To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
All red rice found in commercial rice in the United States has traditionally been classified as Oryza sativa ssp. indica. This assumption was tested by analyzing red rice samples collected from across the southern United States rice belt with 18 simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers distributed across all 12 chromosomes. The results clearly demonstrate that the traditional classification of red rice is inadequate. Some red rice is closely related to O. sativa ssp. indica cultivated rice. However, other red rice is more closely related to O. sativa ssp. japonica. Most importantly, some red rice samples collected from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas form a distinct group that includes a number of Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon accessions from the National Small Grains Center. In particular, red rice samples from three states were identified that for all 18 markers are identical to the O. rufipogon accession IRGC 105491. These different classes of red rice are intermingled across the southern U.S. rice belt and within individual production fields. Oryza sativa ssp. indica-like red rice and O. rufipogon-like red rice have been found within a single 9-m2 collection site. While the classification of red rice as O. sativa ssp. indica, O. sativa ssp. japonica, or O. rufipogon using DNA markers is generally in agreement with classification based on simple morphological traits, readily observed morphological traits alone are not sufficient to reliably classify red rice. Because red rice is much more diverse than previously assumed, this diversity must be considered when developing red rice management strategies.
Objectives: It is widely believed that phonemic fluency is more difficult than naming exemplars from a semantic category. Normative data in this regard are scarce, and there is considerable disagreement in the literature regarding the pattern in normal ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Our objective was to provide normative data for semantic phonemic discrepancy scores from a large sample of older adults. Methods: A total of 5780 community-dwelling older adults were included in this prospective, longitudinal study. Discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting phonemic fluency score from semantic fluency score for each participant. Quantile regression was used to estimate normative values stratified for age. Results: Subjects did better on testing of semantic fluency. The average discrepancy score was 9.18±6.89 words, (range, −20 to 37; n=5780). At the fiftieth percentile, those in their fifth decade produced 10 more “animals” than “letter F” words. Subjects scored one word less per decade, with an average of seven more “animal” words produced by those in their eighth decade. Conclusions: Our study is the first to provide normative data and confirms that, for animal versus letter F fluency, the semantic advantage persists into later life in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. Given that a majority of clinical samples have confirmed a reverse of this pattern in Alzheimer’s dementia (i.e., loss of semantic advantage in Alzheimer’s disease, yielding a phonemic advantage), our findings support the clinical utility of brief fluency tests and encourage further research into their use in diagnosis and prediction of progression to dementia. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1–7)
The utterance It's raining (of great relevance to the Irish!) can have a variety of different meanings according to who says it, to whom one is talking, and where it is said, amongst other things. The fact that language in use (whether in spoken or written mode) is obviously much more than the sum of its constituent parts – the individual sounds that make up words, the combinations of words that create sentences or utterances, the meaning that can be derived from different words and combinations thereof – has been what has driven pragmatics as a discipline, from its origins in the philosophy of language. Initially, what drove the research agenda was the potential of words to perform acts, or speech act theory (Austin, 1962; Searle, 1969), and later, the complexities of the relationship between what is said and what is meant, the study of conversational implicatures (Grice, 1975) or ‘how people can understand one another beyond the literal words that are spoken’ (Eelen, 2001: 2). Pragmatics is now an inherently inter-disciplinary approach which has as its central orientation this study of, essentially, how speaker meaning is interpreted in context. Critical to interpretation is the concept of context itself, a complex and multi-layered notion involving cultural setting, speech situation and shared background assumptions (Goodwin and Duranti, 1992). Linguistic choices made by conversational participants can simultaneously encode situational indices of position and time, and interpersonal and cultural indices such as power, status, gender and age. Pragmatic research comprises a diverse range of research strands including how linguistic choices encode politeness (Brown and Levinson, 1987; Watts, 2003), reference and deixis (Levinson, 2004) and the relationship between domain specific discourse, such as workplace or media discourse, and specialised pragmatic characteristics (O'Keeffe, Clancy and Adolphs, 2011). Thus, pragmatics provides, as Christie (2000: 29) maintains, ‘a theoretical framework that can account for the relationship between the cultural setting, the language user, the linguistic choices the user makes, and the factors that underlie those choices’.
X-ray pulsars are the only accreting magnetic stars where rotation torques induced by accretion are large enough to be measured on short timescales ~ days. They are thus unique laboratories for studying the interaction between an accretion disk and a stellar magnetosphere. We describe 5 years of continuous pulsar timing observations by the BATSE instrument on GRO which paint a strikingly different picture of pulsar spin behavior than understood from the previous 20 years of sparse observations. In particular, we find that more than half of the persistent pulsars we observe undergo dramatic torque reversals, switching suddenly between extended periods of steady spin-up and steady spin-down. Moreover, variations in pulsed flux are anticorrelated with torque in at least one system undergoing secular spin-down, GX1+4. This behavior contradicts standard accretion torque theory (Ghosh and Lamb 1979). A simple – albeit unconventional – hypothesis which naturally explains these observations is that the disks in these systems somehow alternate between epochs of prograde and retrograde rotation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.