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Background: Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is of special concern among frail patients in nursing homes. To understand environmental contamination patterns in this setting, we screened a suitable section of a nursing home over time and assessed MRSA and VRE prevalence in patients and their rooms. We were especially interested in assessing whether MRSA and VRE strains persist in rooms during changes of occupancy after patient discharge. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of MRSA and VRE colonization and contamination among successive patients in a cluster of 9 single-occupancy rooms. Using flocked swabs, 5 high-touch surfaces were screened 3 times a week for 34 weeks. Patients were also screened (ie, nares, groin, and hands), if they agreed to participate. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 67 nonredundant MRSA and VRE strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism heatmaps and similarity trees were generated to evaluate strain diversity and persistence the facility. Results: Overall, 146 distinct occupancy events were captured during the study (16.5 average per room; range, 11–22), with 387 study visits and 4,670 total swabs collected. All rooms were contaminated with VRE, and 8 of 9 were contaminated with MRSA at least once during the study period. New contamination of a room with MRSA or VRE was observed in 43 (23%) of 185 opportunities, with potential persistence during occupancy changes in 25 (32.9%) of 76 opportunities. Sequencing of 67 nonredundant isolates identified at least 6 enterococcal clades and 10 MRSA clades (6 USA100 and 4 USA300), indicating a high degree of diversity and probably multiple introductions in the facility during the study time. In 3 separate cases, whole-genome sequencing confirmed persistence of a specific MRSA strain during a change of room occupancy, including 1 case of a MRSA strain persisting in a clean room before admission of the next patient. For VRE, 2 cases of persistence during room occupancy changes were confirmed, along with 6 cases of possible persistence (contamination across noncontiguous room occupancy events). Conclusions: Active surveillance screening and a recurring evaluation of terminal cleaning procedures should be considered due to high levels of circulation and persistence of MRSA and VRE in the nursing home setting.
Perianal screening can be intrusive. The sensitivities of multianatomical, nonperianal surveillance were 92.3% for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 58.7% for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and 54.9% for resistant Gram-negative bacilli (R-GNB). Sensitivities improved upon adding environmental surveillance (95.5%, 82.9%, and 67.9%, respectively). Multianatomical, nonperianal screening and room environment surveillance may replace perianal screening and reduce healthy participant bias in nursing homes.
Background: Although active surveillance for multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization permits timely intervention, obtaining cultures can be time-consuming, costly, and uncomfortable for patients. We evaluated clinical differences between patients with and without attainable perianal cultures, and we sought to determine whether environmental surveillance could replace perianal screening. Methods: We collected active surveillance cultures from patient hands, nares, groin, and perianal area upon enrollment, at day 14, and monthly thereafter in 6 Michigan nursing homes. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and resistant gram-negative bacilli (RGNB) were identified using standard methods. Patient characteristics were collected by trained research professionals. This substudy focused on visits during which all body sites were sampled. To determine the contribution of perianal screening to MDRO detection, site of colonization was categorized into 2 groups: perianal and non-perianal. We evaluated the utility of multisite surveillance (eg, type 1 and type 2 error) using nonperianal sites and environment surveillance. To evaluate characteristics associated with the acquisition of perianal cultures (eg, selection bias), we compared clinical characteristics, overall patient colonization, and room environment contamination of patients in whom all body sites were sampled during a study visit (533 patients; 1,026 visits) to patients with all body sites except the perianal culture sampled during a study visit (108 patients; 168 visits). Results: Of 651 patients, 533 met the inclusion criteria; average age was 74.5 years, 42.6% were male, and 60.8% were white. Of 1,026 eligible visits, 620 visits detected MDRO colonized patients; 155 MRSA, 363 VRE, and 386 RGNB (Table 1). If perianal cultures were not collected, nonperianal surveillance misses 7.7%, 41.3%, and 45.1% of MRSA, VRE, and RGNB colonized visits, respectively. The addition of environmental surveillance to non-perianal screening detected 95.5%, 82.9%, and 67.9% of MRSA, VRE, and RGNB colonized visits, respectively. The specificity of environmental screening was 85.3%, 72.7%, and 73.4% for MRSA, VRE, and RGNB, respectively. Patients without attainable perianal cultures had significantly more comorbidities, worse functional status, shorter length of stay, and higher baseline presence of wounds than patients with attainable perianal cultures; introducing potential selection bias to surveillance efforts (Table 2). No significant differences in overall patient colonization and room contamination were noted between patients with and without attainable perianal cultures. Conclusion: Perianal screening is important for the detection of VRE and RGNB colonization. Infection prevention must be cognizant of the tradeoff between reducing type 2 error and the selection bias that occurs with required attainment of perianal cultures. In the absence of perianal cultures, environmental surveillance improves MDRO detection while introducing type 1 error.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We investigated the association between gut microbiota features in newly admitted nursing facility (NF) patients and the acquisition of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and/or resistant Gram-negative bacteria (rGNB) within 14 days. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients were recruited at 6 Michigan NFs from 09/16-08/18. VRE or rGNB colonization status was determined by culture swabs collected from multiple body sites at enrolment, day 7, and day 14. Our analysis focused on patients with no colonization at baseline, a perirectal swab collected at baseline, and at least one follow-up visit. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene from bacterial DNA in each sample was PCR-amplified and sequenced on the MiSeq platform. Sequencing results were then processed with the mothur bioinformatics pipeline to classify bacterial taxa present in each sample. Taxa typically associated with the skin microbiota were removed. The primary outcome was acquisition of VRE and/or rGNB within 14 days. Exposures of interest included patient and microbiota characteristics. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 61 patients, 18 (30%) acquired AROs within 14 days of enrolment (3 VRE, 13 rGNB, 2 both) (Table 1). The baseline microbiota features differed significantly in those who acquired a new ARO. Of the major 8 phyla found across samples, patients who acquired an ARO were depleted in the number of phyla present (5.74 ± 1.20 vs 5.06 ± 1.43; p = 0.037) (Fig. 1). The log10-transformed relative abundance of Enterococcus was enriched in patients who acquired an ARO (−0.32 ± 1.47) compared to those who did not (−1.68 ± 1.76; p = 0.021) (Fig. 2). Patients who did not acquire an ARO tended to harbour more butyrate-producing bacterial taxa and strict anaerobes, although the differences were not statistically significant (relative abundance of butyrate producer: 29.49 ± 22.09 vs 22.05 ± 17.76; anaerobes: 64.78 ± 23.54 vs 53.68 ± 27.61). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Microbiota metrics calculated from perirectal samples are predictive of ARO acquisition. The clinical utility of perirectal samples thus warrants further assessment.
The role of demographic characteristics, such as sex and race, as risk factors for colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms, has not been established in the nursing home setting. We demonstrate significantly higher prevalence overall in male patients, and sex differences are dependent on organism of interest and body site.
Antibiotic-resistant organism (ARO) colonization rates in skilled nursing facilities (NFs) are high; hand hygiene is crucial to interrupt transmission. We aimed to determine factors associated with hand hygiene adherence in NFs and to assess rates of ARO acquisition among healthcare personnel (HCP).
HCP were observed during routine care at 6 NFs. We recorded hand hygiene adherence, glove use, activities, and time in room. HCP hands were cultured before and after patient care; patients and high-touch surfaces were cultured. HCP activities were categorized as high-versus low-risk for self-contamination. Multivariable regression was performed to identify predictors of hand hygiene adherence.
We recorded 385 HCP observations and paired them with cultures performed before and after patient care. Hand hygiene adherence occurred in 96 of 352 observations (27.3%) before patient care and 165 of 358 observations (46.1%) after patient care. Gloves were worn in 169 of 376 observations (44.9%). Higher adherence was associated with glove use before patient care (odds ratio [OR], 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–4.54) and after patient care (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.77–5.48). Compared with nurses, certified nurse assistants had lower hand hygiene adherence (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15–0.67) before patient care and physical/occupational therapists (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.11–0.44) after patient care. Hand hygiene varied by activity performed and time in the room. HCP hands were contaminated with AROs in 35 of 385 cultures of hands before patient care (0.9%) and 22 of 350 cultures of hands after patient care (6.3%).
Hand hygiene adherence in NFs remain low; it is influenced by job title, type of care activity, and glove use. Hand hygiene programs should incorporate these unique care and staffing factors to reduce ARO transmission.
Rates of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms are surpassing those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in nursing homes (NHs).
To characterize the incidence and duration of carriage of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (CipREc) in NHs and identify those in the O25b-ST131 lineage.
We collected 227 CipREc isolates obtained by routine and regular surveillance of high-risk NH residents with indwelling devices. Repetitive element palindromic (REP)–polymerase chain reaction assay and multiplex polymerase chain reaction amplification for O25b-ST131 E. coli detection were performed using (GTG)5-primers and O25pabBspe and trpA2 primer pairs, respectively.
We found a high period prevalence of CipREc colonization (21.5%), high rates of recolonization with the same strain following clearing (0.46 recolonizations/ person/ year), and an acquisition incidence of 1.05 cases/1,000 person-days. Almost three-quarters of colonized residents carried strains in the O25b-ST131 E. coli lineage. Compared with isolates not in the lineage, O25b-ST131 isolates were carried significantly longer (10 vs 3 months). We identified 18 different REP-types; 2 occurred in 55% of the residents colonized with CipREc, and in more than 1 NH. Duration of CipREc carriage varied by REP-type and averaged 6 months.
CipREc occurred frequently in NH residents and is carried for long durations, and reacquisition following clearance is common