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To compare people with diabetes developing severe mental illness (SMI) to those with diabetes alone with respect to risk status, diabetes care receipt, and diabetes-relevant outcomes in primary care.
Data from mental health care (Clinical Record Interactive Search; CRIS) linked to primary care (Lambeth DataNet; LDN) were used. From patients with a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis in primary care, those with a new SMI diagnosis were matched (by age, gender, and practice) with up to five randomly selected controls. Mixed models were used to estimate associations with trajectories of recorded HbA1c levels; Poisson regression models compared total and cardiovascular comorbidity levels and number of diabetes complications; linear regression models compared BMI and total cholesterol levels; conditional logistic regression models investigated microalbuminuria, receipt of a foot or retinal examination, use of statins and receipt of insulin; Cox proportional hazards were used to model incident microvascular and macrovascular events, foot morbidity and mortality.
In a cohort of 693 cases with SMI (122 bipolar disorder, 571 schizophrenia and related) and T2DM compared to 3366 controls, all-cause mortality was increased substantially in the cohort with SMI (adjusted hazard ratio 4.52, 95% CI 3.73–5.47; for bipolar 5.59, 3.37–9.28; for schizophrenia 4.42, 3.60–5.44). However, for all the other outcome comparisons, the only significant findings were of reduced foot examination (adjusted odds ratio 0.75, 0.54–0.98) and reduced retinal screening (0.77, 0.61–0.96).
Higher mortality suggests increased risk of adverse outcomes for people with pre-existing T2DM who develop SMI, and reduced foot/retinal examinations suggest disadvantaged healthcare receipt. However, other potential explanations for the mortality difference could not be identified from the outcomes analysed, so further investigation is needed into underlying causal pathways.
People with serious mental illness (SMI) experience higher mortality partially attributable to higher long-term condition (LTC) prevalence. However, little is known about multiple LTCs (MLTCs) clustering in this population.
People from South London with SMI and two or more existing LTCs aged 18+ at diagnosis were included using linked primary and mental healthcare records, 2012–2020. Latent class analysis (LCA) determined MLTC classes and multinominal logistic regression examined associations between demographic/clinical characteristics and latent class membership.
The sample included 1924 patients (mean (s.d.) age 48.2 (17.3) years). Five latent classes were identified: ‘substance related’ (24.9%), ‘atopic’ (24.2%), ‘pure affective’ (30.4%), ‘cardiovascular’ (14.1%), and ‘complex multimorbidity’ (6.4%). Patients had on average 7–9 LTCs in each cluster. Males were at increased odds of MLTCs in all four clusters, compared to the ‘pure affective’. Compared to the largest cluster (‘pure affective’), the ‘substance related’ and the ‘atopic’ clusters were younger [odds ratios (OR) per year increase 0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.00) and 0.96 (0.95–0.97) respectively], and the ‘cardiovascular’ and ‘complex multimorbidity’ clusters were older (ORs 1.09 (1.07–1.10) and 1.16 (1.14–1.18) respectively). The ‘substance related’ cluster was more likely to be White, the ‘cardiovascular’ cluster more likely to be Black (compared to White; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10–2.79), and both more likely to have schizophrenia, compared to other clusters.
The current study identified five latent class MLTC clusters among patients with SMI. An integrated care model for treating MLTCs in this population is recommended to improve multimorbidity care.
Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies.
PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof.
Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1β, are associated with depression.
These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.
People with psychosis experience cardiometabolic comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and diabetes. These physical comorbidities have been linked to diet, inactivity and the effects of the illness itself, including disorganisation, impairments in global function and amotivation associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia or co-morbid depression.
We aimed to describe the dietary intake, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour patterns of a sample of patients with established psychosis participating in the Improving Physical Health and Reducing Substance Use in Severe Mental Illness (IMPaCT) randomised controlled trial, and to explore the relationship between these lifestyle factors and mental health symptomatology.
A majority of participants had poor dietary quality, low in fruit and vegetables and high in discretionary foods. Only 29.3% completed ⩾150 min of moderate and/or vigorous activity per week and 72.2% spent ⩾6 h per day sitting. Cross-sectional associations between negative symptoms, global function, and PA and sedentary behaviour were observed. Additionally, those with more negative symptoms receiving IMPaCT therapy had fewer positive changes in PA from baseline to 12-month follow-up than those with fewer negative symptoms at baseline.
These results highlight the need for the development of multidisciplinary lifestyle and exercise interventions to target eating habits, PA and sedentary behaviour, and the need for further research on how to adapt lifestyle interventions to baseline mental status. Negative symptoms in particular may reduce patient's responses to lifestyle interventions.
High intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve a range of physical and mental health outcomes among people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). However, there is limited data on patients’ reported attitudes towards HIIT and its implementation within inpatient settings, and there remains an absence of data on attitudes towards HIIT from informal family carers of service users and healthcare professionals, who both have key roles to play in facilitating recovery outcomes in service users. This study sought to qualitatively investigate, in inpatients with SMI, carer and staff groups, perspectives on implementing HIIT interventions for patient groups in inpatient settings.
Seven focus groups and one individual interview were conducted. These included three focus groups held with inpatients with SMI (n = 12), two held with informal carers (n = 15), and two held with healthcare professionals working in inpatient settings (n = 11). An additional individual interview was conducted with one patient participant. The focus group schedule comprised open- ended questions designed to generate discussion and elicit opinions surrounding the introduction of HIIT on inpatient mental health wards. Data were subject to a thematic analysis.
Two key themes emerged from the data, across all participants, that reflected the ‘Positivity’ in the application of HIIT interventions in psychiatric inpatient settings with beliefs that it would help patients feel more relaxed, build their fitness, and provide a break from the monotony of ward environment. Moreover, the short length of HIIT sessions was deemed appealing to mitigate against difficulties that many inpatients can experience with motivation, interest and attention, and was considered to be more appealing than more lengthy forms of exercise, which may require greater physical exertion. The second theme related to ‘Implementation concerns’, that reflected subthemes about i) low patient motivation, particularly with older participants, those administered many medications, and for those with less positive memories of exercise ii) patient safety, including concerns surrounding the intensity of HIIT and inclusion of patients with physical health comorbidities and iii) practical logistical factors, including having access to the right sports clothing and staff availability to supervise HIIT.
HIIT for inpatients with SMI was actively endorsed by patients, carers and healthcare professionals. Patient safety and baseline motivation levels, and practical service considerations were all noted as potential barriers to successful implementation and are worth considering in preparation for trialing a new intervention.
People living with serious mental illness (SMI) experience debilitating symptoms that worsen their physical health and quality of life. Regular physical activity (PA) may bring symptomatic improvements and enhance wellbeing. When undertaken in community-based group settings, PA may yield additional benefits such as reduced isolation. Initiating PA can be difficult for people with SMI, so PA engagement is commonly low. Designing acceptable and effective PA programs requires a better understanding of the lived experiences of PA initiation among people with SMI.
This systematic review of qualitative studies used the meta-ethnography approach by Noblit and Hare (1988). Electronic databases were searched from inception to November 2017. Eligible studies used qualitative methodology; involved adults (≥18 years) with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder, or psychosis; reported community-based group PA; and captured the experience of PA initiation, including key features of social support. Study selection and quality assessment were performed by four reviewers.
Sixteen studies were included in the review. We identified a “journey” that depicted a long sequence of phases involved in initiating PA. The journey demonstrated the thought processes, expectations, barriers, and support needs of people with SMI. In particular, social support from a trusted source played an important role in getting people to the activity, both physically and emotionally.
The journey illustrated that initiation of PA for people with SMI is a long complex transition. This complex process needs to be understood before ongoing participation in PA can be addressed. Registration—The review was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 22/03/2017 (registration number CRD42017059948).
The aim of this study was to explore associations between internet/email use in a large sample of older English adults with their social isolation and loneliness. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 8 were used, with complete data available for 4,492 men and women aged ⩾ 50 years (mean age = 64.3, standard deviation = 13.3; 51.7% males). Binomial logistic regression was used to analyse cross-sectional associations between internet/email use and social isolation and loneliness. The majority of older adults reported using the internet/email every day (69.3%), fewer participants reported once a week (8.5%), once a month (2.6%), once every three months (0.7%), less than every three months (1.5%) and never (17.4%). No significant associations were found between internet/email use and loneliness, however, non-linear associations were found for social isolation. Older adults using the internet/email either once a week (odds ratio (OR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49–0.72) or once a month (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45–0.80) were significantly less likely to be socially isolated than every day users; those using internet/email less than once every three months were significantly more likely to be socially isolated than every day users (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.28–6.40). Once every three months and never users showed no difference in social isolation compared with every day users. Weak associations were found between different online activities and loneliness, and strong associations were found with social isolation. The study updated knowledge of older adults’ internet/email habits, devices used and activities engaged in online. Findings may be important for the design of digital behaviour change interventions in older adults, particularly in groups at risk of or interventions targeting loneliness and/or social isolation.
The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk.
We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis.
This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months.
Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol).
Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.
Reducing hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS) in hospital following first episode psychosis (FEP) is important, yet reliable measures of these outcomes and their moderators are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the proportion of FEP cases who were hospitalised after their first contact with services and the LOS in a hospital during follow-up.
Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to October 2017. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted.
81 longitudinal studies encompassing data for 23 280 FEP patients with an average follow-up length of 7 years were included. 55% (95% CI 50.3–60.5%) of FEP cases were hospitalised at least once during follow-up with the pooled average LOS of 116.7 days (95% CI 95.1–138.3). Older age of illness onset and being in a stable relationship were associated with a lower proportion of people who were hospitalised. While the proportion of hospitalised patients has not decreased over time, LOS has, with the sharpest reduction in the latest time period. The proportion of patients hospitalised during follow-up was highest in Australia and New Zealand (78.4%) compared to Europe (58.1%) and North America (48.0%); and lowest in Asia (32.5%). Black ethnicity and longer duration of untreated psychosis were associated with longer LOS; while less severe psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with shorter LOS.
One in two FEP cases required hospitalisation at least once during a 7-year follow-up with an average length of hospitalisation of 4 months during this period. LOS has declined over time, particularly in those countries in which it was previously longest.
Sedentary behaviour can be associated with poor mental health, but it remains unclear whether all types of sedentary behaviour have equivalent detrimental effects.
To model the potential impact on depression of replacing passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours and with light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. An additional aim was to explore these relationships by self-report data and clinician diagnoses of depression.
In 1997, 43 863 Swedish adults were initially surveyed and their responses linked to patient registers until 2010. The isotemporal substitution method was used to model the potential impact on depression of replacing 30 min of passive sedentary behaviour with equivalent durations of mentally active sedentary behaviour, light physical activity or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Outcomes were self-reported depression symptoms (cross-sectional analyses) and clinician-diagnosed incident major depressive disorder (MDD) (prospective analyses).
Of 24 060 participants with complete data (mean age 49.2 years, s.d. 15.8, 66% female), 1526 (6.3%) reported depression symptoms at baseline. There were 416 (1.7%) incident cases of MDD during the 13-year follow-up. Modelled cross-sectionally, replacing 30 min/day of passive sedentary behaviour with 30 min/day of mentally active sedentary behaviour, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous activity reduced the odds of depression symptoms by 5% (odds ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97), 13% (odds ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–1.00) and 19% (odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.93–0.90), respectively. Modelled prospectively, substituting 30 min/day of passive with 30 min/day of mentally active sedentary behaviour reduced MDD risk by 5% (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99); no other prospective associations were statistically significant.
Substituting passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours, light activity or moderate-to-vigorous activity may reduce depression risk in adults.
The elderly population and numbers of nursing homes residents are growing at a rapid pace globally. Uncertainty exists regarding the actual rates of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as previous evidence documenting high rates relies on suboptimal methodology.
To carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and correlates of MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorder among nursing homes residents without dementia.
Major electronic databases were systematically searched from 1980 to July 2017 for original studies reporting on the prevalence and correlates of MDD among nursing homes residents without dementia. The prevalence of MDD in this population was meta-analysed through random-effects modelling and potential sources of heterogeneity were examined through subgroup/meta-regression analyses.
Across 32 observational studies encompassing 13 394 nursing homes residents, 2110 people were diagnosed with MDD, resulting in a pooled prevalence rate of 18.9% (95% CI 14.8–23.8). Heterogeneity was high (I2 = 97%, P≤0.001); no evidence of publication bias was observed. Sensitivity analysis indicated the highest rates of MDD among North American residents (25.4%, 95% CI 18–34.5, P≤0.001). Prevalence of either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia spectrum disorder could not be reliably pooled because of the paucity of data.
MDD is highly prevalent among nursing homes residents without dementia. Efforts towards prevention, early recognition and management of MDD in this population are warranted.
Severe mental illness (SMI) is thought to be associated with lower diet quality and adverse eating behaviours contributing towards physical health disparities. A rigorous review of the studies looking at dietary intake in psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder is lacking.
To conduct a systematic, comprehensive evaluation of the published research on dietary intake in psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder.
Six electronic databases were searched for studies reporting on dietary intakes in psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder. Dietary-assessment methods, and dietary intakes, were systematically reviewed. Where possible, data was pooled for meta-analysis and compared with healthy controls.
In total, 58 eligible studies were identified. People with SMI were found to have significantly higher dietary energy (mean difference 1332 kJ, 95% CI 487–2178 kJ/day, P = 0.002, g = 0.463) and sodium (mean difference 322 mg, 95% CI 174–490 mg, P < 0.001, g = 0.414) intake compared with controls. Qualitative synthesis suggested that higher energy and sodium intakes were associated with poorer diet quality and eating patterns.
These dietary components should be key targets for preventative interventions to improve weight and other physical health outcomes in people with SMI.
Declaration of interest
S.B.T. and E.T. have clinical dietitian appointments within the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District and do not receive any further funding.
Our aim was to summarize the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate in schizophrenia.
We undertook a systematic review, searching PubMed/Scopus/Clinicaltrials.gov for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of psychostimulants or atomoxetine in schizophrenia published up to 1 January 2017. A meta-analysis of outcomes reported in two or more studies is presented.
We included 22 studies investigating therapeutic effects of stimulants (k=14) or measuring symptomatic worsening/relapse prediction after stimulant challenge (k=6). Six studies of these two groups plus one additional study investigated biological effects of psychostimulants or atomoxetine. No effect resulted from interventional studies on weight loss (k=1), smoking cessation (k=1), and positive symptoms (k=12), and no improvement was reported with atomoxetine (k=3) for negative symptoms, with equivocal findings for negative (k=6) and mood symptoms (k=2) with amphetamines. Attention, processing speed, working memory, problem solving, and executive functions, among others, showed from no to some improvement with atomoxetine (k=3) or amphetamines (k=6). Meta-analysis did not confirm any effect of stimulants in any symptom domain, including negative symptoms, apart from atomoxetine improving problem solving (k=2, standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.73, 95% CI=0.10–1.36, p=0.02, I2=0%), and trending toward significant improvement in executive functions with amphetamines (k=2, SMD=0.80, 95% CI=−1.68 to +0.08, p=0.08, I2=66%). In challenge studies, amphetamines (k=1) did not worsen symptoms, and methylphenidate (k=5) consistently worsened or predicted relapse. Biological effects of atomoxetine (k=1) and amphetamines (k=1) were cortical activation, without change in β-endorphin (k=1), improved response to antipsychotics after amphetamine challenge (k=2), and an increase of growth hormone–mediated psychosis with methylphenidate (k=2). No major side effects were reported (k=6).
No efficacy for stimulants or atomoxetine on negative symptoms is proven. Atomoxetine or amphetamines may improve cognitive symptoms, while methylphenidate should be avoided in patients with schizophrenia. Insufficient evidence is available to draw firm conclusions.
Background: Evidence suggests that cannabis use may be associated with suicidality in adolescence. Nevertheless, very few studies have assessed this association in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this cross-sectional survey, we investigated the association of cannabis use and suicidal attempts in adolescents from 21 LMICs, adjusting for potential confounders.
Method: Data from the Global school-based Student Health Survey was analyzed in 86,254 adolescents from 21 countries [mean (SD) age = 13.7 (0.9) years; 49.0% girls]. Suicide attempts during past year and cannabis during past month and lifetime were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Results: The overall prevalence of past 30-day cannabis use was 2.8% and the age-sex adjusted prevalence varied from 0.5% (Laos) to 37.6% (Samoa), while the overall prevalence of lifetime cannabis use was 3.9% (range 0.5%–44.9%). The overall prevalence of suicide attempts during the past year was 10.5%. Following multivariable adjustment to potential confounding variables, past 30-day cannabis use was significantly associated with suicide attempts (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42–2.91). Lifetime cannabis use was also independently associated with suicide attempts (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.74–3.04).
Conclusion: Our data indicate that cannabis use is associated with a greater likelihood for suicide attempts in adolescents living in LMICs. The causality of this association should be confirmed/refuted in prospective studies to further inform public health policies for suicide prevention in LMICs.
Despite the benefits of being active for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on cognition and the acknowledgement that MCI is a critical period for intervening to prevent dementia, little is known about the actual sedentary levels in people with MCI. This study investigates correlates of sedentary behavior (SB) in people with MCI.
This was a cross-sectional study.
Data from the World Health Organization’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed.
Individuals aged ≥50 years with MCI were included.
SB was assessed by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations between SB levels and the correlates were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regressions.
4,082 individuals aged ≥50 years with MCI (64.4 ± 17.0 years; 55.1% female) were included. The prevalence of high SB (i.e., ≥8 hours/day) was 14.0% (95%CI = 12.2%–16.0%), while the time spent sedentary was 262 ± 290 minutes/day. Correlates significantly associated with being sedentary ≥8 hours/day and time spent sedentary per day were, older age, being unemployed, depression, sleep problems, obesity (vs. normal weight), diabetes, stroke, poor self-rated health, and lower levels of social cohesion.
Future research exploring interventions to reduce SB in people with MCI should target the identified sociodemographic and mental and physical health correlates, while the promotion of social cohesion may have the potential to increase the efficacy of future public health initiatives.
Exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and reduces depressive symptoms in people with depression. It is unclear if changes in CRF are a predictor of the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with depression.
To investigate whether an increase in CRF is a predictor of depression severity reduction after 12 weeks of exercise (trial registration: DRKS study ID, DRKS00008745).
The present study includes participants who took part in vigorous (n = 33), moderate (n = 38) and light (n = 39) intensity exercise and had CRF information (as predicted maximal oxygen uptake, V̇O2max) collected before and after the intervention. Depression severity was measured with the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). V̇O2max (L/min) was assessed with the Åstrand–Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. The main analysis was conducted pooling all exercise intensity groups together.
All exercise intensities improved V̇O2max in people with depression. Regardless of frequency and intensity of exercise, an increase in post-treatment V̇O2max was significantly associated with reduced depression severity at follow-up (B = −3.52, 95% CI −6.08 to −0.96); adjusting for intensity of exercise, age and body mass index made the association stronger (B = −3.89, 95% CI −6.53 to −1.26). Similarly, increased V̇O2max was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22–11.43) of exercise treatment response (≥50% reduction in MADRS score) at follow-up.
Our data suggest that improvements in V̇O2max predict a greater reduction in depression severity among individuals who were clinically depressed. This finding indicates that improvements in V̇O2max may be a marker for the underpinning biological pathways for the antidepressant effect of exercise.
Physical activity (PA) may be therapeutic for people with severe mental illness (SMI) who generally have low PA and experience numerous life style-related medical complications. We conducted a meta-review of PA interventions and their impact on health outcomes for people with SMI, including schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. We searched major electronic databases until January 2018 for systematic reviews with/without meta-analysis that investigated PA for any SMI. We rated the quality of studies with the AMSTAR tool, grading the quality of evidence, and identifying gaps, future research needs and clinical practice recommendations. For MDD, consistent evidence indicated that PA can improve depressive symptoms versus control conditions, with effects comparable to those of antidepressants and psychotherapy. PA can also improve cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life in people with MDD, although the impact on physical health outcomes was limited. There were no differences in adverse events versus control conditions. For MDD, larger effect sizes were seen when PA was delivered at moderate-vigorous intensity and supervised by an exercise specialist. For schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, evidence indicates that aerobic PA can reduce psychiatric symptoms, improves cognition and various subdomains, cardiorespiratory fitness, whilst evidence for the impact on anthropometric measures was inconsistent. There was a paucity of studies investigating PA in bipolar disorder, precluding any definitive recommendations. No cost effectiveness analyses in any SMI condition were identified. We make multiple recommendations to fill existing research gaps and increase the use of PA in routine clinical care aimed at improving psychiatric and medical outcomes.