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Adipocytokines, which are secreted during fetal development by both mothers and fetuses, may influence fetal lung development, but little human data are available. We used data from the HOME Study to investigate the associations of cord blood adipocytokine concentrations with children’s lung forced expiratory volume (FEV1; N = 160) and their risk of wheeze (N = 281). We measured umbilical cord serum adipocytokine concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and FEV1 using a portable spirometer at ages 4 and 5 to calculate the percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1). Parents completed standardized questionnaires of their child’s wheeze symptoms every 6 months from birth to age 5, then again at ages 6 and 8. We used multivariable linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to estimate associations of adipocytokine concentrations (log2-transformed) with children’s %FEV1 and the risk of wheeze, respectively, adjusting for sociodemographic, perinatal, and child factors. Cord serum leptin was not associated with children’s %FEV1. Higher cord serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with higher %FEV1 in girls (β = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.6), but not in boys (β = −1.3, 95% CI: −5.9, 3.3) (sex × adiponectin p-value = 0.05). Higher leptin was associated with lower risk of wheeze in girls (RR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.84), but not boys (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.11) (sex × leptin p-value = 0.01). In contrast, higher adiponectin concentrations were associated with lower risk of wheeze (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96) in both boys and girls. These data suggest that fetal adipocytokines may impact lung development and function in early childhood. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore the mechanisms underlying these associations.
To determine the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) at a university hospital, the proportion of HCWs having non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH) who were anti-HCV positive, and the rate of HCV transmission following a HCV-positive needlestick injury.
Longitudinal analysis of a dynamic (cohort) population.
From 1980 through 1989, HCWs who had clinical NANBH were identified, and from 1987 through 1989, HCWs who reported a blood or body fluid exposure and the patients who were the source of the exposure were screened for antibodies to HCV.
A 732-bed, university hospital and outpatient clinics.
Over the 10-year period, six cases of occupationally acquired NANBH were observed, for an incidence of 21 cases per 100,000 HCWs per year (standardized incidence ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.83 to 4.36). Four of the six cases were confirmed to be HCV infection. From 1987 through 1989, 176 (12.7%) of 1,387 patients who were the source of an exposure were anti-HCV positive. Exposures that occurred in the emergency department were more likely to be anti-HCV positive than were exposures from all other locations (relative risk [RR] = 1.7; P= 0.009). Of HCWs who had an HCV-positive needlestick injury and whose serum had been tested for anti-HCV at least 5 months after the exposure, 3 (6.0%) of 50 seroconverted. From 1987 through 1989, the incidence of HCV infection among HCWs was 54 cases per 100,000 HCWs per year.
The incidence of clinical NANBH among HCWs in this study is approximately three times higher than that of non-HCWs. HCWs are at significant risk for exposure to and acquisition of HCV.
There are several goals of a hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis program. Prevention of clinical disease and carrier status in healthcare workers (HCW) is the primary goal. In addition, the uncommon incidence of staff transmitting hepatitis B infection (HBV) to patients should not continue with available methods of prevention. The prevention of disease is not only desirable from a public health standpoint, it is also needed to protect health centers from liability that may result from the occurrence of preventable diseases of occupational origin, such as HBV.
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