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We report a case of two-month old with a functionally univentricular heart and parallel circulation who presented to the emergency department with Covid-19 and subsequently developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. The course of illness, clinical values, and laboratory markers are characterized in this report.
In a global society experiencing an increasing shortage of qualified workers and the recognition that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be effective employees, there is an uptick in private sector initiatives to address employment needs through the recruitment of workers with ASD. A case study methodology with consensual qualitative research analysis was used to gain a rich understanding of employment of people with ASD at a medium-sized clothier in collaboration with a service provider for people with ASD. Perceptions of implementation and effectiveness were collected. Results suggest the hiring of people with ASD was positively perceived by employees. Components of this success included changes to the physical work environment, diversity training specific to individuals with disabilities, and a company climate of engaging and supporting employees with ASD. This research suggests that the collaborative initiative may prove a meaningful model for other companies interested in employing people with ASD.
Within global security governance, a number of governments monitor and label certain organizations as “terrorist groups” with the aim of curtailing their capacity. The most prominent example of this is the U.S. Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) list. Under what conditions is FTO listing an effective counterterrorism tool? We develop a theory of blacklisting in the context of FTOs, arguing that the impact of FTO designation depends on the types of support terrorist organizations rely on. We theorize that FTO blacklisting has capacity-curtailing effects on terrorist groups when funding sources are vulnerable to detection, sanctions, and stigmatization. Specifically, we hypothesize that groups with private funding (e.g. charities, diaspora networks) are more likely to reduce attacks after FTO designation, compared to groups with other funding sources such as criminal activities. Analysis of data on terrorist organizations between 1970 and 2014 takes into account the political processes of listing and provides support for the argument. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the nature of the target in evaluating the performance of global indicators.
Criminal groups often avoid the limelight, shunning publicity. However, in some instances, they overtly communicate, such as with banners or signs. This article explains the competition dynamics behind public criminal communication and provides theory and evidence of the conditions under which it emerges. Relying on a new dataset of approximately 1,800 banners publicly deployed by Mexican criminal groups from 2007 to 2010, the study identifies the conditions behind such messaging. The findings suggest that criminal groups “go public” in the presence of interorganizational contestation, violence from authorities, antagonism toward the local media, local demand for drugs, and local drug production. Some of these factors are associated only with communication toward particular audiences: rivals, the state, or the public. An interesting finding is that the correlates of criminal propaganda are sometimes distinct from those of criminal violence, suggesting that these phenomena are explained by separate dynamics.
This paper examines the stability of egocentric networks as reported over time using a novel touchscreen-based participant-aided sociogram. Past work has noted the instability of nominated network alters, with a large proportion leaving and reappearing between interview observations. To explain this instability of networks over time, researchers often look to structural embeddedness, namely the notion that alters are connected to other alters within egocentric networks. Recent research has also asked whether the interview situation itself may play a role in conditioning respondents to what might be the appropriate size and shape of a social network, and thereby which alters ought to be nominated or not. We report on change in these networks across three waves and assess whether this change appears to be the result of natural churn in the network or whether changes might be the result of factors in the interview itself, particularly anchoring and motivated underreporting. Our results indicate little change in average network size across waves, particularly for indirect tie nominations. Slight, significant changes were noted between waves one and two particularly among those with the largest networks. Almost no significant differences were observed between waves two and three, either in terms of network size, composition, or density. Data come from three waves of a Chicago-based panel study of young men who have sex with men.
Drug Safety Communications (DSCs) are used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to inform health care providers, patients, caregivers, and the general public about safety issues related to FDA-approved drugs. To assess patient knowledge of the messaging contained in DSCs related to the sleep aids zolpidem and eszopiclone, we conducted a large, cross-sectional patient survey of 1,982 commercially insured patients selected by stratified random sampling from the Optum Research Database who had filled at least two prescriptions for either zolpidem or eszopiclone between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. Among the 594 respondents (32.7% response rate), two-thirds reported hearing generally about drug safety information prior to starting a new drug, with the remaining one-third “rarely” or “never” hearing such information. Providers and pharmacists were primary sources of drug safety information. Two-thirds of zolpidem users and half of eszopiclone users reported having heard about the related DSC messages, ability to accurately identify the major factual messages was limited (overall median 2 correct out of 5, with men and those reporting higher educational level scoring higher [2/5 vs. 1/5, p=0.001]). Respondents reacted to new drug safety information about their sleep aids by reporting that they would want to learn about alternative ways to help them sleep (70%) and seek out more information about the safety of their specific sleeping pill (59-78%). Opportunities may exist for the FDA to work with providers and pharmacies to help ensure the DSC information is more widely received and is more fully understood by those taking the affected medications.
Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
Natural living conductive biofilms transport electrons between electrodes and cells, as well as among cells fixed within the film, catalyzing an array of reactions from acetate oxidation to CO2 reduction. Synthetic biology offers tools to modify or improve electron transport through biofilms, creating a new class of engineered living conductive materials. Engineered living conductive materials could be used in a range of applications for which traditional conducting polymers are not appropriate, including improved catalytic coatings for microbial fuel-cell electrodes, self-powered sensors for austere environments, and next-generation living components of bioelectronic devices that interact with the human microbiome.
The MESSENGER mission provided a wealth of discoveries regarding Mercury’s present and past magnetic field and completed the first-order characterization of the magnetic fields of the solar system’s inner planets. MESSENGER demonstrated that Mercury is the only inner planet other than Earth to possess a global magnetic field generated by fluid motions in its liquid iron core. The field possesses some similarities to that of Earth, particularly its dipolar nature, but it is more than a factor of 100 weaker at the surface and unlike Earth’s field is highly asymmetric about the geographic equator. This structure constrains the dynamo process that generates the field and in turn the compositional and thermal structure of Mercury’s interior. Measurements made by MESSENGER less than 100 km above the planetary surface revealed signatures of crustal magnetization, at least some of which were acquired in a very ancient global magnetic field. Electric currents flow in the planet’s interior as a result of the dynamic interactions of the global magnetic field with the solar wind. These currents provide information on the radius of Mercury’s electrically conductive core, as well as the conductivity structure of the crust and mantle, which in turn reflects interior composition and temperature.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Correlated climate patterns, dispersal, and similar management practices may synchronise dynamics of populations in close proximity, which tends to reduce metapopulation persistence. However, synchronising and desynchronising mechanisms can act at multiple spatial scales, which means that for wide-ranging species, patterns of spatial synchrony and their causes might vary across the species’ range. We examined the relationships of spatial autocorrelation in winter climate, dispersal distance and predator management to the spatio-temporal dynamics of the Western Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus nivosus, a threatened shorebird that breeds along the Pacific coast of the United States. We investigated how signals and drivers of plover population growth dynamics vary among populations occupying northern, central, and southern regions of the species’ U.S. range. Across the metapopulation and specifically the core of the species’ range in the south, we found that plover populations within 132 km of each other exhibited detectable levels of synchrony, which fell within published estimates of dispersal distance. Furthermore, similar predator management among sites increased the degree to which nearby populations were synchronised. There was, however, no evidence of spatial synchrony in populations of the northern and central regions. Regional differences in synchrony were associated with different population drivers and structure; prolonged cold periods had the strongest influence on the growth of northern populations while predator management had the strongest influence on southern populations. Northern populations were also smaller than the south, which likely reduced our ability to detect spatial synchrony because of increased demographic stochasticity. Neither climatic nor management variables had a detectable influence on central populations. Although the primary objective of threatened and endangered species management is to increase populations to viable levels, we recommend that conservation biologists and land managers acknowledge region-specific processes when considering the long-term persistence of wide-ranging species and coordinate inter-agency efforts to manage neighbouring populations effectively.
Our objective is to map dynamic provinces and investigate dynamic changes in Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland. We use an approach that combines structural glaciology and remote-sensing data analysis, facilitated by mathematical characterization of generalized spatial surface roughness that provides parameters related to ice dynamics, deformation and interaction of the ice with bed topography. The approach is applied to derive time series of elevation and roughness changes and to attribute changes during rapid retreat. Different dynamic types of fast- and slow-moving ice can be mapped from ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System data (2003–09) and Airborne Topographic Mapper data, using spatial roughness characterization, validated with ASTER and bed-topographic data. Results of comparative analysis of elevation changes and roughness changes of Jakobshavn south ice stream indicate (1) surface lowering of 10–15 m a-1 between 2004 and 2009 and (2) no change in surface roughness and dynamic types. These findings are consistent with a front retreat as part of a fjord-glacier cycle or following warming of fjord water and with climatic warming, but not with an internal dynamic acceleration as a cause of the observed changes during rapid retreat. Relationships to changes in basal water pressure are discussed. All glaciodynamic changes appear to have initiated near the front and propagated up-glacier.
Dynamic ice-sheet models are used to assess the contribution of mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise. Mass transfer from ice sheet to ocean is in a large part through outlet glaciers. Bed topography plays an important role in ice dynamics, since the acceleration from the slow-moving inland ice to an ice stream is in many cases caused by the existence of a subglacial trough or trough system. Problems are that most subglacial troughs are features of a scale not resolved in most ice-sheet models and that radar measurements of subglacial topography do not always reach the bottoms of narrow troughs. The trough-system algorithm introduced here employs mathematical morphology and algebraic topology to correctly represent subscale features in a topographic generalization, so the effects of troughs on ice flow are retained in ice-dynamic models. The algorithm is applied to derive a spatial elevation model of Greenland subglacial topography, integrating recently collected radar measurements (CReSIS data) of the Jakobshavn Isbræ, Helheim, Kangerdlussuaq and Petermann glacier regions. The resultant JakHelKanPet digital elevation model has been applied in dynamic ice-sheet modeling and sea-level-rise assessment.
Field experiments were conducted in grain sorghum at five locations in Kansas in 2009 and 2010, to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of early- to mid-POST (EMPOST) and late-POST (LPOST) applications of premixed pyrasulfotole and bromoxynil (PYRA&BROM) in tank mix combinations with atrazine or atrazine plus 2,4-D ester or dicamba compared to bromoxynil plus atrazine. PYRA&BROM at 244 or 300 g ai ha−1 plus atrazine at 560 g ai ha−1 applied EMPOST controlled pigweed species (Palmer amaranth, tumble pigweed, and redroot pigweed), kochia, velvetleaf, common sunflower, ivyleaf morningglory, and common lambsquarters 93% or greater. Puncturevine control among three locations ranged from 85 to 99%. Control of most weed species was not improved by increasing PYRA&BROM rate from 244 to 300 g ha−1 or by tank mixing 2,4-D or dicamba with PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. However, ivyleaf morningglory control was improved at the LPOST timing by adding 2,4-D or dicamba at 140 g ae ha−1. In no instance did any PYRA&BROM treatment provide greater weed control than bromoxynil plus atrazine at 281 + 560 g ha−1 when applied EMPOST, but in most instances PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective than bromoxynil plus atrazine when applied LPOST. Generally, PYRA&BROM treatments were more effective when applied EMPOST than LPOST, especially when 2,4-D or dicamba was added. PYRA&BROM plus atrazine treatments caused foliar bleaching in sorghum within 7 ± 3 d after treatment, but recovery was complete within 3 to 4 wk and grain yields were not reduced. Tank mixing dicamba with PYRA&BROM and atrazine occasionally reduced visible crop response compared to PYRA&BROM plus atrazine. Our results indicate that PYRA&BROM plus atrazine with or without 2,4-D or dicamba selectively controls several troublesome broadleaf weeds in grain sorghum. Foliar bleaching of sorghum leaves can occur but the symptoms are transient, and grain yields are not likely to be reduced.