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As the southernmost part of the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the northern Alxa area is characterized by abundant Permian magmatism and records key information on the geological evolution of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. This study reports new zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data of the early Permian (285–286 Ma) Huisentala gabbro and Huodonghaer diorites from the Zhusileng–Hangwula Belt in the northern Alxa area. The gabbro is characterized by high Al, Ca, Mg# and light rare-earth elements, and low K, P and high field strength elements (e.g., Ti, Nb and Ta). Furthermore, the gabbro shows heterogeneous zircon ϵHf(t) value (−2.5 to +2.6). The Huodonghaer diorites show high MgO (3.46–6.32 wt%), Mg# (49–58), Sr (408–617 ppm) and Ba (223–419 ppm), and low FeOT/MgO (1.27–1.83) and TiO2 (0.48–0.90 wt%), with geochemical features similar to the high-Mg andesite/diorite. They show radiogenic zircon ϵHf(t) values of +1.2 to +4.9 and high Th/Nb ratios. These features suggest that the Huisentala gabbro and the Huodonghaer diorites were derived from the partial melting of mantle peridotite that was metasomatized by subduction-related fluids and by subducted sediment-derived melts, respectively.
Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011–2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Low–stable (LS)’, ‘Moderate-increasing (MI)’, ‘High-stable (HS)’ and ‘Moderate-decreasing (MD)’, and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Moderate–stable (MS)’, ‘Low-stable (LS)’ and ‘High-increasing (HI)’. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.
To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China.
A cross-sectional study.
A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50–64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18–34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35–49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50–64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31).
Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.
The effects of macronutrient intake on obesity are controversial. This research aims to investigate the associations between macronutrient intake and new-onset overweight/obesity. The relationship between the consumption of carbohydrate and total fat and obesity was assessed by the multivariable Cox model in this 11-year cohort, which included 6612 adults (3291 men and 3321 women) who were free of overweight and obesity at baseline. The dietary intake was recorded using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days. Moreover, substitution models were developed to distinguish the effects of macronutrient composition alteration from energy intake modification. During 7·5 person years (interquartile range 4·3, 10·8) of follow-up, 1807 participants became overweight or obese. After adjusting for risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) of overweight/obesity in extreme quintiles of fat was 1·48 (quintile 5 v. quintile 1, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·89; Ptrend = 0·02) in women. Additionally, replacing 5 % of energy from carbohydrate with equivalent energy from fat was associated with an estimated 4·3 % (HR 1·043, 95 % CI 1·007, 1·081) increase in overweight/obesity in women. Moreover, dietary carbohydrate was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (quintile 5 v. quintile 1, HR 0·70, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·89; Ptrend = 0·02) in women. Total fat was related to a higher risk of overweight/obesity, whereas high carbohydrate intake was related to a lower risk of overweight/obesity in women, which was not observed in men.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns and explore their associations with blood lipid profiles among Chinese women.
In a cross-sectional study, we identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) collected blood samples in the morning after an overnight fast and measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and TAG.
Data were from the 2009 wave of the CHNS.
We studied 2468 women aged 18–80 years from the CHNS.
We identified three dietary patterns: traditional southern (high intakes of rice, pork and vegetables), snack (high intakes of fruits, eggs and cakes) and Western (high intakes of poultry, fast foods and milk). The traditional southern pattern was inversely associated with HDL-C (β=−0·68; 95 % CI −1·22, −0·14; P<0·05). The snack pattern was significantly associated with higher TAG (β=4·14; 95 % CI 0·44, 7·84; P<0·05). The Western pattern was positively associated with TC (β=2·52; 95 % CI 1·03, 4·02; P<0·01) and LDL-C (β=2·26; 95 % CI 0·86, 3·66; P<0·01).
We identified three dietary patterns that are significantly associated with blood lipid profiles. This information is important for developing interventions and policies addressing dyslipidaemia prevention among Chinese women.
The present study aimed to explore the associations between food away-from-home (FAFH) consumption and body weight outcomes among Chinese adults.
FAFH was defined as food prepared at restaurants and the percentage of energy from FAFH was calculated. Measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as body weight outcomes. Quantile regression models for BMI and WC were performed separately by gender.
Information on demographic, socio-economic, diet and health parameters at individual, household and community levels was collected in twelve provinces of China.
A cross-sectional sample of 7738 non-pregnant individuals aged 18–60 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011 was analysed.
For males, quantile regression models showed that percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0·01, 0·01, 0·01, 0·02, 0·02 and 0·03 kg/m2 at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile, and an increase in WC of 0·04, 0·06, 0·06, 0·04, 0·06, 0·05 and 0·07 cm at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile. For females, percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with 0·01, 0·01, 0·01 and 0·02 kg/m2 increase in BMI at the 10th, 25th, 90th and 95th quantile, and with 0·05, 0·04, 0·03 and 0·03 cm increase in WC at the 5th, 10th, 25th and 75th quantile.
Our findings suggest that FAFH consumption is relatively more important for BMI and WC among males rather than females in China. Public health initiatives are needed to encourage Chinese adults to make healthy food choices when eating out.
A congruent melting compound LiNaV2O6 has been synthesized by high-temperature solution reaction and it has been grown with sizes up to 11 × 6 × 2 mm3 by the top-seeded growth method for the first time. LiNaV2O6 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, with a = 10.184(2) Å, b = 9.067(2) Å, c = 5.8324(11) Å, β = 108.965(14)°. UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum of LiNaV2O6 shows that it has a wide transmittance range from 385 to 2500 nm. The ab initio calculations show that the birefringence of LiNaV2O6 is 0.136 at 589.3 nm. Therefore, LiNaV2O6 may be a new birefringent material. Based on the analysis of the relationship between crystal structure and linear optical properties, it is found that the large birefringence is attributed to the particular arrangement of V–O anionic groups.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.
The mesoporous and nanorods SnO2 are synthesized by controlling the state of SnCl2·2H2O precursor with SBA-15 as hard template, and the possible formation mechanisms at different assembling modes inside the ordered mesoporous silica templates are proposed. In addition, SnO2 nanoparticles are synthesized by hydrolysis depositing method. The electrochemical tests of as-prepared samples indicate that the reticular stacking structure of the nanorods would limit the Li+ ions to intercalate, but the effect of volume expansion in this case upon cycling is insignificant. The mesostructure SnO2 tends to be stable after partial structural collapse at first few cycles. And the Li+ ions can readily intercalate and de-intercalate into/from its ordered channels structure, which provides a high capacity and an improved cycle property. Although SnO2 nanoparticles deliver high capacity at an early stage, the agglomeration may induce the capacity to drop rapidly after a certain number of cycles.
A novel graphene-modified LiMnPO4 composite as a performance-improved cathode material for lithium-ion batteries has been prepared with LiH2PO4, Mn(CH3COO)2·4H2O, and graphite oxide (GO) suspension by spray-drying method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge tests are applied to characterize these materials. The structure analysis shows that LiMnPO4 sheets with width of 100–200 nm and thickness of 20–30 nm are attached to the graphene sheets in pieces. The graphene sheets with good electrical conductivity serve as a conducting network for fast electron transfer between the active materials and charge collector, as well as buffered spaces to accommodate the volume expansion/contraction during the discharge/charge process. The electrochemical tests show that the composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 105.1 mAh/g at 0.05 C in the voltage range of 2.5–4.4 V. Moreover, the cells showed fair good cycle ability over 50 cycles.
There are about 70 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) that are now confirmed or suggested to be in physical contact with molecular clouds (MCs) with six kinds of evidence of multiwavelength observations. Recent detailed CO-line spectroscopic mappings of a series of SNRs reveal them to be in cavities of molecular gas, implying the roles the progenitors may have played. We predict a linear correlation between the wind bubble sizes of main-sequence OB stars in a molecular environment and the stellar masses and discuss its implication for supernova progenitors. The molecular environments of SNRs can serve as a good probe for the γ-rays arising from the hadronic interaction of the accelerated protons, and this paper also discusses the γ-ray emission from MCs illuminated by diffusive protons that escape from SNR shocks.
Using advanced first-principles calculations, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of graphene/α-Al2O3 interfaces and show that α -Al2O3 is an ideal gate dielectric material for graphene transistors. Clean interface exists between graphene and Al-terminated (or hydroxylated) Al2O3 and the valence band offsets for these systems are large enough to create injection barrier. Remarkably, a band gap of ~180 meV can be induced in graphene layer adsorbed on Al-terminated surface, which is significantly larger than graphene on other popular substrates.
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are widely used in diets for patients with obesity. To develop a delivery system for suppressing dietary fat accumulation into adipose tissue, MCFA were encapsulated in nanoliposomes (NL), which can overcome the drawbacks of MCFA and keep their properties unchanged. In the present study, crude liposomes were first produced by the thin-layer dispersion method, and then dynamic high-pressure microfluidisation (DHPM) and DHPM combined with freeze–thawing methods were used to prepare MCFA NL (NL-1 and NL-2, respectively). NL-1 exhibited smaller average size (77·6 (sd 4·3) nm), higher zeta potential ( − 40·8 (sd 1·7) mV) and entrapment efficiency (73·3 (sd 16·1) %) and better stability, while NL-2 showed narrower distribution (polydispersion index 0·193 (sd 0·016)). The body fat reduction property of NL-1 and NL-2 were evaluated by short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) experiments of mice. In contrast to the MCFA group, the NL groups had overcome the poor palatability of MCFA because the normal diet of mice was maintained. The body fat and total cholesterol (TCH) of NL-1 (1·54 (sd 0·30) g, P = 0·039 and 2·33 (sd 0·44) mmol/l, P = 0·021, respectively) and NL-2 (1·58 (sd 0·69) g, P = 0·041 and 2·29 (sd 0·38) mmol/l, P = 0·015, respectively) significantly decreased when compared with the control group (2·11 (sd 0·82) g and 2·99 (sd 0·48) mmol/l, respectively). The TAG concentration of the NL-1 group (0·55 (sd 0·14) mmol/l) was remarkably lower (P = 0·045) than the control group (0·94 (sd 0·37) mmol/l). No significant difference in weight and fat gain, TCH and TAG was detected between the MCFA NL and MCFA groups. Therefore, MCFA NL could be potential nutritional candidates for obesity to suppress body fat accumulation.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Baicalein is a flavonoid originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of albendazole and baicalein for treating eosinophilic meningitis in BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy included the survival time, body weight, neurological function, leucocyte and eosinophil counts, eotaxin concentration, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, larval recovery and histopathological examination. The results showed that the combination of albendazole and baicalein was more effective than either drug administered singly. Combination therapy increased the survival time, decreased body weight loss, neurological dysfunction, leucocyte response, eotaxin concentration and MMP-9 activity. Our results suggest that the combination of albendazole and baicalein may exhibit synergistic beneficial effects in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis induced by A. cantonensis.
Increasing the growth rate is especially important for low-quality wood applications, so this has become an important goal in poplar breeding. The present study describes the transfer of Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb) gene (vgb) driven by constitutive promoters, by Agrobacterium tumefaciens into poplar (Populus alba×P. glandulosa). From about 450 leaf discs used for transformation, 60 Kan-resistant plants were obtained, and 52 proved to be true transgenic plants. The transgenic nature of these plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Southern dot blot hybridization. The expression of vgb gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). The performance of the transgenic lines was evaluated during the first year of growth in a greenhouse. These plants showed no significant stable morphological differences from the untransformed plants. Among them, three vgb-transgenic lines exhibited noticeably higher growth rates in terms of height and diameter.
Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.
An electroactive polymer-ceramic hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The system demonstrates significantly-enhanced electromechanical performance by cooperatively utilizing advantages of a combination of electromechanical responses of an electroative polymer (EAP), and an electroactive ceramic single crystal, PZN-PT single crystal. The electroactive elements are driven by a single power source. Recently, a modification of HYBAS has been made to increase the capability of air driving for synthetic jet devices (SJ) used in aerodynamic control technologies. The dependence of the air driving capability of the modified HYBAS on the configuration of the actuating device has been investigated. For this particular application, the modified HYBAS demonstrated a 50% increase in the volume change in the synthetic jet air chamber, as compared with that of the HYBAS without the modification. The theoretical modeling of the performances of the HYBAS is in good agreement with experimental observation. The consistence between the theoretical modeling and experimental test make the design concept an effective route for the development of high performance actuating devices for many applications. The theoretical modeling, fabrication of the HYBAS and the initial experimental results will be presented and discussed.
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