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The FAST Ultra-Deep Survey (FUDS) is a blind survey that aims for the direct detection of H i in galaxies at redshifts
. The survey uses the multibeam receiver on the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) to map six regions, each of size
at high sensitivity (
) and high-frequency resolution (23 kHz). The survey will enable studies of the evolution of galaxies and their H i content with an eventual sample size of
. We present the science goals, observing strategy, the effects of radio frequency interference at the FAST site, our mitigation strategies and the methods for calibration, data reduction and imaging as applied to initial data. The observations and reductions for the first field, FUDS0, are completed, with around 128 H i galaxies detected in a preliminary analysis. Example spectra are given in this paper, including a comparison with data from the overlapping GAL2577 field of Arecibo Ultra-Deep Survey.
Based on the measurements conducted over the landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica during the sea-ice growth season in 2016, various parameterization schemes in the high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model HIGHTSI are evaluated. The parameterization scheme of turbulent fluxes produces the largest errors compared with the parameterization schemes for other surface heat fluxes. However, the sea-ice thickness simulation is most sensitive to the differences in upward longwave radiation at the surface. In addition, the sea-ice thickness simulation during the growth season is highly sensitive to the oceanic heat flux, and a new oceanic heat flux parameterization scheme based on the bulk method is proposed. The new parameterization scheme is tested in a second year, and it significantly improves the model performance relative to the standard configuration when compared against observations. Finally, the seasonal variation in the heat budget and its influence on the sea-ice thickness variation are analyzed. The net shortwave radiation, sensible heat flux and conductive heat flux (the net longwave radiation and latent heat flux) are found to be the surface heat sources (heat sinks) during the growth season. The larger conductive heat flux and the smaller oceanic heat flux can intensify the growth of sea ice.
Prolonged parturition duration has been widely demonstrated to be a risk factor for incidence of stillbirth. This study evaluated the supply of dietary fibre on the parturition duration, gut microbiota and metabolome using sows as a model. A total of 40 Yorkshire sows were randomly given diet containing normal level of dietary fibre (NDF, 17·5 % dietary fibre) or high level of dietary fibre (HDF, 33·5 % dietary fibre). Faecal microbiota profiled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, SCFA and metabolome in the faeces and plasma around parturition were compared between the dietary groups. Correlation analysis was conducted to further explore the potential associations between specific bacterial taxa and metabolites. Results showed that HDF diet significantly improved the parturition process as presented by the shorter parturition duration. HDF diet increased the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes and multiple genera. Except for butyrate, SCFA levels in the faeces and plasma of sows at parturition were elevated in HDF group. The abundances of fifteen and twelve metabolites in the faeces and plasma, respectively, markedly differ between HDF and NDF sows. These metabolites are involved in energy metabolism and bacterial metabolism. Correlation analysis also showed associations between specific bacteria taxa and metabolites. Collectively, our study indicates that the improvement of parturition duration by high fibre intake in late gestation is associated with gut microbiota, production of SCFA and other metabolites, potentially serving for energy metabolism.
Sleep disturbance is an important factor in the pathophysiology and progression of psychiatric disorders, but whether it is a cause, or a downstream effect is still not clear.
To investigate causal relationships between three sleep-associated traits and seven psychiatric diseases, we used genetic variants related to insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration to perform a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomisation analysis. Summary-level data on psychiatric disorders were extracted from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Effect estimates were obtained by using the inverse-variance-weighted (IVW), weights modified IVW, weighted-median methods, MR-Egger regression, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test and Robust Adjusted Profile Score (RAPS).
The causal odds ratio (OR) estimate of genetically determined insomnia was 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–1.45; p = 5.03 × 10−11) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 1.31 (95% CI 1.25–1.37; p = 6.88 × 10−31) for major depressive disorder (MDD) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.23–1.40; p = 1.42 × 10−16) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were suggestive inverse associations of morningness chronotype with risk of MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ). Genetically predicted sleep duration was also nominally associated with the risk of bipolar disorder (BD). Conversely, PTSD and MDD were associated with an increased risk of insomnia (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.10, p = 7.85 × 10−4 for PTSD; OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.64; p = 0.001 for MDD). A suggestive inverse association of ADHD and MDD with sleep duration was also observed.
Our findings provide evidence of potential causal relationships between sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders. This suggests that abnormal sleep patterns may serve as markers for psychiatric disorders and offer opportunities for prevention and management in psychiatric disorders.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for rivaroxaban, C19H18ClN3O5S, are reported [a = 9.010(3) Å, b = 10.986(6) Å, c = 11.230(1) Å, α = 63.439(5)°, β = 74.355(4)°, γ = 78.133(3)°, unit-cell volume V = 952.87 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.519 g cm−3, and space group P1]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P1 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
Two new genera and six new species of trilobites are systematically documented herein: Sinagnostus mirabilis new genus new species, Yanpingia punctata n. gen. n. sp., Illaenus taoyuanensis n. sp., Panderia striolatus n. sp., Nileus yichongqiaoensis n. sp., and Paratiresias peculiaris n. sp. The materials were collected from the Darriwilian (late Middle Ordovician) strata in the Upper Yangtze Region, South China. Also provided is an emended diagnosis of the genus Paratiresias based on the new species Paratiresias peculiaris, which is the oldest known species of this genus with an extremely narrow (sag. and exsag.) preglabellar field. Those Chinese species previously referred to Nanillaenus are reassigned to Illaenus sensu lato. These trilobites add new data for the Darriwilian trilobite macroevolution and show highly endemic to South China and the faunal exchanges between South China and Tarim, Kazakhstan, Alborz, as well as Sibumasu and North China.
To investigate the intrinsic mechanism for mixing enhancement by variable-density (VD) behaviour, a canonical VD mixing extracted from a supersonic streamwise vortex protocol, a shock–bubble interaction (SBI), is numerically studied and compared with a counterpart of passive-scalar (PS) mixing. It is meaningful to observe that the maximum concentration decays much faster in a VD SBI than in a PS SBI regardless of the shock Mach number ($Ma=1.22 - 4$). The quasi-Lamb–Oseen-type velocity distribution in the PS SBI is found by analysing the azimuthal velocity that stretches the bubble. Meanwhile, for the VD SBI, an additional stretching enhanced by the secondary baroclinic vorticity (SBV) production contributes to the faster-mixing decay. The underlying mechanism of the SBV-enhanced stretching is further revealed through the density and velocity difference between the light shocked bubble and the heavy ambient air. By combining the SBV-accelerated stretching model and the initial shock compression, a novel mixing time estimation for VD SBI is theoretically proposed by solving the advection–diffusion equation under a deformation field of an axisymmetric vortex with the additional SBV-induced azimuthal velocity. Based on the mixing time model, a mixing enhancement number, defined by the ratio of VD and PS mixing time further, reveals the contribution from the VD effect, which implies a better control of the density distribution for mixing enhancement in a supersonic streamwise vortex.
Primitive lamprophyres in orogenic belts can provide crucial insights into the nature of the subcontinental lithosphere and the relevant deep crust–mantle interactions. This paper reports a suite of relatively primitive lamprophyre dykes from the North Qiangtang, central Tibetan Plateau. Zircon U–Pb ages of the lamprophyre dykes range from 214 Ma to 218 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 216 ± 1 Ma. Most of the lamprophyre samples are similar in geochemical compositions to typical primitive magmas (e.g. high MgO contents, Mg no. values and Cr, with low FeOt/MgO ratios), although they might have experienced a slightly low degree of olivine crystallization, and they show arc-like trace-element patterns and enriched Sr–Nd isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70538–0.70540, ϵNd(t) = −2.96 to −1.65). Those geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that the lamprophyre dykes originated from partial melting of a phlogopite- and spinel-bearing peridotite mantle modified by subduction-related aqueous fluids. Combining with the other regional studies, we propose that slab subduction might have occurred during Late Triassic time, and the rollback of the oceanic lithosphere induced the lamprophyre magmatism in the central Tibetan Plateau.
The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.
Celestial navigation is an important means of maritime navigation; it can automatically achieve inertially referenced positioning and orientation after a long period of development. However, the impact of different accuracy of observations and the influence of nonstationary states, such as ship speed change and steering, are not taken into account in existing algorithms. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an adaptively robust maritime celestial navigation algorithm, in which each observation value is given an equivalent weight according to the robust estimation theory, and the dynamic balance between astronomical observation and prediction values of vessel motion is adjusted by applying the adaptive factor. With this system, compared with the frequently used least square method and extended Kalman filter algorithm, not only are the real-time and high-precision navigation parameters, such as position, course, and speed for the vessel, calculated simultaneously, but also the influence of abnormal observation and vessel motion status change could be well suppressed.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death caused by single pathogenic microorganism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The study aims to explore the associations of microRNA (miRNA) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with pulmonary TB (PTB) risk. A population-based case−control study was conducted, and 168 newly diagnosed smear-positive PTB cases and 251 non-TB controls were recruited. SNPs located within miR-27a (rs895819), miR-423 (rs6505162), miR-196a-2 (rs11614913), miR-146a (rs2910164), miR-618 (rs2682818) were selected and MassARRAY® MALDI-TOF System was employed for genotyping. SPSS19.0 was adopted for statistical analysis, non-conditional logistic regression was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed to estimate the associations. Associations of haplotypes with PTB risk were performed with online tool. Rs895819 CT/CC genotype was associated with reduced PTB risk among female population (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23–0.98), P = 0.045. Haplotypes (combined with rs895819, rs2682818, rs2910164, rs6505162 and rs11614913) TCCCT, TAGCC, CCCCC, CCGCT and TCGAT were associated with reduced PTB risk and the ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45–0.99), 0.49 (0.25–0.94), 0.34 (95% CI: 0.14–0.81), 0.22 (95% CI: 0.06–0.84) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07–0.79), respectively; while the haplotypes of TAGCT, CCCCT, CACCT and TCCAT were associated with increased PTB risk, and the ORs were 3.63 (95% CI: 1.54–8.55), 2.20 (95% CI: 1.00–4.86), 3.90 (95% CI: 1.47–10.36) and 2.95 (95% CI: 1.09–7.99), respectively. Rs895819 CT/CC genotype was associated with reduced female PTB risk and haplotype TCCCT, TAGCC, CCCCC, CCGCT and TCGAT were associated with reduced PTB risk, while TAGCT, CCCCT, CACCT and TCCAT were associated with increased risk.
Self-efficacy is a pivotal factor in the etiology and prognosis of major depression. However, longitudinal studies on the relationship between self-efficacy and major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce. The objectives were to investigate: (1) the associations between self-efficacy and the 1-year and 2-year risks of first onset of MDD and (2) the associations between self-efficacy and the 1-year and 2-year risks of the persistence/recurrence of MDD, in a sample of first-year university students.
We followed 8079 first-year university students for 2 years from April 2018 to October 2020. MDD was ascertained by the Chinese version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-3.0) based on self-report. Self-efficacy was measured by the 10-item General Self-efficacy (GSE) scale. Random effect logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the associations.
Among participants without a lifetime MDD, the data showed that participants with high baseline GSE scores were associated with a higher risk of first onset of MDD over 2 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.08]. Among those with a lifetime MDD, participants with high baseline GSE scores were less likely to have had a MDD over 2 years (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.99) compared to others.
A high level of GSE may be protective of the risk of persistent or recurrent MDD. More longitudinal studies in university students are needed to further investigate the impact of GSE on the first onset of MDD.
This study examined the effect of a cryoprotectant with and without pentoxifylline supplementation on the motility and viability of human testicular sperm, both before and after freezing. Testicular samples were obtained from 68 patients with azoospermia who came to the Andrology Service of West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, for testicular biopsies from December 2019 to April 2020. All patients were assigned randomly to two groups: experimental, whose testicular sperm were added to the cryoprotectant with pentoxifylline, and the control, whose testicular sperm were added to the cryoprotectant without pentoxifylline. Both groups used the same freezing and thawing methods. Testicular sperm motility in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both before and after cryopreservation. The recovery rate of sperm motility in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The percentage of samples with motile testicular sperm in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group after thawing. Sperm viability was unchanged between the experimental and control groups, both before and after freezing. Overall, a pentoxifylline-supplemented cryoprotectant can significantly improve the motility of testicular sperm before and after cryopreservation.
Giardia duodenalis is a common zoonotic intestinal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in humans and animals; however, genotyping information for G. duodenalis in captive animals is still limited. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in captive animals in zoological gardens in Shanghai, China. A total of 678 fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from captive animals including non-human primates (NHPs) (n = 190), herbivores (n = 190), carnivores (n = 151), birds (n = 138) and reptiles (n = 9) in a zoo and were examined for the presence of G. duodenalis using nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR). All G. duodenalis positive samples were assayed with PCR followed by sequencing at β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. In this study, 42 specimens (6.2%) were tested G. duodenalis-positive of the 678 fecal samples examined based on a single locus. A total of 30 (4.4%), 30 (4.4%) and 22 (3.2%) specimens were successfully amplified and sequenced at gdh, tpi and bg loci, respectively. Assemblages A and B were identified with assemblage B dominating in NHPs. Sequence analysis demonstrated that one, two and five new isolates were identified at bg, gdh and tpi loci. DNA sequences and new assemblage-subtypes of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were identified in the current study. Our data indicate the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and the potential zoonotic transmission in captive animals in China.
The relationship between exposure to famine in early life and the risk of ascending aorta dilatation (AAD) in adulthood is still unclear; therefore, we aimed to examine the association in the Chinese population. We investigated the data of 2598 adults who were born between 1952 and 1964 in Guangdong, China. All enrolled subjects were categorised into five groups: not exposed to famine, exposed during fetal period, and exposed during early, mid or late childhood. AAD was assessed by cardiac ultrasound. Multivariate logistic regression and interaction tests were performed to estimate the OR and CI on the association between famine exposure and AAD. There were 2598 (943 male, mean age 58·3 ± 3·68 years) participants were enrolled, and 270 (10·4 %) subjects with AAD. We found that famine exposure (OR = 2·266, 95 % CI 1·477, 3·477, P = 0·013) was associated with elevated AAD after adjusting for multiple confounders. In addition, compared with the non-exposed group, the adjusted OR for famine exposure during fetal period, early, mid or late childhood were 1·374 (95 % CI 0·794, 2·364, P = 0·251), 1·976 (95 % CI 1·243, 3·181, P = 0·004), 1·929 (95 % CI 1·237, 3·058, P = 0·004) and 2·227 (95 % CI 1·433, 3·524, P < 0·001), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the effect of famine exposure on the association with AAD was more pronounced in female, current smokers, people with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 and hypertensive patients. We observed that exposure to famine during early life was linked to AAD in adulthood.