To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Traditional classifications of vertebrates’ responses to urbanization fail to capture the behaviour of those that rely on both urban and wildland resources for population persistence. Here, we use the wood stork (Mycteria americana), a species that makes daily foraging trips up to 74 km away from its nest, as an example of a previously unrecognized response to urbanization. We monitored nests and sampled diets at stork colonies in south Florida (USA) during 2014–2020 to investigate how storks use urban habitats. We found that urban development now comprises up to 51.6% of the land cover within the 30-km core foraging area surrounding colonies and that storks access alternative prey types within these urban areas. Our results also showed that urban-nesting storks outperformed wildland-nesting storks when the hydrological condition of the wetlands was suboptimal for foraging. Though storks still require healthy wetlands for population persistence, urban habitat benefitted storks when hydrological patterns were not ideal for prey production in wildlands. This ‘commuter’ response to urbanization, whereby individuals opt to utilize both urban and wildland resources within short time periods, may apply to other vertebrates with large home ranges.
Background: Patient colonization and shedding of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is a major source of environmental contamination leading to VRE transmission in nursing homes. We hypothesize that we can inform mitigation strategies by identifying patient clinical and microbiota features associated with environmental contamination with VRE. Methods: During a 6-month period of active surveillance in 6 Michigan nursing homes, 245 patients (with 806 follow-up visits) were enrolled. Patient clinical data and swabs for VRE were collected from multiple body sites and high-touch environmental surfaces. In total, 316 perirectal swabs were collected from 137 patients for gut microbiota analysis and community status type (CST) assignment based on taxonomic composition. The associations between VRE colonization pattern, gut microbial CST, and patient factors were examined using multivariable generalized estimating equations, adjusting for patient-and facility-level clustering. We used VRE colonization patterns to group study visits: “uncolonized” (patient−/environment−); “environment-only” (patient−/environment+); “patient-only” (patient+/environment−); “both” (patient+/environment+). Results: Across all study visits, VRE colonization on patient hand and groin/perirectal area was positively correlated with VRE contamination of high-touch environmental surfaces, suggesting direct transfer of VRE between patient and environment via patient hands (Figure 1A). We next set out to identify patient factors associated with patient colonization and environmental contamination. At baseline, while patients in the “both” group had anticipated risk factors such as longer prior hospitalization and more frequent broad-spectrum antibiotic use, they were unexpectedly younger than “uncolonized” patients and had similar functional status. This last feature contrasted with the “patient-only” group, characterized by higher urinary catheter use and higher functional dependence, suggestive of lower functional dependence facilitating patient contamination of their environment. No clinical features distinguished “uncolonized” and “environment-only” patients (Table 1). Lastly, in multivariable analyses, we determined the contribution of patient functional status and gut microbiota features to environmental contamination. Low-diversity CST, characterized by reduced anaerobic taxa, was weakly associated with “patient-only” and significantly associated with “both.” Notably, high functional dependence was significantly associated with “environment-only” and “patient-only” but not “both,” indicating high-functioning patients with disrupted gut microbiota as drivers of environmental contamination (Figure 1B). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that antimicrobial exposure disrupts patient gut microbiota, a significant mediator of colonization dynamics between patients and their environment, and that high-functioning patients may be more likely to spread VRE between their body sites and high-touch environmental surfaces (Figure 2). These findings highlight both antibiotic stewardship and patient hand hygiene as important targets for interrupting transmission mediated by environmental contamination.
Background: Upon admission, 56.8% of patients entering 6 Michigan nursing facilities from regional acute-care hospitals (ACHs) were colonized with 1 or more antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) (Mody 2018, CID). This observation raises 2 questions critical to regional infection control strategies: (1) Is the high ARO burden entering nursing facilities driven by dominant epidemic lineages or diverse circulating strains? and (2) What are the relative roles of patient characteristics (eg, high-risk patients) and exposure to specific ACHs (eg, high-risk facilities) in determining whether patients are colonized with AROs upon nursing facility admission? Here, we integrated whole-genome sequencing, patient transfer, and clinical data to answer these questions for the 4 most prevalent ARO species in the region: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfc), Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (CipREc). Methods: We studied colonizing isolates collected via active surveillance of 584 patients in 6 Michigan nursing facilities between 2013 and 2016. The whole genome of the first isolate of each ARO species collected from each patient was sequenced and analyzed to identify sequence types (STs) and to infer the transmission network by species. We determined the connectedness between nursing facilities based on the number of patients received from the same ACHs and assigned each ARO to the most recent ACH using curated transfer information. The associations between patient characteristics and recent ACH exposures with colonization by ARO were examined using multivariable models. Results: Most of the sequenced ARO isolates belonged to major healthcare-associated lineages: MRSA (ST5, N = 78 of 117); VREfc (ST6, N = 68 of 75); CipREc (ST131, N = 50 of 64); and closely related VREfm isolates (N = 129). Phylogenetically closely related isolates were found across study facilities, indicating that endemic ARO lineages have permeated local healthcare networks (Fig. 1). Patient characteristics played a dominant role in determining patient risk of ARO colonization on admission to a nursing facility. Only in the case of VREfm was a hospital significantly associated with colonization after adjustment for covariates (Table 1). Conclusions: ARO lineages were widely disseminated and colonization of specific ARO lineages at nursing facility entry could not be attributed to recent exposure to a specific ACH. Thus, for the ARO lineages studied here, a broader transmission system crosses ACHs, nursing facilities and probably the community. Therefore, the best indicators of ARO colonization were patient clinical characteristics, particularly poor functional status and antibiotic exposure. These findings suggest that intervention efforts targeting patients with characteristics associated with ARO colonization may help limit further spread among regional facilities.
This Perceptual Dialectology (PD) study asked residents of Cardiff, Wales, about their perceptions of English in the United Kingdom (UK). In addition, because face to face exposure to dialect variation has rarely been included as a variable in PD studies, participants were asked about their travel experience to ascertain whether this might influence their responses to a PD map task. Participants’ responses to the map task were analyzed using ArcGIS to create composite maps. Results show that these Cardiffians perceive “dialect or regional” speech boundaries to be located around major cities in England and Wales but also southwest Wales. Composite maps and polygon counts suggest that the more traveled respondents have a more nuanced perception of dialect regions than those who claim to travel less, suggesting that travel experience may influence PD participants’ responses to map tasks.
Bringing together a team of renowned international scholars, this volume provides a wide-ranging collection of historical and state-of-the-art perspectives on language regard, particularly in the context of language variation and language change, and importantly, highlights the range of new methodologies being used by linguists to explore and evaluate it. The importance of language regard to the inquiry of language variation and change in the field of sociolinguistics is increasingly being recognized, yet misunderstandings about its nature and importance continue to exist. This volume provides scholars and students of sociolinguistics, with the tools and theory to pursue such inquiry. Contributions and research come from Europe, North America, and Asia, and language varieties such as Spanish, Dutch, Danish, and American Sign Language are discussed.