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Horizontal density layers are commonly observed in stratified turbulence. Recent work (e.g. Taylor & Zhou, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 823, 2017, R5) has reinvigorated interest in the Phillips instability (PI), by which density layers form via negative diffusion if the turbulent buoyancy flux weakens as stratification increases. Theoretical understanding of PI is incomplete, in part because it remains unclear whether and by what mechanism the flux-gradient relationship for a given example of turbulence has the required negative-diffusion property. Furthermore, the difficulty of analysing the flux-gradient relation in evolving turbulence obscures the operating mechanism when layering is observed. These considerations motivate the search for an example of PI that can be analysed clearly. Here PI is shown to occur in two-dimensional Boussinesq sheared stratified turbulence maintained by stochastic excitation. PI is analysed using the second-order S3T closure of statistical state dynamics, in which the dynamics is written directly for statistical variables of the turbulence. The predictions of S3T are verified using nonlinear simulations. This analysis provides theoretical underpinning of PI based on the fundamental equations of motion that complements previous analyses based on phenomenological models of turbulence.
The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations suggests that patients suspected of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/minor stroke receive urgent brain imaging, preferably computed tomography angiography (CTA). Yet, high requisition rates for non-cerebrovascular patients overburden limited radiological resources, putting patients at risk. We hypothesize that our clinical decision support tool (CDST) developed for risk stratification of TIA in the emergency department (ED), and which incorporates Canadian guidelines, could improve CTA utilization.
Retrospective study design with clinical information gathered from ED patient referrals to an outpatient TIA unit in Victoria, BC, from 2015-2016. Actual CTA orders by ED and TIA unit staff were compared to hypothetical CTA ordering if our CDST had been used in the ED upon patient arrival.
For 1,679 referrals, clinicians ordered 954 CTAs. Our CDST would have ordered a total of 977 CTAs for these patients. Overall, this would have increased the number of imaged-TIA patients by 89 (10.1%) while imaging 98 (16.1%) fewer non-cerebrovascular patients over the 2-year period. Our CDST would have ordered CTA for 18 (78.3%) of the recurrent stroke patients in the sample.
Our CDST could enhance CTA utilization in the ED for suspected TIA patients, and facilitate guideline-based stroke care. Use of our CDST would increase the number of TIA patients receiving CTA before ED discharge (rather than later at TIA units) and reduce the burden of imaging stroke mimics in radiological departments.
Simulations of strongly stratified turbulence often exhibit coherent large-scale structures called vertically sheared horizontal flows (VSHFs). VSHFs emerge in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stratified turbulence with similar vertical structure. The mechanism responsible for VSHF formation is not fully understood. In this work, the formation and equilibration of VSHFs in a 2D Boussinesq model of stratified turbulence is studied using statistical state dynamics (SSD). In SSD, equations of motion are expressed directly in the statistical variables of the turbulent state. Restriction to 2D turbulence facilitates application of an analytically and computationally attractive implementation of SSD referred to as S3T, in which the SSD is expressed by coupling the equation for the horizontal mean structure with the equation for the ensemble mean perturbation covariance. This second-order SSD produces accurate statistics, through second order, when compared with fully nonlinear simulations. In particular, S3T captures the spontaneous emergence of the VSHF and associated density layers seen in simulations of turbulence maintained by homogeneous large-scale stochastic excitation. An advantage of the S3T system is that the VSHF formation mechanism, which is wave–mean flow interaction between the emergent VSHF and the stochastically excited large-scale gravity waves, is analytically understood in the S3T system. Comparison with fully nonlinear simulations verifies that S3T solutions accurately predict the scale selection, dependence on stochastic excitation strength, and nonlinear equilibrium structure of the VSHF. These results constitute a theory for VSHF formation applicable to interpreting simulations and observations of geophysical examples of turbulent jets such as the ocean’s equatorial deep jets.
Habeas Corpus in International Law is the first comprehensive examination of this subject. It looks at the location, scope, and significance of the right to a judicial determination of the legality of one's detention as guaranteed by international and regional human rights instruments. First, it examines the history of habeas corpus and its place in human rights treaties, providing a useful resource for understanding the status and application of this internationally-protected right. The book continues by identifying and analyzing the primary challenges to habeas corpus, in particular its applicability during armed conflict, the possibility of derogation, and its extraterritorial application and procedural shortcomings. The book next addresses the significance of habeas corpus guarantees not just in protecting personal liberty, but in promoting the international rule of law by serving as a unique check on executive action. Finally, it offers suggestions on how this right might be strengthened.