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The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Previous studies have suggested that long-chain n-3 fatty acids derived from seafood are associated with a lower risk of mortality, CHD and stroke. Whether α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3), a plant-derived long-chain essential n-3 fatty acid, is associated with a lower risk of these outcomes is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary ALA with the risk of mortality, CHD and stroke among older adults who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort study of adults aged ≥ 65 years. A total of 2709 participants were included in the plasma phospholipid ALA analysis and 2583 participants were included in the dietary ALA analysis. Cox regression was used to assess the associations of plasma phospholipid and dietary ALA with the risk of mortality, incident CHD and stroke. In minimally and multivariable-adjusted models, plasma phospholipid ALA was found to be not associated with the risk of mortality, incident CHD or stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, race, enrolment site, education, smoking status, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption, treated hypertension and total energy intake, higher dietary ALA intake was found to be associated with a lower risk of total and non-cardiovascular mortality; on comparing the highest quintiles of dietary ALA with the lowest quintiles, the HR for total mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality were found to be 0·73 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·88) and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·52, 0·80), respectively. Dietary ALA was found to be not associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality, incident CHD or stroke. In conclusion, the results of the present suggest study that dietary ALA, but not plasma phospholipid ALA, is associated with a lower risk of total and non-cardiovascular mortality in older adults.
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