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From 300 BC to AD 300, the city of Pergamon underwent a profound transformation that impacted the rural settlement patterns and the concomitant geomorphodynamics. We present a geoarchaeological study in a long-term settled catchment in the Pergamon micro-region to disentangle the Holocene geomorphodynamics and triggering factors, for example, climate change and human activity. The analyses of eight radiocarbon-dated sediment profiles from the Tekkedere alluvial fan and its catchment indicate four principal sedimentation phases. Phase 1 (ca. 6.2 to 5–4 ka) is dominated by the floodplain aggradation of the receiving Bakırçay River, which is followed by the formation of floodplain soils (phase 2). Substantial geomorphodynamic changes occurred around 4 ka (phase 3), when the edge of the floodplain was buried by fan sediments of the tributary Tekkedere creek. This is attributed to supraregional aridization and rapid climate change events, superimposed by the onset of local human activities. Repeated cycles of coarse- and fine-textured fan sediments with age inversions after ca. 3.8 ka and valley infills younger than 1300 yr BP indicate the strong erosion and redeposition of sediments in phase 4. These increased geomorphodynamics may coincide with the changing settlement pattern and thus reflect human–environment interactions.
Vessel diameter variation along the hydraulic pathway determines how much water can be moved against the force of gravity from roots to leaves. While it is well-documented that tree size scales with vessel diameter variation at the stem base due to the effect of basipetal vessel widening, much less is known whether this likewise applies to terminal sun-exposed twigs. To analyze the effect of tree height on twig xylem anatomy, we compiled data for 279 tropical rainforest tree species belonging to 56 families in the lowlands of Jambi Province, Indonesia. Terminal upper-canopy twigs of fully grown individuals were collected and used for wood anatomical analysis.
We show that hydraulically weighted vessel diameter (Dh) and potential hydraulic conductivity (Kp) of upper canopy twigs increase with tree height across species although the relationship was weak. When averaged across given tree height classes irrespectively of species identity, however, a strong dependency of tree height on Dh and Kp was observed, but not on the lumen-to-sapwood area ratio (Al:Ax) or vessel density (VD).
According to the comparison between actual tree height and the maximum tree height reported for a given species in the stand, we show that the vascular xylem anatomy of their terminal twigs reflects their canopy position and thus ecological niche (understory versus overstory) at maturity. We conclude that the capacity to move large quantities of water during the diurnal peak in evaporative demand is a prerequisite for growing tall in a humid tropical environment.
Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
The performance of a novel type of NdFeB micromagnets fabricated by agglomeration
of magnetic powder by atomic layer deposition is investigated. The ALD-bonded
micromagnets can withstand standard BEOL (back-end of line) processing and heat
treatments at temperatures of up to 400 °C in air and vacuum without
any significant impact on the demagnetization curves. By optimized packing
density a remanence of 660 mT is realized for the micromagnets. The coercivity
µ0Hc = 890 mT remains constant for
all samples and corresponds to the powder value.
A comparison of the demagnetizing behavior of micromagnets with theory of solid
body magnets prove that the influence of particle shape and hollow spaces on
demagnetizing field is low. Hence, a similar impact of shape on stray field and
forces as for solid body magnets can be assumed when integrating NdFeB
ALD-bonded micromagnets in applications.
The Dutch book trade provided the major channel through which English books were distributed on the Continent in the early eighteenth century. In the second half of the century, the Dutch trade retained its leading position, but it appears to have gradually lost its key function as distributor of English books to the Continent. In the total corpus of continental translations, literary works constituted the central element. The literature of travel and geographical exploration was of great interest on the Continent not only were the reports of James Cook and other individual works translated, but large new collections of travel accounts were also compiled. In some fields such as classical and oriental studies, the intellectual exchanges between England and scholarly centres on the Continent were particularly intense. Many details of this traffic in ideas across the Channel are also of interest to the book historian.