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To examine the association between sleep duration in different stages of life and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Design, setting, and participants:
A total of 2472 healthy elderly and 505 patients with aMCI in China were included in this study. The study analyzed the association between aMCI and sleep duration in different stages of life.
We compared sleep duration in different stages of life and analyzed the association between Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and sleep duration by curve estimation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between aMCI and sleep duration.
In the analysis, there were no results proving that sleep duration in youth (P = 0.719, sleep duration < 10 hours; P = 0.999, sleep duration ≥ 10 hours) or midlife (P = 0.898, sleep duration < 9 hours; P = 0.504, sleep duration ≥ 9 hours) had a significant association with aMCI. In the group sleeping less than 7 hours in late life, each hour more of sleep duration was associated with approximately 0.80 of the original risk of aMCI (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.68–0.95).
Among the elderly sleeping less than 7 hours, there is a decreased risk of aMCI for every additional hour of sleep.
The present study investigated the association between fibre degradation and the concentration of dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2) in the rumen. Napier grass (NG) silage and corn stover (CS) silage were compared as forages with contrasting structures and degradation patterns. In the first experiment, CS silage had greater 48-h DM, neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre degradation, and total gas and methane (CH4) volumes, and lower 48-h H2 volume than NG silage in 48-h in vitro incubations. In the second experiment, twenty-four growing beef bulls were fed diets including 55 % (DM basis) NG or CS silages. Bulls fed the CS diet had greater DM intake (DMI), average daily gain, total-tract digestibility of OM and NDF, ruminal dissolved methane (dCH4) concentration and gene copies of protozoa, methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens, and had lower ruminal dH2 concentration, and molar proportions of valerate and isovalerate, in comparison with those fed the NG diet. There was a negative correlation between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility in bulls fed the CS diet, and a lack of relationship between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility with the NG diet. In summary, the fibre of CS silage was more easily degraded by rumen microorganisms than that of NG silage. Increased dCH4 concentration with the CS diet presumably led to the decreased ruminal dH2 concentration, which may be helpful for fibre degradation and growth of fibrolytic micro-organisms in the rumen.
A one-dimensional steady-state model for stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) processes in laser-irradiated plasmas is presented. Based on a novel “predictor-corrector” method, the model is capable to deal with broadband scattered light and inhomogeneous plasmas, exhibiting robustness and high efficiency. Influences of the electron density and temperature on the linear gains of both SRS and SBS are investigated, which indicates that the SRS gain is more sensitive to the electron density and temperature than that of the SBS. For the low-density case, the SBS dominates the scattering process, while the SRS exhibits much higher reflectivity in the high-density case. The nonlinear saturation mechanisms and competition between SRS and SBS are included in our model by a phenomenological method. The typical anti-correlation between SRS and SBS versus electron density is reproduced in the model. Calculations of the reflectivities are qualitatively in agreement with the typical results of experiments and simulations.
Repetitive motion planning and control (RMPC) is a significant issue in the research of redundant robot manipulators. Moreover, noise from rounding error, truncation error, and robot uncertainty is an important factor that greatly affects RMPC schemes. In this study, the RMPC of redundant robot manipulators in a noisy environment is investigated. By incorporating the proportional and integral information of the desired path, a new RMPC scheme with pseudoinverse-type (P-type) formulation is proposed. Such a P-type RMPC scheme possesses the suppression of constant and bounded time-varying noises. Comparative simulation results based on a five-link robot manipulator and a PUMA560 robot manipulator are presented to further validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed P-type RMPC scheme over the previous one.
We study numerically the dynamics of an insoluble surfactant-laden droplet in a simple shear flow taking surface viscosity into account. The rheology of drop surface is modelled via a Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive law with both surface tension and surface viscosity depending strongly on the surface concentration of the surfactant. Our results show that the surface viscosity exhibits non-trivial effects on the surfactant transport on the deforming drop surface. Specifically, both dilatational and shear surface viscosity tend to eliminate the non-uniformity of surfactant concentration over the drop surface. However, their underlying mechanisms are entirely different; that is, the shear surface viscosity inhibits local convection due to its suppression on drop surface motion, while the dilatational surface viscosity inhibits local dilution due to its suppression on local surface dilatation. By comparing with previous studies of droplets with surface viscosity but with no surfactant transport, we find that the coupling between surface viscosity and surfactant transport induces non-negligible deviations in the dynamics of the whole droplet. More particularly, we demonstrate that the dependence of surface viscosity on local surfactant concentration has remarkable influences on the drop deformation. Besides, we analyse the full three-dimensional shape of surfactant-laden droplets in simple shear flow and observe that the drop shape can be approximated as an ellipsoid. More importantly, this ellipsoidal shape can be described by a standard ellipsoidal equation with only one unknown owing to the finding of an unexpected relationship among the drop’s three principal axes. Moreover, this relationship remains the same for both clean and surfactant-laden droplets with or without surface viscosity.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
Previous studies on capsule dynamics in shear flow have dealt with Newtonian fluids, while the effect of fluid viscoelasticity remains an unresolved fundamental question. In this paper, we report a numerical investigation of the dynamics of capsules enclosing a viscoelastic fluid and which are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid under simple shear. Systematic simulations are performed at small but non-zero Reynolds numbers (i.e.
) using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model, in which the fluid viscoelasticity is introduced via the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation. We demonstrate that the internal fluid viscoelasticity presents significant effects on the deformation behaviour of initially spherical capsules, including transient evolution and equilibrium values of their deformation and orientation. Particularly, the capsule deformation decreases slightly with the Deborah number De increasing from 0 to
. In contrast, with De increasing within high levels, i.e.
, the capsule deformation increases continuously and eventually approaches the Newtonian limit having a viscosity the same as the Newtonian part of the viscoelastic capsule. By analysing the viscous stress, pressure and viscoelastic stress acting on the capsule membrane, we reveal that the mechanism underlying the effects of the internal fluid viscoelasticity on the capsule deformation is the alterations in the distribution of the viscoelastic stress at low De and its magnitude at high De, respectively. Furthermore, we find some new features in the dynamics of initially non-spherical capsules induced by the internal fluid viscoelasticity. Particularly, the transition from tumbling to swinging of oblate capsules can be triggered at very high viscosity ratios by increasing De alone. Besides, the critical viscosity ratio for the tumbling-to-swinging transition is remarkably enlarged with De increasing at relatively high levels, i.e.
, while it shows little change at low De, i.e. below
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
Laser-driven magnetic reconnection (LDMR) occurring with self-generated B fields has been experimentally and theoretically studied extensively, where strong B fields of more than megagauss are spontaneously generated in high-power laser–plasma interactions, which are located on the target surface and produced by non-parallel temperature and density gradients of expanding plasmas. For properties of the short-lived and strong B fields in laser plasmas, LDMR opened up a new territory in a parameter regime that has never been exploited before. Here we review the recent results of LDMR taking place in both high and low plasma beta environments. We aim to understand the basic physics processes of magnetic reconnection, such as particle accelerations, scale of the diffusion region, and guide field effects. Some applications of experimental results are also given especially for space and solar plasmas.
As a promising new way to generate a controllable strong magnetic field, laser-driven magnetic coils have attracted interest in many research fields. In 2013, a kilotesla level magnetic field was achieved at the Gekko XII laser facility with a capacitor–coil target. A similar approach has been adopted in a number of laboratories, with a variety of targets of different shapes. The peak strength of the magnetic field varies from a few tesla to kilotesla, with different spatio-temporal ranges. The differences are determined by the target geometry and the parameters of the incident laser. Here we present a review of the results of recent experimental studies of laser-driven magnetic field generation, as well as a discussion of the diagnostic techniques required for such rapidly changing magnetic fields. As an extension of the magnetic field generation, some applications are discussed.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T. spiralis larvae, and was inserted after CMV promoter to construct a DNA vaccine [pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp]. Ts-NBLsp expression was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Sera samples were obtained from vaccinated mice, and they showed strong anti-Ts-NBLsp-specific IgG response. Mice immunized with the pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp DNA vaccine showed a 77·93% reduction in muscle larvae (ML) following challenge with T. spiralis ML. Our results demonstrate that the vaccination with pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp plasmid promoted the balance of type 1 and 2 immune responses and produced a significant protection against T. spiralis infection in mice.
The Nihewan Basin is a key region for studying the Palaeolithic archaeology of East Asia. However, because of the lack of suitable dating methods and representative lithic technologies in this region, the ‘Middle Palaeolithic’ sites in this basin have been designated based mainly on stratigraphic correlation, which may be unreliable. In this study, three Palaeolithic sites, Motianling, Queergou and Banjingzi, which have been assigned previously to the ‘Middle Palaeolithic’, are dated based on luminescence dating of K-feldspar grains. Our results show that the cultural layers at Motianling, Queergou and Banjingzi have ages of 315 ± 13, 268 ± 13 and 86 ± 4 ka (corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages 9, 8 and 5), respectively, suggesting that Motianling and Queergou should be assigned to the Lower Palaeolithic, while the age of Banjingzi is consistent with a Middle Palaeolithic attribution. Our results suggest that reassessing the age of ‘Middle Palaeolithic’ sites in the Nihewan Basin, and elsewhere in North China, is crucial for understanding the presence or absence of the Middle Palaeolithic phase in China. Our dating results also indicate that the Sanggan River developed sometime between about 270 and 86 ka ago.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
The current meta-analysis evaluated the association between vitamin B12 intake and blood vitamin B12 level and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. A dose–response analysis was performed with generalized least squares regression, with the relative risk (RR) and 95 % CI as effect values.
The meta-analysis included seventeen studies.
A total of 10 601 patients.
The non-linear dose–response relationship between total vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was insignificant (P=0·690), but the relationship between dietary vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was significant (P<0·001). Every 4·5 μg/d increment in total and dietary vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (total intake: RR=0·963; 95 % CI 0·928, 0·999; dietary intake: RR=0·914; 95 % CI 0·856, 0·977). The inverse association between vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was also significant when vitamin B12 intake was over a dosage threshold, enhancing the non-linear relationship. The non-linear dose–response relationship between blood vitamin B12 level and CRC risk was insignificant (P=0·219). There was an insignificant association between every 150 pmol/l increment in blood vitamin B12 level and CRC risk (RR=1·023; 95 % CI 0·881, 1·187).
Our meta-analysis indicates that evidence supports the use of vitamin B12 for cancer prevention, especially among populations with high-dose vitamin B12 intake, and that the association between CRC risk and total vitamin B12 intake is stronger than between CRC risk and dietary vitamin B12 intake only.
The development of high performance Al–Cu based alloys generally depends on the strict control of the Fe content. However, with the increasing use of recycled aluminum alloys, it is necessary to increase the tolerance for the Fe content in Al–Cu cast alloys for the purpose of low cost, energy saving, and environment protection. In this study, the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and their effect on the tensile properties of squeeze-cast Al–5.0 wt% Cu–0.6 wt% Mn alloys with an Fe content of up to 1.5 wt% have been investigated. The full formation sequence of squeeze-cast Al–5.0 wt% Cu–0.6 wt% Mn alloys with different Fe contents has been established. The results were also compared with the corresponding results obtained for Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn alloys prepared by gravity die casting. It is found that the Fe-rich intermetallic compounds mainly consist of α-Fe and β-Fe in alloys with a low Fe content, changing into Al6(FeMn) and Al3(FeMn) for alloys with a high Fe content. The applied pressure promotes the formation of the Fe-rich intermetallics α-Fe/Al6(FeMn) and prevents the precipitation of needle-like β-Fe/Al3(FeMn). The elongation of the alloys gradually decreases with the Fe content, and a maximum value for both the ultimate mechanical strength and the yield strength was found for the alloys with 0.5 wt% Fe. The tensile properties of alloys with a different Fe content significantly increased as the applied pressure was increased from 0 to 75 MPa, especially the elongation.
The deformation of a compound capsule (an elastic capsule with a smaller capsule inside) in simple shear flow is studied by using three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a front tracking method. The inner and outer capsules are concentric and initially spherical. Skalak et al.’s constitutive law is employed for the mechanics of both the inner and outer membranes. Our results concerning the deformation of homogeneous capsules (i.e. capsules without the inner capsules) are quantitatively in agreement with the predictions of previous numerical simulations and perturbation theories. Compared to homogeneous capsules, compound capsules exhibit smaller deformation. The deformations of both the inner and outer capsules are significantly affected by the capillary numbers of the inner and outer membranes and the volume ratio of the inner to the outer capsule. When the inner capsule is small, it presents smaller deformation than the outer capsule. However, when the inner capsule is sufficiently large, it can present larger deformation than the outer capsule, even if the inner membrane has much lower capillary number than the outer membrane. The underlying mechanisms are discussed: (i) the inner capsule is deformed by rotational flow with lower rate of strain rather than by simple shear flow that deforms the outer capsule, and thus the inner capsule exhibits smaller deformation; and (ii) when the inner and outer membranes are sufficiently close (i.e. the inner capsule is sufficiently large), the hydrodynamic interaction between the two membranes becomes significant, which is found to inhibit the deformation of the outer capsule but to promote the deformation of the inner capsule.