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To examine the association between childhood trauma and work functioning, and to elucidate to what extent this association can be accounted for by depression and/or anxiety.
Data of 1,649 working participants were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, n = 2,981). Childhood trauma (emotional neglect, psychological, physical, and sexual abuse before age 16) was assessed with a structured interview and work functioning, in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism, with the Health and Labor Questionnaire Short Form (SF-HLQ) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II), respectively. Depressive and/or anxiety disorders were assessed with the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI). Mediation analyses were conducted.
At baseline, 44.8% reported to have experienced childhood trauma. Workers with the highest childhood trauma level showed significantly (p < 0.001) more absenteeism as well as more presenteeism. Mediation analyses revealed that indirect effects between the childhood trauma index and both work indices were significantly mediated by current depressive disorder (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively) and current comorbid depression-anxiety (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively), with the latter accounting for the largest effects (PM = 0.23 and PM = 0.29, respectively). No significant mediating role in this relationship was found for current anxiety disorder and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder.
Persons with childhood trauma have significantly reduced work functioning in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism. This seems to be largely accounted for by current depressive disorders and current comorbid depression-anxiety.
Evidence indicates that classical antipsychotics may aggravate non-malignant and malignant catatonia (MC). Atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause movement disorders than classical antipsychotics and they are being frequently prescribed in disorders that can be associated with catatonia. Therefore, the important question that arises is whether atypical antipsychotics have a role to play in the treatment of catatonia.
Materials and methods
A Medline search was performed to locate papers on the use of atypical antipsychotics in catatonia published between 1970 and 31st December 2004.
The literature on the use of atypical antipsychotics in catatonia consists of case reports and retrospective studies. In most cases of non-MC a reduction of the catatonic symptoms is reported upon treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Cases of MC relate mainly to the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), which is considered as an iatrogenic stuporous variant of MC caused by antipsychotics.
There are indications that atypical antipsychotics may be useful in non-MC. As a consequence, one should not only focus on the possible extrapyramidal and autonomic side effects of these drugs, but also on the possible beneficial effects on certain brain functions and on the catatonic symptomatology. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of these drugs, and caution is advisable, since cases of NMS have been linked to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. There is no evidence to prescribe atypical antipsychotics in MC.
To explore the correlations between observer ratings and instrumental parameters across domains of psychomotor functioning in depression.
In total, 73 patients with major depressive disorder underwent extensive psychomotor and clinical testing. Psychomotor functioning was assessed with (i) an observer-rated scale (the CORE measure) and also objectively with (ii) 24-h actigraphy, and (iii) a fine motor drawing task.
Observer ratings of retardation correlated with instrumental assessments of fine and gross motor functioning. In contrast, observer ratings of agitation did not correlate with observer ratings of retardation or with the instrumental measures. These associations were partly influenced by age and, to a lesser extent, by depression severity.
Psychomotor disturbance is a complex concept with different manifestations in depressed patients. Although observer ratings of retardation correspond well with instrumental measures of the motor domains, objective measurement of agitation and other aspects of psychomotor disturbance require further research.
According to a recent study, ratings on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) obtained via a dedicated semi-structured interview are valid measures of the severity of psychotic depression. This study aimed to further test the validity, scalability and responsiveness of the PDAS in older adults using independent ratings on the Clinical Global Impression Scale – Severity (CGI-S) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as references.
Ratings were performed at admission and discharge at two old age psychiatric wards in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 62 older adults (mean age: 74.3 years) with psychotic depression were included. The PDAS was rated by trained nurses using the semi-structured PDAS interview. Senior psychiatrists scored the participants on the CGI-S. Psychologists or experienced nurses rated participants on the MADRS. Clinical validity was assessed by correlating the PDAS total scores with CGI-S ratings and MADRS total scores. Mokken analysis was performed to assess the scalability of the PDAS. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing the proportion of participants in remission (PDAS total score <8 at study baseline and endpoint).
The Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.79 for the PDAS versus CGI-S and PDAS versus MADRS, respectively. The Mokken analysis yielded a Loevinger coefficient of 0.46, which is indicative of scalability. At admission, no participants met the PDAS remission criterion. At discharge, 54% (95% confidence interval: 47%–60%) of the patients met this criterion.
The PDAS appears to be a clinically valid, scalable and responsive measure of the severity of psychotic depression in older adults.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be the most effective treatment in severe major depression. The identification of reliable predictors of ECT response could contribute to a more targeted patient selection and consequently increased ECT response rates.
To investigate the predictive value of age, depression severity, psychotic and melancholic features for ECT response and remission in major depression.
A meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. A literature search identified recent studies that reported on at least one of the potential predictors.
Of the 2193 articles screened, 34 have been included for meta-analysis. Presence of psychotic features is a predictor of ECT remission (odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, P = 0.001) and response (OR = 1.69, P < 0.001), as is older age (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.26 for remission and 0.35 for response (P < 0.001)). The severity of depression predicts response (SMD = 0.19, P = 0.001), but not remission. Data on melancholic symptoms were inconclusive.
ECT is particularly effective in patients with depression with psychotic features and in elderly people with depression. More research on both biological and clinical predictors is needed to further evaluate the position of ECT in treatment protocols for major depression.
Declaration of interest
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