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Nitrate and nitrite are probable human carcinogens when ingested under conditions that increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds. There have been limited efforts to develop US databases of dietary nitrate and nitrite for standard FFQ. Here we describe the development of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database and its calibration.
We analysed data from a calibration study of 1942 members of the NIH–AARP (NIH–AARP, National Institutes of Health–AARP) Diet and Health Study who reported all foods and beverages consumed on the preceding day in two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) and completed an FFQ. Based on a literature review, we developed a database of nitrate and nitrite contents for foods reported on these 24HR and for food category line items on the FFQ. We calculated daily nitrate and nitrite intakes for both instruments, and used a measurement error model to compute correlation coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ-based intake estimates using 24HR-based values as reference data.
FFQ-based median nitrate intake was 68·9 and 74·1 mg/d, and nitrite intake was 1·3 and 1·0 mg/d, in men and women, respectively. These values were similar to 24HR-based intake estimates. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between FFQ- and 24HR-based values for men and women respectively were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·59 and 0·58 for nitrite; energy-adjusted attenuation factors were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·47 and 0·38 for nitrite.
The performance of the FFQ in assessing dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes is comparable to that for many other macro- and micronutrients.
Previous studies examining the role of single foods or nutrients in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have produced inconsistent findings. Few studies have examined associations for dietary patterns, which may more accurately reflect patterns of consumption and the complexity of dietary intake. The objective of the present study was to examine whether dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were associated with NHL risk.
Population-based sample residing in Nebraska from 1999 to 2002.
A total of 336 cases and 460 controls.
Factor analysis identified two major dietary patterns: (i) a ‘Meat, Fat and Sweets’ dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of French fries, red meat, processed meat, pizza, salty snacks, sweets and desserts, and sweetened beverages; and (ii) a ‘Fruit, Vegetables and Starch’ dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruit, fish, and cereals and starches. In multivariable logistic regression models, the ‘Meat, Fat and Sweets’ dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of overall NHL (ORQ4v.Q1 = 3·6, 95 % CI 1·9, 6·8; Ptrend = 0·0004), follicular lymphoma (ORQ4v.Q1 = 3·1, 95 % CI 1·2, 8·0; Ptrend = 0·01), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORQ4v.Q1 = 3·2, 95 % CI 1·1, 9·0; Ptrend = 0·09) and marginal zone lymphoma (ORQ4v.Q1 = 8·2, 95 % CI 1·3, 51·2; Ptrend = 0·05). No association with overall or subtype-specific risk was detected for the ‘Fruit, Vegetables and Starch’ dietary pattern. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected across strata of age, sex, BMI, smoking status or alcohol consumption.
Our results suggest that a dietary pattern high in meats, fats and sweets may be associated with an increased risk of NHL.
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