To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Adolescence is a key developmental period for the emergence of psychiatric disorders. However, there is still no consensus on the core mechanisms of dysfunction in youth. Neurobiological sensitivity to unpredictable threat has been associated with several psychiatric disorders in adults. The present study examined adolescent defensive motivation (startle reflex) and attention (event-related potentials) in anticipation of unpredictable threat in relation to both adolescent and maternal (i.e. familial risk) internalizing and externalizing spectra.
The sample included 395 15-year-old adolescents and their biological mothers. Adolescent startle potentiation and probe P300 suppression (indicating increased attention to threat) were measured in anticipation of predictable and unpredictable threat. Adolescent and maternal lifetime history of psychiatric disorders were assessed via semi-structured diagnostic interviews, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to model internalizing and externalizing spectra.
The adolescent internalizing spectrum was positively associated with adolescent startle potentiation and probe P300 suppression to unpredictable threat. Conversely, the adolescent externalizing spectrum was negatively associated with adolescent P300 suppression to unpredictable threat. The maternal internalizing spectrum was positively associated with adolescent startle potentiation to unpredictable threat and P300 suppression to both predictable and unpredictable threat. The maternal externalizing spectrum was negatively associated with adolescent startle potentiation to unpredictable threat and P300 suppression to both predictable and unpredictable threat. Adolescent and maternal internalizing and externalizing spectra were independently related to adolescent startle potentiation and P300 suppression.
Adolescent neurobiological sensitivity to unpredictable threat is associated with both personal history and familial risk for the internalizing and externalizing spectra.
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.
The coronavirus [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] pandemic has introduced extraordinary life changes and stress, particularly in adolescents and young adults. Initial reports suggest that depression and anxiety are elevated during COVID-19, but no prior study has explored changes at the within-person level. The current study explored changes in depression and anxiety symptoms from before the pandemic to soon after it first peaked in Spring 2020 in a sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 451) living in Long Island, New York, an early epicenter of COVID-19 in the U.S.
Depression (Children's Depression Inventory) and anxiety symptoms (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Symptoms) were assessed between December 2014 and July 2019, and, along with COVID-19 experiences, symptoms were re-assessed between March 27th and May 15th, 2020.
Across participants and independent of age, there were increased generalized anxiety and social anxiety symptoms. In females, there were also increased depression and panic/somatic symptoms. Multivariable linear regression indicated that greater COVID-19 school concerns were uniquely associated with increased depression symptoms. Greater COVID-19 home confinement concerns were uniquely associated with increased generalized anxiety symptoms, and decreased social anxiety symptoms, respectively.
Adolescents and young adults at an early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. experienced increased depression and anxiety symptoms, particularly amongst females. School and home confinement concerns related to the pandemic were independently associated with changes in symptoms. Overall, this report suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic is having multifarious adverse effects on the mental health of youth.
Little is known about the effect of natural disasters on children's neural development. Additionally, despite evidence that stress and parenting may both influence the development of neural systems underlying reward and threat processing, few studies have brought together these areas of research. The current investigation examined the effect of parenting styles and hurricane-related stress on the development of neural reactivity to reward and threat in children. Approximately 8 months before and 9 months after Hurricane Sandy, 74 children experiencing high and low levels of hurricane-related stress completed tasks that elicited the reward positivity and error-related negativity, event-related potentials indexing sensitivity to reward and threat, respectively. At the post-Hurricane assessment, children completed a self-report questionnaire to measure promotion- and prevention-focused parenting styles. Among children exposed to high levels of hurricane-related stress, lower levels of promotion-focused, but not prevention-focused, parenting were associated with a reduced post-Sandy reward positivity. In addition, in children with high stress exposure, greater prevention-focused, but not promotion-focused, parenting was associated with a larger error-related negativity after Hurricane Sandy. These findings highlight the need to consider contextual variables such as parenting when examining how exposure to stress alters the development of neural reactivity to reward and threat in children.
Researchers have long been interested in whether particular temperamental traits in childhood connote risk for depressive disorders. For example, children characterized as having high negative emotionality (NE; sadness, fear, anger) and low positive emotionality (PE; anhedonia, listlessness, and lack of enthusiasm) are hypothesized to be at risk for depression. Few studies, however, have examined whether (and how) these two temperamental dimensions interact to confer risk. In a sample of 329 preschoolers, the present study addressed this question by examining the relation between PE and NE and asymmetry in resting EEG activity in frontal and posterior regions, which are putative biomarkers for depression. Using a laboratory battery to define temperament, we found an interaction of PE and NE on posterior asymmetry. Specifically, when PE was high, NE was associated with greater relative right activity. When PE was low, NE was not related to posterior asymmetry. These results were driven by differences in EEG activity in right posterior regions, an area associated with emotional processing and arousal, and were specific to girls. We found no relation between temperament and frontal asymmetry. These findings suggest that, at least for girls, PE and NE may have an interactive effect on risk for depression.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.