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Invasive emergent and floating macrophytes can have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Management of these aquatic weeds frequently relies upon foliar application of aquatic herbicides. However, there is inherent variability of overspray (herbicide loss) for foliar applications into waters within and adjacent to the targeted treatment area. The spray retention (tracer dye captured) of four invasive broadleaf emergent species (water hyacinth, alligatorweed, creeping water primrose, and parrotfeather) and two emergent grass-like weeds (cattail and torpedograss) were evaluated. For all species, spray retention was simulated using foliar applications of rhodamine WT (RWT) dye as a herbicide surrogate under controlled mesocosm conditions. Spray retention of the broadleaf species was first evaluated using a CO2-pressurized spray chamber overtop dense vegetation growth or no plants (positive control) at a greenhouse (GH) scale. Broadleaf species and grass-like species were then evaluated in larger outdoor mesocosms (OM). These applications were made using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer. Evaluation metrics included species-wise canopy cover and height influence on in-water RWT concentration using image analysis and modeling techniques. Results indicated spray retention was greatest for water hyacinth (GH, 64.7 ± 7.4; OM, 76.1 ± 3.8). Spray retention values were similar among the three sprawling marginal species alligatorweed (GH, 37.5 ± 4.5; OM, 42 ± 5.7), creeping water primrose (GH, 54.9 ± 7.2; OM, 52.7 ± 5.7), and parrotfeather (GH, 48.2 ± 2.3; OM, 47.2 ± 3.5). Canopy cover and height were strongly correlated with spray retention for broadleaf species and less strongly correlated for grass-like species. Although torpedograss and cattail were similar in percent foliar coverage, they differed in percent spray retention (OM, 8.5± 2.3 and 28.9 ±4.1, respectively). The upright leaf architecture of the grass-like species likely influenced the lower spray retention values in comparison to the broadleaf species.
Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2020 to investigate the effects of carrier volume and sethoxydim rate on torpedograss (Panicum repens L.) control and sand cordgrass (Spartina bakeri Merr.) response from a single application. Panicum repens control and biomass reduction generally increased with increasing sethoxydim rates in evaluations at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT); however, increasing the rate to 2X the maximum labeled rate did not always result in increased efficacy. In the first experimental run, which consisted of small plants, P. repens control and biomass reductions were largely similar among tested carrier volumes (37, 187, and 935 L ha−1). However, in run 2, which consisted of larger, mature P. repens plants, efficacy increased when carrier volume was reduced. Spartina bakeri injury increased with sethoxydim rate, reaching a maximum of 45% by 42 DAT. However, no differences in S. bakeri injury among carrier volumes were observed at 14 and 28 DAT evaluations. Spartina bakeri aboveground biomass reductions were also largely driven by sethoxydim rate increases rather than reduced carrier volumes, reaching 40% to 50% reduction in initial aboveground biomass. However, S. bakeri belowground biomass was 20% to 32% greater in treatments applied at 37 or 187 L ha−1 compared with those at 935 L ha−1. Overall, these data suggest that selective P. repens control with sethoxydim may be enhanced through reducing carrier volumes from 935 L ha−1 and that native, perennial, caespitose grasses may exhibit greater tolerance to sethoxydim compared with the rhizomatous P. repens. Future research should further test these hypotheses under field conditions at operational scales.
Crop residue can intercept and adsorb residual herbicides, leading to reduced efficacy. However, adsorption can sometimes be reversed by rainfall or irrigation. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of differential overhead irrigation level on barnyardgrass response to acetochlor, pyroxasulfone, and pendimethalin applied to bare soil or wheat straw–covered soil. Acetochlor applied to wheat straw–covered soil resulted in 25% to 40% reduced control, 30 to 50 more plants 213 cm−2, and greater biomass than bare soil applications, regardless of irrigation amount. Barnyardgrass suppression by pyroxasulfone applications to wheat straw–covered soil improved with increased irrigation; however, weed control levels similar to bare soil applications were not observed after any irrigation amount. Barnyardgrass densities from pyroxasulfone applications to bare soil decreased with irrigation but did not change in applications to wheat straw–covered soil. Aboveground barnyardgrass biomass from pyroxasulfone decreased with greater irrigation amounts in both bare soil and wheat straw–covered soil applications; however, decreased efficacy in wheat straw–covered soil applications was not alleviated with irrigation. Pendimethalin was the only herbicide tested that displayed reduced efficacy when irrigation amounts increased in applications to both bare soil and wheat straw–covered soil. Barnyardgrass control from pendimethalin applied to wheat straw–covered soil was similar to bare soil applications when approximately 0.3 to 1.2 cm of irrigation was applied; however, irrigation amounts greater than 1.2 cm resulted in greater barnyardgrass control in bare soil applications. No differences between wheat straw–covered soil and bare soil applications of pendimethalin were observed for barnyardgrass densities. These data indicate that increased irrigation or rainfall level can increase efficacy of acetochlor and pyroxasulfone. Optimal rainfall or irrigation amounts required for efficacy similar to bare soil applications are herbicide specific, and some herbicides, such as pendimethalin, may be adversely affected by increased rainfall or irrigation.
Foliar delivery of herbicides is a common means for plant management in aquatic environments. Though this technique is decades old, little is known about vegetative spray retention relative to this application method. A more complete understanding of maximizing herbicide retention could lead to improved plant management while simultaneously decreasing pesticide load in aquatic environments. Therefore outdoor mesocosm experiments were conducted in 2020 to evaluate the effect of adjuvant type on foliar spray retention in waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms]. Additionally, the effect of carrier volume on spray retention in waterhyacinth, waterlettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.), and giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell) was documented. Spray deposition did not differ among the nine adjuvants tested; however, spray retention was reduced 6% to 11% when an adjuvant was excluded from the spray solution. The effect of carrier volume on spray retention in waterhyacinth, waterlettuce, and giant salvinia was also investigated. Decreases in spray retention were most sensitive to increased carrier volume in waterhyacinth, followed by giant salvinia and waterlettuce. Among species, spray retention potential, as determined by intercept estimates, was greatest in waterlettuce and giant salvinia regardless of carrier volume. Asymptotes estimates for waterhyacinth, waterlettuce, and giant salvinia were 33%, 46%, and 79% spray retention, respectively. In other words, spray retention was the lowest and remained relatively constant at these values for the high carrier volumes tested (935 and 1,870 L ha−1), which were likely due to the presence of pubescence on leaves and flatter leaf architecture represented by waterlettuce and giant salvinia compared to the glabrous vertical leaves of waterhyacinth. Future research will evaluate these concepts under field conditions.
Mangroves are a critical component of many coastal ecosystems in Florida. Woody species, including Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), have invaded thousands of hectares of mangrove habitat. The difficulty associated with ground-based management of invasive plants in mangrove communities has warranted a need to identify selective herbicides that can be applied aerially. Recent work suggests that Florida mangrove species are extremely sensitive to synthetic auxin herbicides; however, other herbicides have yet to be tested for selectivity. Greenhouse studies in 2018 and 2019 evaluated broadcast foliar applications of the acetolactate synthase inhibitor imazamox and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor carfentrazone-ethyl, both as individual treatments and in combinations, for control of S. terebinthifolia and injury to four non-target mangrove species. Across all posttreatment sample dates and species tested, there were no significant interactions between imazamox applied at 0.28 or 0.56 kg ai ha−1 in combination with carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0 or 0.1 kg ha−1. Main effects of imazamox applied at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 and carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 0.1 kg ha−1 resulted in 99% and 97% defoliation, respectively, of Schinus terebinthifolia at 180 DAT. However, S. terebinthifolia percent survival was 56% and 44% for the same treatments. Both herbicides severely injured all four mangroves by 90 DAT and resulted in 58% to 100% defoliation across species. At 180 DAT, significant increases in percent cambium kill were also observed for all four species. Across species, mangrove survival varied, but red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) survival was reduced to 6% when imazamox was applied at 0.56 kg ha−1. These results indicate both imazamox and carfentrazone-ethyl exhibit activity on S. terebinthifolia but also injure all four mangroves enough to preclude their use as selective treatments.
Mesocosm studies were conducted in 2020 to evaluate the effects of carrier volume and application method on waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] response to 2,4-D, glyphosate, and diquat. Carrier volumes of 935, 467, and 187 L ha−1 were applied using either a conventional stream, conventional cone, adjustable cone, or a drizzle-stream spray pattern. Reducing carrier volume from 935 L ha−1 reduced spray coverage up to 60%, depending on application method. However, reducing carrier volume did not diminish efficacy of any herbicide or application method. Alternatively, E. crassipes control from 2,4-D increased 10% to 26% when applied using 187 L ha−1 compared with 935 L ha−1. Likewise, E. crassipes biomass was reduced 91% when 2,4-D was applied using 935 L ha−1; however, treatment applied at 187 L ha−1 resulted in 99% biomass reduction. In general, 2,4-D resulted in roughly 10% greater control when conventional or adjustable cone applications were used compared with either stream applications. Eichhornia crassipes control at 7 d after treatment (DAT) from diquat increased with decreasing carrier volumes; however, treatment effects in diquat experiments were not detected at other evaluation intervals. Glyphosate efficacy was highly influenced by carrier volume, as E. crassipes control increased up to 61% when applied using 187 L ha−1 compared with 935 L ha−1. Moreover, E. crassipes biomass reduction increased from 55% in the 935 L ha−1 treatment to 97% in the 187 L ha−1 treatments. Glyphosate application methods consisting of conventional stream or conventional cone sprayers resulted in slightly increased E. crassipes control by 28 DAT; however, no differences among application methods were observed in E. crassipes biomass data. These data support further evaluations of alternative application techniques for E. crassipes control under field conditions and for other herbicides and aquatic plant species.
Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is an invasive shrub that is problematic in both freshwater wetlands and brackish mangrove communities. The complex structure, geographic remoteness, and general herbicide sensitivity of mangrove systems have resulted in great technical challenges for managers attempting selective S. terebinthifolia control. Recent advances in auxin herbicide technologies warrant herbicide screening to address this growing problem. Therefore, greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate four non-target mangrove species and S. terebinthifolia response to the three herbicides: aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, and florpyrauxifen-benyzl. Aminocyclopyrachlor controlled S. terebinthifolia, but was highly injurious to black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.], red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.), white mangrove [Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.], and buttonwood mangrove (Conocarpus erectus L.). Aminopyralid also controlled S. terebinthifolia but its impact varied across mangrove species. Laguncularia racemosa and C. erectus were highly sensitive to aminopyralid, R. mangle exhibited dose-dependent tolerance, and A. germinans was highly tolerant. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl failed to control
S. terebinthifolia and resulted in severe injury to all four mangrove species. These results indicate differential responses to newer auxins in both the target response and non-target plant community of interest. The efficacy of aminopyralid on S. terebinthifolia, coupled with its selectivity on A. germinans warrants further testing.
The pyridine carboxylic acid (PCA) herbicide family can exhibit differential activity within and among plant species, despite molecular resemblances. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP), a pyrimidine carboxylic acid, is a recently discovered compound with similar use patterns to those of the PCA family; however, relative activity among PCAs and AMCP is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify relative activity among aminopyralid, picloram, clopyralid, triclopyr, and AMCP in canola, squash, and okra using dose-response whole-plant bioassays. Clopyralid was less active than all other herbicides in all species and did not fit dose-response models. Aminopyralid and picloram performed similarly in squash (ED50 = 21.1 and 23.3 g ae ha−1, respectively). Aminopyralid was 3.8 times and 1.7 times more active than picloram in canola (ED50 = 60.3 and 227.7 g ha−1, respectively) and okra (ED50 = 10.3 and 17.3 g ha−1, respectively). Triclopyr (ED50 = 37.3 g ha−1) was more active than AMCP (ED50 = 112.9 g ha−1) and picloram in canola. Aminocyclopyrachlor (ED50 = 6.6 g ha−1) and triclopyr (ED50 = 7.8 g ha−1) were more active in squash than aminopyralid and picloram. In okra, AMCP (ED50 = 14.6 g ha−1) and aminopyralid (ED50 = 10.3 g ha−1) performed similarly but were more active than triclopyr (ED50 = 88.2 g ha−1). Herbicidal activity among AMCP and PCAs was vastly different despite molecular similarities that could be due to variable target-site sensitivity among species.
Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 across four locations for a total of 6 site-years in the midsouthern United States to determine the effect of growth stage at exposure on soybean sensitivity to sublethal rates of dicamba (8.8 g ae ha−1) and 2,4-D (140 g ae ha−1). Regression analysis revealed that soybean was most susceptible to injury from 2,4-D when exposed between 413 and 1,391 accumulated growing degree days (GDD) from planting, approximately between V1 and R2 growth stages. In terms of terminal plant height, soybean was most susceptible to 2,4-D between 448 and 1,719 GDD, or from V1 to R4. However, maximum susceptibility to 2,4-D was only between 624 and 1,001 GDD or from V3 to V5 for yield loss. As expected, soybean was sensitive to dicamba for longer spans of time, ranging from 0 to 1,162 GDD for visible injury or from emergence to R2. Likewise, soybean height was most affected when dicamba exposure occurred between 847 and 1,276 GDD or from V4 to R2. Regarding grain yield, soybean was most susceptible to dicamba between 820 and 1,339 GDD or from V4 to R2. Consequently, these data indicate that soybean response to 2,4-D and dicamba can be variable within vegetative or reproductive growth stages; therefore, specific growth stage at the time of exposure should be considered when evaluating injury from off-target movement. In addition, application of dicamba near susceptible soybean within the V4 to R2 growth stages should be avoided because this is the time of maximum susceptibility. Research regarding soybean sensitivity to 2,4-D and dicamba should focus on multiple exposure times and also avoid generalizing growth stages to vegetative or reproductive.
Research was conducted from 2013 to 2015 across three sites in Mississippi to evaluate corn response to sublethal paraquat or fomesafen (105 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively) applied PRE, or to corn at the V1, V3, V5, V7, or V9 growth stages. Fomesafen injury to corn at three d after treatment (DAT) ranged from 0% to 38%, and declined over time. Compared with the nontreated control (NTC), corn height 14 DAT was reduced approximately 15% due to fomesafen exposure at V5 or V7. Exposure at V1 or V7 resulted in 1,220 and 1,110 kg ha−1 yield losses, respectively, compared with the NTC, but yield losses were not observed at any other growth stage. Fomesafen exposure at any growth stage did not affect corn ear length or number of kernel rows relative to the NTC. Paraquat injury to corn ranged from 26% to 65%, depending on growth stage and evaluation interval. Corn exposure to paraquat at V3 or V5 consistently caused greater injury across evaluation intervals, compared with other growth stages. POST timings of paraquat exposure resulted in corn height reductions of 13% to 50%, except at V7, which was most likely due to rapid internode elongation at that stage. Likewise, yield loss occurred after all exposure times of paraquat except PRE, compared with the NTC. Corn yield was reduced 1,740 to 5,120 kg ha−1 compared with the NTC, generally worsening as exposure time was delayed. Paraquat exposure did not reduce corn ear length, compared with the NTC, at any growth stage. However, paraquat exposure at V3 or V5 was associated with reduction of kernel rows by 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, relative to the NTC. Paraquat and fomesafen applications near corn should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement, because significant injury and yield loss can result.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to compare particle drift of glyphosate using a fluorescent tracer dye applied with hooded and open sprayers at four spray qualities (Fine [F], Medium [M], Very-Coarse [VC], and Ultra-Coarse [UC]). F and M spray qualities exhibited up to 86% and 56% less drift, respectively, out to 31 m downwind with the hooded sprayer than with the open sprayer. Conversely, VC and UC spray qualities were not affected by sprayer type out to 31 m downwind. From 43 to 104 m downwind, hooded sprayer applications exhibited approximately 50% less drift than open sprayer applications, regardless of spray quality. From 43 to 89 m downwind, F spray qualities, regardless of sprayer type, exhibited higher drift than all other spray qualities. These data indicate that hooded sprayers considerably reduce drift of all spray qualities at short distances downwind. Additionally, at longer distances downwind, both larger spray qualities and sprayer hoods reduced drift independently.
Triclopyr is a synthetic auxin herbicide currently available as a triethylamine salt, butoxyethyl ester, pyridinyloxyacetic acid, or choline salt. The formulation of a herbicide has the potential to impact its activity; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of these four triclopyr formulations. Greenhouse dose–response studies were conducted twice at the University of Florida in 2015. The four formulations were foliar applied at rates ranging from 17 to 1,121 g ae ha−1 to 2- to 3-leaf soybean, sunflower, tomato, and cotton. The amine salt formulation provided the lowest ED50 values in tomato and sunflower (22.87 and 60.39 g ha−1, respectively); whereas in soybean, amine and choline formulations provided the lowest ED50 values (22.56 and 20.95 g ha−1, respectively). No differences between formulations were observed in cotton. These data suggest that (1) the amine salt formulation of triclopyr might be more active than the others on tomato and sunflower, and (2) the amine and choline salt formulations might be more active than the others on soybean. Further work must be conducted to determine whether there are differences among these formulations under a range of field conditions and target species. In addition, other important management factors such as applicator safety, volatility potential, and cost should be considered when choosing the best formulated product to be applied.
Two separate experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Citra, FL to investigate the effects of preplant application timing of 2,4-D and dicamba on sesame stand and yield. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to determine the application timing that caused 10% stand or yield reduction (GR10) compared to the nontreated control (NTC) and expressed as d before planting (DBP; longer intervals indicate more injury). Likewise, regression analysis was used to determine sesame stand that resulted in 10% yield reduction (YR10) expressed as plants m−1 row. Stand measured 3 wk after planting (WAP) revealed 2,4-D applied at 0.53 kg ae ha−1 to be the least injurious treatment to sesame stand (GR10=6.4 DBP). Conversely, dicamba at 1.12 kg ha−1 produced a GR10 of 15.7 DBP for sesame stand at 3 WAP. 2,4-D applied at 0.53 and 1.06 kg ha−1 and dicamba applied at 0.56 kg ha−1 had the lowest GR10 for yield of 2, 3.7, and 3 DBP, respectively. Dicamba applied at 1.12 kg ha−1 proved to be the most injurious treatment to yield, which produced a GR10 value of 10.3 DBP. To simulate possible stand losses associated with dicamba or 2,4-D and the subsequent effect on yield, a separate experiment was conducted in which sesame was thinned to various plant densities and yield was recorded to determine the relationship between plant stand and seed yield. The regression analysis of these data was then compared to that of the experiment treated with 2,4-D and dicamba to separate any physiological effects of the herbicides that would lead to yield reduction from yield effects due to stand loss only. Rate constants were compared and no statistical differences were detected between herbicide and non-herbicide treatments, suggesting that yield reductions that occur from preplant applications of 2,4-D and dicamba were purely due to stand reductions.
Two experiments were conducted in 2015 at multiple locations in Florida to evaluate the effects of planting depth and application timing on S-metolachlor injury in sesame. In both studies, sesame responded negatively to increases in S-metolachlor rate. Altering sesame planting depth did not provide increased safety to PRE S-metolachlor applications. Sesame establishment declined with increased planting depth, likely because of the physical inability of the small seed to emerge from the 3.8-cm depth. Delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 or 6 d after planting (DAP) consistently improved sesame establishment. Applications 3 and 6 DAP resulted in 89 to 92% seedling emergence at 2 wk after planting (WAP), relative to 55 to 63% emergence when S-metolachlor was applied the day of planting (0 DAP) or 3 days before (−3 DAP), respectively. Applications 3 DAP resulted in 21 and 2% plant stunting when evaluated 3 and 6 WAP, respectively, whereas all other timings caused 25 to 51% stunting. Yield was reduced 22 and 33% by the −3 DAP and 0 DAP application timings, respectively, whereas no reduction in yield was observed by the delayed application timings. Therefore, delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 to 6 days will likely result in improved sesame seedling establishment and total seed yield.
Two experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Florida to evaluate the effects of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides and single versus sequential applications on Palmer amaranth control and peanut injury. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides are among the last available herbicides for the POST control of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-resistant Palmer amaranth in peanut. Lactofen (219 g ai ha–1) applied 5 d after the initial application provided the highest level of Palmer amaranth control 7 and 14 d after initial application (DAIT). Delaying sequential applications of lactofen to 15 d resulted in the highest level of Palmer amaranth control 21 and 28 DAIT. Similar to Palmer amaranth control, foliar injury to peanut was often highest from lactofen applications, and by 28 DAIT lactofen treatments were the only treatments that caused foliar injury. Although no statistical difference was observed between yields of plots treated with acifluorfen (280 g ai ha–1), bentazon (560 g ai ha–1), 2,4-DB (280 g ae ha–1) alone or in combination with each other, plots treated with sequential applications of lactofen 5 or 15 DAIT produced the lowest yields. Sequential applications of lactofen applied 15 DAIT controlled Palmer amaranth more effectively than any other treatment but also caused the highest level of peanut injury. The use of sequential applications of lactofen was the most effective method for control of Palmer amaranth in this study, but did reduce peanut yield.
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