the fumigants reduced the seed viability of common purslane, johnsongrass, and tall morningglory but were not as effective on little mallow and field bindweed. Although total weed densities and the level of control provided by each fumigant differed between locations, weed density was generally reduced by all the fumigation treatments, compared to the nonfumigated control. At three locations, alternative fumigation treatments usually resulted in hand-weeding time similar to MeBr. Reductions in weed seed viability, weed emergence, and weed densities suggest that these alternative fumigants will provide weed control similar to MeBr in perennial nurseries.
Bruce A. McCarl, Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University,
Brian C. Murray, Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University,
Man-Keun Kim, Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University,
Heng-Chi Lee, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University 1145 Krannert Building, 403 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907–1145, USA,
Ronald D. Sands, Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University,
Uwe A. Schneider, Hamburg University, Centre of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences
Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects, typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects, and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment owing to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern United States present conditions favorable to production of fast-growing, heat-tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the United States has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives.
It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change alterations in temperature precipitation regimes plus mitigation incentives will be likely to involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production.
Policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are likely to increase energy prices. Higher energy prices raise farmer costs for diesel and other fuels, irrigation water, farm chemicals, and grain drying. Simultaneously, renewable energy options become more attractive to agricultural producers. We consider both of these impacts, estimating the economic and environmental consequences of higher energy prices on U.S. agriculture. To do this we employ a price-endogenous agricultural sector model and solve that model for a range of carbon-tax-based energy price changes. Our results show mostly positive impacts on net farm income in the intermediate run. Through market price adjustments, fossil fuel costs are largely passed on to consumers. Additional farm revenue arises from the production of biofuels when carbon taxes reach $30 per ton of carbon or more. Positive environmental benefits include not only greenhouse gas emission offsets but also reduced levels of nitrogen leaching.
Richtmyer–Meshkov instability is investigated for negative Atwood number and
two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations by comparing experiments, numerical simulations
and analytic theories. The experiments were conducted on the NOVA laser
with strong radiatively driven shocks with Mach numbers greater than 10. Three
different hydrodynamics codes (RAGE, PROMETHEUS and FronTier) reproduce
the amplitude evolution and the gross features in the experiment while the fine-scale
features differ in the different numerical techniques. Linearized theories correctly calculate
the growth rates at small amplitude and early time, but fail at large amplitude
and late time. A nonlinear theory using asymptotic matching between the linear theory
and a potential flow model shows much better agreement with the late-time and
large-amplitude growth rates found in the experiments and simulations. We vary the
incident shock strength and initial perturbation amplitude to study the behaviour of
the simulations and theory and to study the effects of compression and nonlinearity.
The three-dimensional Poisson's equation is solved by iterative methods and the resulting electric field is used in Newton's equation to simulate electron transfer in a charge-coupled device (CCD). The time dependence of charge transfer is studied through a random walk simulation of Newton's equation. Potential obstacles of the order of 0.03 V are seen to slow charge transfer. Electron motion is also followed in two spatial dimensions through Newton's equation in order to probe a more varied set of potential obstacles.
Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant diferences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.