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Many Aboriginal Australian communities are undergoing language shift from traditional Indigenous languages to contact varieties such as Kriol, an English-lexified Creole. Kriol is reportedly characterised by lexical items with highly variable phonological specifications, and variable implementation of voicing and manner contrasts in obstruents (Sandefur, 1986). A language, such as Kriol, characterised by this unusual degree of variability presents Kriol-acquiring children with a potentially difficult language-learning task, and one which challenges the prevalent theories of acquisition. To examine stop consonant acquisition in this unusual language environment, we present a study of Kriol stop and affricate production, followed by a mispronunciation detection study, with Kriol-speaking children (ages 4-7) from a Northern Territory community where Kriol is the lingua franca. In contrast to previous claims, the results suggest that Kriol-speaking children acquire a stable phonology and lexemes with canonical phonemic specifications, and that English experience would not appear to induce this stability.
Most current models of nonnative speech perception (e.g., extended perceptual assimilation model, PAM-L2, Best & Tyler, 2007; speech learning model, Flege, 1995; native language magnet model, Kuhl, 1993) base their predictions on the native/nonnative status of individual phonetic/phonological segments. This paper demonstrates that the phonotactic properties of Japanese influence the perception of natively contrasting consonants and suggests that phonotactic influence must be formally incorporated in these models. We first propose that by extending the perceptual categories outlined in PAM-L2 to incorporate sequences of sounds, we can account for the effects of differences in native and nonnative phonotactics on nonnative and cross-language segmental perception. In addition, we test predictions based on such an extension in two perceptual experiments. In Experiment 1, Japanese listeners categorized and rated vowel–consonant–vowel strings in combinations that either obeyed or violated Japanese phonotactics. The participants categorized phonotactically illegal strings to the perceptually nearest (legal) categories. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated the same strings in AXB discrimination tests. Our results show that Japanese listeners are more accurate and have faster response times when discriminating between legal strings than between legal and illegal strings. These findings expose serious shortcomings in currently accepted nonnative perception models, which offer no framework for the influence of native language phonotactics.
Failure analysis is important in determining root cause for appropriate corrective action. In order to perform failure analysis of microelectronic application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) delidding the device is often required. However, determining root cause from the front side is not always possible due to shadowing effects caused by the ASIC metal interconnects. Therefore, back-side polishing is used to reveal an unobstructed view of the ASIC silicon transistors. This paper details how back-side polishing in conjunction with laser-scanned imaging (LSI), laser voltage imaging (LVI), laser voltage probing (LVP), photon emission microscopy (PEM), and laser-assisted device alterations (LADA) were used to uncover the root cause of failure of two ASICs.
What is a complex predicate? There is currently no widely accepted answer to this question, no agreed set of criteria which allow an analyst to classify Construction A as a ‘complex predicate’, and Construction B as ‘not a complex predicate’. This volume does not pretend to offer the final definitive answer to this basic question, but it does aim to further delimit the range of possible answers.
The volume does this in two ways. First, it provides detailed data on constructions usually classified as ‘complex predicates’ in a range of languages from Australia, East Africa, Papua, South and Southeast Asia, and North America. In particular, it provides detailed data on a hitherto little described construction - the coverb construction.
Coverb constructions are common among Australian, East African, Iranian, and Oceanic languages. The construction involves two constituents: a coverb and a verb. Coverbs must be analysed as a distinct partof- speech class (Amberber, Baker, and Harvey 2007). They share some characteristics with verbs - they are inherently predicational and they are not derived from any other part of speech. However, they differ from verbs in being inherently non-finite.
The volume also aims to delimit the range of possible answers by providing a detailed examination of the mapping between complex predicates of various types and event structure, in the sense of Rappaport Hovav and Levin (1998). This is a central focus for all of the papers in the volume. This mapping has not previously been as prominent a focus of research.
The term ‘complex predicate’ has a wide usage, including, for example, serial verb constructions, light verb constructions, and particle + verb constructions, among others. An examination of the data provided by analysts in their discussions of complex predicates shows that monoclausality is the critical factor in determining whether a construction involves a complex predicate or not. Complex predicates are monoclausal structures involving two or more predicating morphemes. Butt (this volume) is explicit on this point.
[T]he term complex predicate is used to designate a construction that involves two or more predicational elements (such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives) which predicate as a single element, i.e. their arguments map onto a monoclausal syntactic structure.
We show that monoclausality as a criterion does not determine a unitary set of predicate structures. Rather, we show that there are two quite distinct ways of combining predicate information within monoclausal structures. We call one method ‘merger’ because the predicate information from the contributing constituents merges where they have common conceptual structure. This method produces predicate structures whose range classes with the range of predicate structures found in monomorphemic predicates. We propose that there are constraints on the conceptual structure of monomorphemic predicates which also apply to merger constructions. We discuss the constraints on monomorphemic predicates in Section 2.4.
We call the other method ‘coindexation’ because relations among the contributing predicates are constrained only by a requirement that some of their arguments must be coindexed. This method produces multi-predicate structures whose range classes with multi-clausal structures.
Complex predicates are multipredicational, but monoclausal structures. They have proven problematic for linguistic theory, particularly for proposed distinctions between the lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This volume focuses on the mapping from morphosyntactic structures to event structure, and in particular the constraints on possible mappings. The volume showcases the 'coverb construction', a complex predicate construction which, though widespread, has received little attention in the literature. The coverb construction contrasts with more familiar serial verb constructions. The coverb construction generally maps only to event structures like those of monomorphemic verbs, whereas serial verb constructions map to a range of event structures differing from those of monomorphemic verbs. The volume coverage is truly cross-linguistic, including languages from Australia, Papua New Guinea, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, East Africa and North America. The volume establishes a new arena of research in event structure, syntax, and cross-linguistic typology.
We present the results of a systematic benchmarking study, using 45nm-groundrule structures, of a commercially-available ionized PVD Cu technology which employs an in-situ Ar+ radio-frequency (Rf) plasma capability for enhanced coverage, and compare its performance and extendibility against the same seedlayer process operated in conventional low-pressure mode. Studies of single-damascene lines and dual-damascene via structures indicate that the PVD Cu seedlayer with Rf-Plasma enhancement enables a reduction of the PVD Cu seed thickness on the order of 35%, based on studies of Cu voiding, via-yield degradation, and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). These results illustrate the critical importance of the Rf-plasma resputter capability in extending the PVD Cu process to advanced groundrules at 45nm and beyond.
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