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The INSYTE study provides an understanding of the management of Parkinson disease psychosis (PDP) in actual practice settings, including use of antipsychotic (APs) and their impact on clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes. Treatment paradigms or the benefits/consequences of various “real world” PDP treatment strategies have not been evaluated. Thus, providers may be using a wide range of AP treatment strategies that contrast with consensus recommendations.
The INSYTE study is enrolling up to 750 patients from up to 100 sites in the US. Data are compiled at the baseline (BL) visit and from standard-of-care follow up visits over 3 years. PDP treatment pathways are defined from 3 BL cohorts reflecting (1) no AP medication, (2) use of pimavanserin (PIM), or (3) other AP treatment. Information about APs used is collected at each follow-up visit: history, duration, dose, adjustment, and rationale for adjustment of treatment. Outcomes assessments (clinical, quality of life, disease burden) by the physician, patient, and caregiver are also collected. AP medication and outcomes data are analyzed for patients completing a BL and 1 follow up visit (FU1).
For 404 patients with BL and FU1 visits (mean 120.7 days from BL), 56.8% used no AP medications, 26.0% used PIM, and 13.6% used other APs at BL. The No Medication group was noted to be less severe in key BL disease parameters. Considering primary PDP treatments at BL and FU1 (including no treatment), 26 distinct pathways were being employed. 12.6% of patients had AP medication adjustments between BL and FU1 visits, most frequently from the non-PIM group. Adjustments of APs occurred in many forms: introduction of a single AP (64.7%%), introduction of multiple APs (5.9%), switching to another AP (3.9%), decreasing the number of APs (5.9%), and discontinuation (19.6%).
Multiple, divergent AP treatment strategies for PDP exist in actual practice. No identifiable BL characteristics correlated with the broad range of AP treatment pathways. The numerous distinct AP treatment pathways utilized (n=26) reflect discordance with the updated 2019 MDS evidence-based recommendations, which recognize only 2 APs as “efficacious” and “clinically useful”: pimavanserin and clozapine. Education of healthcare professionals remains a priority for PDP management.
Depression occurs in ~50% of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, increases in severity and duration as the disease progresses, and is associated with increased morbidity. Improvement of depression in PD patients is correlated with reduced physical disability and improved quality of life. We are assessing use of pimavanserin (PIM) for treatment of depression in adults with PD.
A Phase-2, 8-week, open-label, single-arm study is being conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PIM as an adjunct to SSRI/SNRI or as monotherapy in adults with both PD and symptoms of depression (baseline Hamilton Depression Scale [17-items] total score [HAMD-17] ≥15). The primary endpoint of the study is change from Baseline to Week 8 in the HAMD-17. Secondary measures included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales (improvement and severity) and Scales of Outcomes in PD-Sleep (SCOPA).
Interim results based on the first 34 of 40 planned patients have been evaluated: 55.9% of patients were male, and average age was 68.1 years, with 19 patients on adjunctive therapy and 15 on monotherapy. At baseline, patients had a mean (SE) HAMD-17 of 19.8(0.6). Change from Baseline to Week 8 (least squares mean [LSM] [SE]) in the HAMD-17 was –10.7(1.0) (95% CI; –12.7,–8.7; P<0.001), with significant improvement seen as early as Week 2 (–8.4[1.0]; 95% CI; –10.5,–6.4; P<0.001). Significant improvement was seen for both adjunctive treatment and monotherapy: 45.2% of patients responded to treatment (≥50% improvement on the HAMD-17) at Week 8, and 35.5% reached remission (HAMD-17 ≤7). On the Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement scale, 54.8% were much/very much improved at Week 8. Significant improvement was seen in change from Baseline to Week 8 SCOPA–Global Sleep Quality, –Nighttime Sleep, and –Daytime Sleepiness: –1.0(0.4) (95% CI; –1.7,–0.3; P=0.010), –2.1(0.7) (95% CI; –3.6,–0.6; P=0.008), –2.1(0.4) (95% CI; –3.0,–1.2; P<0.001) respectively. Twenty-one of the 34 enrolled patients have completed the study to date, and another 7 are still continuing. Thirteen patients reported adverse events, the most common being falls, UTI, diarrhea, and nausea.
These interim data suggest that PIM as adjunctive treatment or monotherapy is associated with early improvement of depressive symptoms in patients with PD and is well tolerated. This is consistent with recently reported data of PIM in major depressive disorder. Final data will be shared at the time of this presentation. However, additional placebo-controlled data will be needed to determine fully the efficacy of PIM in patients with comorbid PD and depression.
A planned subgroup analysis of a phase 3 study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pimavanserin (PIM) in Parkinson’s disease psychosis (PDP) patients withglobal cognitive impairment.
PDP is frequent, distressing, a leading cause of institutionalization, complicates PD management and is linked to increased morbidity, incident dementia and mortality. PIM, a selective serotonin receptor (5-HT2A) inverse agonist/antagonist, is newly FDA-approved for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PDP.
In Study 020, a 6-week FDA registration study, 199 patients with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥21, moderate-severe psychosis, and on stable PD meds, were randomized to PIM (34 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) for 6 weeks. This subgroup analysis evaluates efficacy and safety between two groups: those with MMSE total score ≥21 but <25 (cognitively impaired; equivalent to Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] score 15-19) and those with score ≥25 (cognitively normal; equivalent to MoCA score 20-30). Safety assessments were performed on the full safety dataset (i.e., three 6-week placebo-controlled studies) including 614 subjects (PIM=382, PBO=231).
Overall, patients in the PIM group experienced a statistically significant improvement in SAPS-PD scores from baseline to Day 43 compared with PBO (-5.79 vs. -2.73; p=0.001). In the subgroup analysis stratifying by baseline MMSE score, the change from baseline to Day 43 compared with PBO in the cognitively-impaired group (N=50) was numerically larger (-7.11 vs. -0.47; p=0.002). In the full safety dataset examining cognitively impaired patients, there were no between-group (PIM vs. PBO) differences in any treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) (57.6% vs. 56.1%) or serious TEAE (6.8% vs. 5.3%). The most common TEAEs occurring at ≥5% in either group were fall (7.4% vs.10.5%), confusional state (6.5% vs.1.8%), and orthostatic hypotension (0.0% vs. 8.8%).
In this subgroup analysis of PDP patients, the treatment effect of PIM on SAPS-PD was larger in the cognitively-impaired group, with similar TEAE and serious TEAE rates. These results hold promise for cognitively-impaired patients that will be further elucidated in future studies.
Clinical study was funded by ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Inc.