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To examine the global burden, associated point sources, and successful prevention and control measures for documented outbreaks of Burkholderia cepacia healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
A review of all outbreaks of Burkholderia cepacia HAIs published in the peer-reviewed literature between January 1970 and October 2019 was conducted to identify the global burden, associated point sources, and successful prevention and control measures using the Guidelines for Outbreak Reports and Intervention Studies of Nosocomial Infections (ORION).
In total, we reviewed 125 documented outbreaks of Burkholderia cepacia–related HAIs worldwide. The reported B. cepacia HAIs for this period involved 3,287 patients. The point sources were identified in most outbreaks of B. cepacia HAIs (n = 93; 74.4%); they included medication vials, disinfectants, and antiseptics. Moreover, 95 of the outbreak reports (76%) described effective prevention and control measures, but only 33 reports indicated the use of a combination of environment-, patient- and staff-related measures. None of the outbreak reports used the ORION guidelines.
Outbreaks of Burkholderia cepacia HAIs are an ongoing challenge. They are often associated with immunocompromised patients who acquire the infection from exposure to contaminated medications, products, and equipment. These outbreaks are not infrequent, and a range of infection prevention and control measures have been effective in arresting spread. The use of ORION guidelines for outbreak reporting would improve the quality of information and data to generate evidence for translation into practice.
To determine the effectiveness and ease of use of an electronic reminder device in reducing urinary catheterization duration.
A randomized controlled trial with a cross-sectional anonymous online survey and focus group.
Ten wards in an Australian hospital.
All hospitalized patients with a urinary catheter.
An electronic reminder system, the CATH TAG, applied to urinary catheter bags to prompt removal of urinary catheters.
Catheterization duration and perceptions of nurses about the ease of use.
A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the rate of removal of catheters. A phenomenological approach underpinned data collection and analysis methods associated with the focus group.
In total, 1,167 patients with a urinary catheter were included. The mean durations in control and intervention phases were 5.51 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–6.2) and 5.08 days (95% CI, 4.6–5.6), respectively. For patients who had a CATH TAG applied, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.91–1.14; P = .75). A subgroup analysis excluded patients in an intensive care unit (ICU), and the use of the CATH TAG was associated with a 23% decrease in the mean, from 5.00 days (95% CI, 4.44–5.56) to 3.84 days (95% CI, 3.47–4.21). Overall, 82 nurses completed a survey and 5 nurses participated in a focus group. Responses regarding the device were largely positive, and benefits for patient care were identified.
The CATH TAG did not reduce the duration of catheterization, but potential benefits in patients outside the ICU were identified. Electronic reminders may be useful to aid prompt removal of urinary catheters in the non-ICU hospital setting.
To examine tweeting activity, networks, and common topics mentioned on Twitter at 4 international infection control and infectious disease conferences.
A cross-sectional study.
An independent company was commissioned to undertake a Twitter ‘trawl’ each month between July 1, 2016, and November 31, 2016. The trawl identified any tweets that contained the official hashtags of the conferences for (1) the UK Infection Prevention Society, (2) IDWeek 2016, (3) the Federation of Infectious Society/Hospital Infection Society, and (4) the Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control. Topics from each tweet were identified, and an examination of the frequency and timing of tweets was performed. A social network analysis was performed to illustrate connections between users. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was developed to explore the predictors of ‘retweets.’
In total, 23,718 tweets were identified as using 1 of the 2 hashtags of interest. The results demonstrated that the most tweets were posted during the conferences. Network analysis demonstrated a diversity of twitter networks. A link to a web address was a significant predictor of whether a tweet would be retweeted (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–2.1). Other significant factors predicting a retweet included tweeting on topics such as Clostridium difficile (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7–2.4) and the media (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6–2.0). Tweets that contained a picture were significantly less likely to be retweeted (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.05–0.08).
Twitter is a useful tool for information sharing and networking at infection control conferences.
To explore the trends in infection control peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media, and blogs written by infection control professionals
Narrative and scoping reviews
Narrative and scoping reviews were performed to identify trending infection prevention and control topics from international journals, national news websites, newspapers, and so-called grey literature throughout 2015. Data were analyzed using word frequencies, and results are displayed in word clouds.
For 2015, our search identified 6 news websites with a total of published 116 articles, 71 articles from selected newspapers, and 214 publications from infection control websites. In total, 1,059 journal articles were initially identified; 98 articles were anonymous and thus were excluded, leaving 961 articles in the reviews. The terms ‘superbug’ and ‘antibiotics’ were most commonly used in titles of news websites and newspapers, whereas the terms ‘infection’ and ‘prevention’ were most commonly used in infection control websites or blogs. The word frequency differences among the 4 selected journals reflected their respective specialties.
In infection prevention and control, the integration of a range of mediums is necessary to best serve public interests. Whether the aim is advocacy, general health information dissemination, or warnings of imminent risk, health researchers have access to multiple forums with different strengths through which to influence public risk perceptions and responses.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1098–1102
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