To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Weed management in cantaloupe and other melon crops is important to maximize fruit yield; however, there are few registered herbicides available in California. Several independent herbicide trials were conducted at University of California field stations in Davis (Yolo County), Five Points (Fresno County), and Holtville (Imperial County) from 2013 to 2019 to evaluate both registered and unregistered herbicides and incorporation methods (sprinklers, cultivation, or none) for crop safety and weed control in melons. Although specific treatments varied among locations depending on local practice and research objectives, ethalfluralin and halosulfuron were used in all experiments, and bensulide and S-metolachlor were evaluated in 4 of 6 site-years. Additional herbicides included clethodim, clomazone, DCPA, napropamide, pendimethalin, sethoxydim, and sulfentrazone. Among registered herbicides, halosulfuron, halosulfuron + ethalfluralin, and ethalfluralin + bensulide combinations provided consistently beneficial weed control across all site-years compared to the nontreated control. S-metolachlor performed as well as the best of the registered herbicides tested at each site-year; although moderate injury was noted at the Davis location, this did not reduce melon yield. The method used to incorporate preplant herbicides had a significant impact on weed control efficacy but varied by location. Mechanical incorporation of preplant herbicides resulted in improved weed control and yield compared to sprinklers. Early-season weed control, whether by herbicides or hand weeding, resulted in significant yield increase in most site-years.
California is the top producer of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] worldwide, generating more than $6 billion in revenue in 2020; the European Union (EU) is the primary importer of California almonds. Weed control in almond orchards is an important part of the preharvest process, because weeds can interfere with harvest equipment and host diseases. Glyphosate and glufosinate are broad-spectrum herbicides commonly used for preharvest weed control. Global differences in maximum residue limits (MRLs) and regulated compounds can pose a challenge for growers who rely on broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate and glufosinate for preharvest weed control. The EU MRL for glyphosate and total glufosinate is currently 0.1 mg kg−1. The U.S. MRL for total glyphosate is 1 mg kg−1, and total glufosinate is 0.5 mg kg−1. An 8-wk field experiment, from spray to harvest, was conducted in an 8-ha commercial orchard to evaluate the potential contribution of the preharvest herbicide treatment to low levels of herbicide residue in almonds. Then, the same batch of almonds was followed through a commercial processing facility to evaluate the potential movement of herbicide residues from soil, debris, and hulls to almond kernels during processing. Glyphosate was not detected in any almond kernel samples at the end of processing. A glufosinate metabolite, 3-(methylphosphinico)propionic acid (MPP), was detected in kernels at the end of processing at about 0.1 mg kg−1, which is above the EU MRL for total glufosinate. Almonds sampled directly from the tree, without any contact with soil, were found to have elevated MPP residues. This indicates glufosinate or MPP translocation may be a factor in low-level glufosinate residues detected in almonds in some EU exports.
Cover crops enhance the biodiversity of cropping systems and can support a variety of useful ecosystem services, including weed suppression. In California orchards, cover crops are typically implemented as annual plants that can replace resident vegetation in orchard alleyways during the rainy winter season. Our research objective was to evaluate cover crop management factors that support a competitive, weed-suppressing cover crop in the unique orchard systems of central California. We conducted two experiments: an experiment evaluating cover crop management intensification in walnuts (Juglans regia L.) and an experiment evaluating multispecies cover crop mixes and planting date in almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb]. These experiments demonstrate that timely cover crop planting is important for producing an abundant cover crop, and a variety of cover crop management programs can produce weed-suppressing cover crops. However, cover crops do not result in weed-free orchards and should be considered within the context of integrated management programs. The apparent flexibility of orchard cover crop management provides an opportunity to promote other agroecosystem services, with vegetation management and weed suppression as complementary management goals.
Almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] are grown on nearly 650,000 ha in California and generate nearly $4.9 billion in export revenue annually, primarily to the European Union (EU). To facilitate harvest operations, broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate and/or glufosinate are commonly used to control vegetation before harvest. The current minimum preharvest intervals (PHIs) for glyphosate and glufosinate herbicides registered in the United States are 3 and 14 d, respectively. The maximum residue limit (MRL) for glyphosate and glufosinate in almonds in the EU is 0.1 mg kg−1; however, a recent study recommended the glyphosate MRL be reduced to 0.05 mg kg−1. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate herbicide transfer from soil to almonds and the effect of longer PHIs on glyphosate and glufosinate residues in harvested almonds. After harvest operations, almonds were dissected into hulls, shells, and kernels for analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and their metabolites using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy. In the field experiment, glyphosate and glufosinate were detected at 0.121 to 0.291 mg kg−1 in almond hulls and shells. Glyphosate and primary metabolites were below the limit of detection (LOD) in almond kernels at all PHIs. Glufosinate was below the LOD, but the metabolite 3-(methylphosphinico)propionic acid was detected at 0.03 to 0.075 mg kg−1 in kernels from some replicate plots. There were no significant differences in either herbicide or any metabolite among PHI treatments. The lab experiment showed decreasing residue levels from hull to shell to kernel; furthermore, rinsing kernels resulted in 71% and 46% reduction in [14C]glyphosate and [14C]glufosinate, respectively, which suggests much of the herbicide residue may be associated with dust on the kernel surfaces. The results of these experiments indicate very low levels of herbicide transfer from soil to almonds, and increasing the PHI within the tested range did not reduce the already low amounts of herbicide or metabolites in almonds.
Hairy fleabane and horseweed are pervasive weed species in agriculture. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate/paraquat–resistant (GPR) biotypes challenge current management strategies. These GR and GPR biotypes have non–target site resistance, which can confer resistance to herbicides with different sites of action (SOAs). This study’s objective was to characterize the response of GR, GPR, and glyphosate/paraquat–susceptible (GPS) biotypes of both weed species to herbicides with a different SOA. Whole-plant dose–response bioassays indicated a similar response among tested biotypes of both weed species to rimsulfuron, dicamba, hexazinone, glufosinate, flumioxazin, saflufenacil, or mesotrione. The hairy fleabane GR and GPR biotypes were 2.7- and 2.9-fold resistant to 2,4-D relative to the GPS biotype (GR50 766.7 g ai ha–1), confirming 2,4-D resistance in hairy fleabane for the first time in California. The GR and GPR biotypes were not cross-resistant to dicamba. No differences in response to 2,4-D were observed among horseweed biotypes with a GR50 ranging from 150.2 to 277.4 g ai ha–1. The GPR biotypes of both species were cross-resistant to diquat, with a 44.0-fold resistance in hairy fleabane (GR50 863.7 g ai ha–1) and 15.6-fold resistance in horseweed (GR50 563.1 g ai ha–1). The confirmation of multiple resistances to glyphosate, paraquat, and 2,4-D in hairy fleabane curtails herbicide SOA alternatives and jeopardizes resistance management strategies based on herbicide rotation and tank mixtures, underscoring the critical need for nonchemical weed control alternatives.
Glyphosate is an important component of herbicide programs in orchard crops in California. It can be applied alone or in tank-mix combinations under the crop rows or to the entire field and often is used multiple times each year. There has been speculation about the potential impacts of repeated use of glyphosate in perennial crop systems, because of uptake from shallow root systems or indirectly because of effects on nutrient availability in soil. To address these concerns, research was conducted from 2013 to 2020 on key orchard crops to evaluate tree response to glyphosate regimens. Almond, cherry, and prune were evaluated in separate experiments. In each crop, the experimental design was a factorial arrangement of two soil types, four glyphosate rates (0, 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 kg ae ha−1, applied three times annually), and two post-glyphosate application irrigation treatments. In the first 2 yr of the study, there was no clear impact of the glyphosate regimens on shikimate accumulation or leaf chlorophyll content, which suggested no direct effect on the crop. In the seventh year of the study, after six consecutive years of glyphosate application to the orchard floors, there were no negative impacts of glyphosate application on leaf nutrient concentration or on cumulative trunk growth in any of the three orchard crops. Lack of a negative growth impact even at the highest treatment rate, which included 18 applications of glyphosate totaling nearly 80 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate over the course of the experiment suggest there is not likely a significant risk to tree health of judicious use of the herbicide in these production systems. Given the economic importance of orchard crops in California, and grower and industry concerns about pesticides generally and specifically about glyphosate, these findings are timely contributions to weed management concerns in perennial specialty crops.
Weed control in tree nut orchards is a year-round challenge for growers that is particularly intense during winter through summer as a result of competition and interference with management and harvest operations. A common weed control program consists of an application of a winter PRE and POST herbicide mixture, followed by a desiccation treatment in early spring and before harvest. Because most spring and summer treatments depend on a limited number of foliar-applied herbicides, summer-germinating species and/or herbicide-resistant biotypes become troublesome. Previous research has established effective PRE herbicide programs targeting winter glyphosate-resistant weeds. However, more recently, growers have reported difficulties in controlling several summer-germinating grass weeds with documented or suspected resistance to the spring and summer POST herbicide programs. In this context, research was conducted to evaluate a sequential PRE approach to control winter- and summer-germinating orchard weeds. Eight field experiments were conducted in tree nut orchards to evaluate the efficacy of common winter herbicide programs and a sequential herbicide program for control of a key summer grass weed species. In the sequential-application strategy, three foundational herbicide programs applied in the winter were either mixed with pendimethalin, followed with pendimethalin in March, or applied as a split application of pendimethalin in both winter and spring. Results indicate that the addition of pendimethalin enhanced summer grass weed control throughout the crop growing season by up to 31%. Applying all or part of the pendimethalin in the spring improved control of the summer grass weed junglerice by up to 49%. The lower rate of pendimethalin applied in the spring performed as well as the high rate in the winter, suggesting opportunities for reducing herbicide inputs. Tailoring sequential herbicide programs to address specific weed challenges can be a viable strategy for improving orchard weed control without increasing herbicide use in some situations.
Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] is a troublesome weedy species in many regions of California. Its control has been chiefly dependent on herbicides due to their effectiveness and practicality and, as result, herbicide-resistant populations have been selected. Poor control of a population of L. multiflorum with paraquat was recently reported in a prune orchard in Hamilton City, CA. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize the response of this population to several POST herbicides, study the mechanisms of resistance, and investigate alternative chemical management options in tree crops. A known susceptible (S) and the suspected resistant population (PRHC) were subjected to greenhouse dose–response experiments with clethodim, fluazifop-P-butyl, glufosinate, glyphosate, paraquat, pyroxsulam, rimsulfuron, and sethoxydim. A 310-bp fragment of the EPSPS gene containing position 106 was sequenced from PRHC and S. Field experiments were carried out in a prune orchard with PRE herbicides commonly used by perennial crop growers in California. Greenhouse dose–response experiments confirmed that PRHC is resistant to paraquat, as well as multiply resistant to clethodim and glyphosate. The EPSPS gene of PRHC is heterozygous for glyphosate resistance at position 106, where one allele exhibited proline substituted by serine and the other by alanine. Field experiments with PRE herbicides indicated that tank mixes containing indaziflam and flumioxazin can provide adequate L. multiflorum control up to 150 d after treatment. Poor weed management practices, such as overreliance on a single site of action, have frequently been associated with the selection of herbicide-resistant L. multiflorum populations around the world, and adequate herbicide-resistance management programs are necessary for growers to maintain economic sustainability even after evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds in their fields.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
A field study was established to evaluate symptoms, growth, yield, and nut quality of walnut trees subjected to multiple exposures of simulated bispyribac-sodium drift. Nut yield the year following simulated drift treatment was also evaluated because tissue differentiation for future fruiting position occurs in the prior season. Bispyribac-sodium was applied four times, at weekly intervals, at 0.5% and 3% of the use rate in rice (45 g ai ha-1). Injury from the 0.5% rate exceeded 5% after three applications. In general, the severity of the symptoms peaked 14 d after last application (23% and 40% injury for 0.5% and 3% rate, respectively) and subsequently remained nearly constant over the duration of the study. Growth of shoots treated with the 0.5% rate was initially delayed during the treatment regime but recovered after treatments ended; however, walnut shoots exposed to the higher rate had fewer internodes than nontreated trees at the end of the season. No measurable reduction in walnut yield or average nut weight either in the year of exposure or in the subsequent year was observed. However, both rates negatively affected walnut kernel color in the year of exposure.
A field study was established to study symptoms, growth and yield of 2-year-old walnut trees exposure to simulated drift of several herbicides commonly used in rice production. Bispyribac-sodium, bensulfuron-methyl, and propanil were applied at four rates representing 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 10% of the normal use rate in rice (45, 70, and 6725 g ai ha−1, for the three herbicides respectively). Symptoms started to appear approximately 7 days after application (DAT) and peaked 28 DAT. At that time, bispyribac-sodium caused greater injury at low drift rates (6% and 15% visual injury for 0.5% and 1% rate, respectively) compared to bensulfuron-methyl and propanil. Bispyribac-sodium also appeared to slow walnut shoot elongation compared to nontreated trees; however, no yield reductions were observed either in the year after drift exposure. The effect of bispyribac-sodium simulated drift on the yield and nut quality in the year of drift exposure was evaluated in a separate study on 3-year-old walnut trees. While no yield or nut quality reductions were observed, a linear correlation between rate of bispyribac-sodium and color, an important quality factor, was found: higher herbicide rates tended to be associated with darker kernel color. Bispyribac-sodium may damage nearby walnut orchards if drifted at significant amounts. However, it is unlikely that in a field situation bispyribac-sodium would drift at high enough levels to cause the symptoms observed from the 10% use rates in this study.
Much of the agricultural area in California’s southwestern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) is prone to moisture stress and high soil-salinity conditions. Increased prevalence of glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] in these environments and their ecological implications need to be further explored. Studies were conducted on GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes of E. colona to compare the effects of moisture and salinity stress on seed germination and salinity stress alone on growth and seed production. Intraspecific competition between the GR and GS plants was also assessed in a replacement series design experiment. With respect to germination, both biotypes were tolerant to moisture and salinity stress at germination; however, the GR biotype was more tolerant than the GS biotype. Water potential and electrical conductivity (EC) levels that reduced germination by 50% were estimated as −1.5 and −2.3 MPa and 8.5 and 12 dS m−1 for the GS and GR biotypes, respectively. The EC levels that reduced aboveground biomass by 50% were estimated as 9 and 11.5 dS m−1 for the GS and GR biotypes, respectively. Seed production was generally greater in the GR than the GS plants below 10 dS m−1. All plants produced up to 140 seeds plant−1, even at 20 dS m−1. The GR plants were more competitive and produced more aboveground dry biomass and seeds than the GS plants when grown together or alone. In conclusion, differences between these particular GR and GS biotypes to environmental stresses and intraspecific competition were noted that could have ecological implications for their prevalence in the southwestern SJV. The results also suggested that there could be high genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity in E. colona populations in the SJV and further population shifts could occur due to selection pressure from glyphosate.
Field bindweed is a deep-rooted and drought-tolerant perennial that can be difficult to control once it has become established in specialty crops. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of currently registered preplant (PP), PPI, PRE, and POST herbicides for field bindweed management in both early and late-planted processing tomatoes. Results show that bindweed cover in PPI/PRE programs (trifluralin, alone or in combination with rimsulfuron; S-metolachlor; or sulfentrazone) was reduced > 50% in early planted tomatoes, relative to the no PPI/PRE herbicide treatment (0 to 31% cover at up to 6 wk after transplanting [WAT]). Similar trends were observed with respect to field bindweed density. PP applications of glyphosate to emerged bindweed in late-planted tomatoes, coupled with PPI/PRE herbicide applications, reduced weed cover (1 to 13% at up to 6 WAT) by more than one-half when compared with plots treated with residual herbicides alone (1 to 43% at up to 6 WAT); perennial vine density was also reduced > 50%. PP herbicide burndown applications and the use of residual products can significantly improve the suppression of field bindweed in processing tomato systems. The emergence and vigor of bindweed vines may differ with respect to the timing of transplant operations and should be considered when developing management strategies
Poa annua control with norflurazon was different between two field trials in 1999. At the field site with suspected diuron-resistant P. annua, control was less than at the site with known diuron-susceptible P. annua. Diuron-resistant and -susceptible biotypes of P. annua were subjected to a range of norflurazon rates in the greenhouse. The diuron-resistant P. annua biotype (R/S : of 2.5) was collected in 1995 from a Lolium perenne L. seed production field near Tangent, OR. The R/S : for norflurazon in these experiments was 4.8; thus, confirming that diuron-resistant P. annua is resistant to norflurazon.
Simazine is an important management tool for weed control in vineyards because of its relatively low price, reliable control of several problem weeds, and long residual activity. After repeated and extensive use of simazine, several growers in the Central Valley of California expressed concerns about reduced, residual weed control with this herbicide. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate of simazine dissipation in soils with differing simazine-use histories and to determine whether residual weed control differed among sites. Two raisin vineyards were used in all studies, one with extensive simazine-use history (adapted) and one with no recent simazine-use history (nonadapted). Results indicated that simazine dissipation from biotic processes was fourfold greater in soil with a long simazine-use history relative to soil with no recent simazine applications. In the field, simazine persisted longer at the nonadapted site, and weed-control duration was affected by dissipation rate. Central Valley vineyard soils that have had repeated simazine applications can develop enhanced, microbial degradation, and reduced, residual weed control is possible; however, weed control is also affected by environmental conditions and other crop management practices.
Horseweed is an increasing problem in perennial crops and noncrop areas of the Central Valley of California. Similar to the situation in glyphosate-tolerant crops in other regions, glyphosate-based weed-management strategies in perennial crops and noncrop areas have resulted in selection of a glyphosate-resistant horseweed biotype in California. Research was conducted to determine the level of resistance to glyphosate in horseweed using an in vivo enzyme assay and to determine the distribution of the resistant horseweed biotype in central California. The resistant biotype was 4.8-fold more resistant to in vivo glyphosate exposure compared with the susceptible biotype, although enzyme function was inhibited in both biotypes at high glyphosate concentrations. An intermediate in vivo glyphosate dose was used to discriminate between glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible individuals in a roadside survey conducted in 2006 to 2007. Overall, 62% of the individuals tested from the Central Valley were classified as resistant to glyphosate. Resistant individuals were found at most locations throughout the Central Valley, although the proportion of resistant individuals was slightly lower in the northern-most area. No correlation could be made between proportion of resistant or susceptible individuals and land use patterns likely because of long-distance seed dispersal or different selection pressure for resistant biotypes on field margins compared with that within fields. Horseweed with an economically significant level of resistance to glyphosate is already widely distributed in the Central Valley of California. Grower awareness of the problem and adoption of best management practices are needed to minimize the effects of horseweed in this highly productive and diverse agricultural region.
The transfer of herbicide resistance genes from crops to related species is one of the greatest risks of growing herbicide-resistant crops. The recent introductions of imidazolinone-resistant wheat in the Great Plains and Pacific Northwest regions of the United States and research on transgenic glyphosate-resistant wheat have raised concerns about the transfer of herbicide resistance from wheat to jointed goatgrass via introgressive hybridization. Field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2003 at three locations in Washington and Idaho to determine the frequency and distance that imidazolinone-resistant wheat can pollinate jointed goatgrass and produce resistant F1 hybrids. Each experiment was designed as a Nelder wheel with 16 equally spaced rays extending away from a central pollen source of ‘Fidel-FS4’ imidazolinone-resistant wheat. Each ray was 46 m long and contained three rows of jointed goatgrass. Spikelets were collected at maturity at 1.8-m intervals along each ray and subjected to an imazamox screening test. The majority of all jointed goatgrass seeds tested were not resistant to imazamox; however, 5 and 15 resistant hybrids were found at the Pullman, WA, and Lewiston, ID, locations, respectively. The resistant plants were identified at a maximum distance of 40.2 m from the pollen source. The overall frequency of imazamox-resistant hybrids was similar to the predicted frequency of naturally occurring acetolactate synthase resistance in weeds; however, traits with a lower frequency of spontaneous mutations may have a relatively greater risk for gene escape via introgressive hybridization.
Open field production of fruit and nut-tree nursery stock depends upon preplant soil fumigation, extensive tillage, and hand-labor throughout the growing season for adequate weed control. Because methyl bromide, the favored fumigant, is being phased out because of environmental concerns and the costs of both fuel and labor continue to rise, herbicides are likely to become a more important weed management tool in the tree nursery industry. Two trials were conducted to evaluate weed control and crop safety with several herbicides applied following fumigation with methyl bromide or 1,3-dichloropropene in central California stone-fruit nurseries. PRE and POST-directed applications of several labeled and unlabeled materials were applied in a band over seeded peach rootstock or applied after emergence with a drop-nozzle spray boom. Crop productivity and weed control were monitored throughout the 1-yr growing season. PRE oryzalin and dithiopyr treatments provided the best weed control with very little crop injury. PRE applications of flumioxazin, rimsulfuron, and sulfentrazone did not have adequate crop safety at the rates and timings tested. However, POST-directed applications of flumioxazin and rimsulfuron were much safer to the peach and almond crops and should be evaluated in future trials. Additional herbicides and application techniques are needed to find acceptable, safe control measures for weeds, such as California burclover, common mallow, and redstem filaree, which often are poorly controlled with preplant fumigation in tree nurseries.