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Legitimacy is a bulwark for courts; even when judges engage in controversial or disagreeable behavior, the public tends to acquiesce. Recent studies identify several threats to the legitimacy of courts, including polarization and attacks by political elites. This article contributes to the scholarly discourse by exploring a previously unconsidered threat: scandal, or allegations of personal misbehavior. We argue that scandals can undermine confidence in judges as virtuous arbiters and erode broad public support for the courts. Using survey experiments, we draw on real-world judicial controversies to evaluate the impact of scandal on specific support for judicial actors and their rulings and diffuse support for the judiciary. We demonstrate that scandals erode individual support but find no evidence that institutional support is diminished. These findings may ease normative concerns that isolated indiscretions by controversial jurists may deplete the vast “reservoir of goodwill” that is foundational to the courts.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our overall goal is to identify the processes used by the human visual system to encode visual stimuli into perceptual representations. In this project, our objective is (i) to collect a dataset of human neural activity in response to 1000 naturalistic color images and (ii) to determine how image parameters drive different parts of the human brain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We recorded iEEG data in 4 human subjects who had been implanted for epilepsy monitoring. Each subject was presented 10 sets of 100 naturalistic stimuli, taken from the Natural Scenes Dataset (Allen et al., 2021), on a screen for 1 second each with 1 second rest intervals between stimuli. The subjects were instructed to fixate on a red dot at the center of the screen and were prompted to recall whether they had seen 3 additional test stimuli at the end of each set to encourage attentiveness. We calculated significant neural responses at each electrode by comparing evoked potentials and high frequency power changes during each stimulus vs. rest. Electrodes with significant responses were then mapped to anatomic locations in each subjects brain and then collectively to a standard brain. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The natural image set elicited significant evoked potentials and high frequency responses at electrodes in each subject. Response latencies, from 80 to 300 ms after stimulus onset, portrayed the evolution of visual processing along the visual pathways, through key sites such as the early visual cortex, ventral temporal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and frontal eye field. These responses differed significantly from those elicited by simple patterns, which drove early visual cortex but less so in later regions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that the human brain responds differently to more complex images. Determining the human brains response to naturalistic images is essential for encoding models that describe the processing in the human visual system. These models may further future efforts for electrical neurostimulation therapies such as for restoring vision.
Investigating the earliest stages of crystallization requires the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and is particularly challenging for materials which can be affected by the electron beam. Typically, when imaging at magnifications high enough to observe local crystallinity, the electron beam's current density must be high to produce adequate image contrast. Yet, minimizing the electron dose is necessary to reduce the changes caused by the beam. With the advent of a sensitive, high-speed, direct-detection camera for a TEM that is corrected for spherical aberration, it is possible to probe the early stages of crystallization at the atomic scale. High-quality images with low contrast can now be analyzed using new computing methods. In the present paper, this approach is illustrated for crystallization in a Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST-225) phase-change material which can undergo particularly rapid phase transformations and is sensitive to the electron beam. A thin (20 nm) film of GST-225 has been directly imaged in the TEM and the low-dose images processed using Python scripting to extract details of the nanoscale nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the processed images in a video sequence also allows the growth of such nuclei to be followed.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study characterizes interactions between human limbic circuitry and ventral temporal cortex using single pulse electrical stimulation, which may inform emerging stimulation therapies for epilepsy. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of electrical brain stimulation treatment is to modulate brain network function. However, stimulation inputs to different brain sites alter the network in a variety of ways. This study examines that variability by characterizing responses in a target region while stimulating multiple other brain sites. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We measured voltages in intracranial EEG in 6 patients who had electrodes implanted for epilepsy monitoring. We stimulated pairs of electrodes at multiple sites in the brain with a single pulse every 5 to 7 s and measured the resulting corticocortical evoked potential (CCEP) responses in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC). Using a novel clustering method, we uncovered sets of distinct canonical response shapes from the 20 to 500 ms post-stimulation period. This allowed us to group stimulation sites that evoked similar responses. We then related each group to high frequency, broadband, changes in spectral power as a reflection of local neuronal activity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that the VTC receives strong inputs specifically from the amygdala and hippocampus, both in terms of amplitude and broadband spectral power change. However, inputs from the hippocampus produced a different canonical shape than those from the amygdala. We also observed that VTC responses to inputs from the insula clustered in shape with those from the amygdala. These clustering patterns were consistent across subjects, although the actual shapes of the clusters showed variability. We further observed that some shapes were more associated with increases in overall neuronal activity than others, as reflected by broadband spectral power change. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Stimulation of connected sites may drive excitability at the target region in ways that are described by sets of full-time-course responses. By capturing their shapes, we can begin to decipher canonical input types at the circuit level. This approach might identify how stimulation inputs can be tailored to therapy while mitigating adverse effects.
We show that recurrence conditions do not yield invariant Borel probability measures in the descriptive set-theoretic milieu, in the strong sense that if a Borel action of a locally compact Polish group on a standard Borel space satisfies such a condition but does not have an orbit supporting an invariant Borel probability measure, then there is an invariant Borel set on which the action satisfies the condition but does not have an invariant Borel probability measure.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
We show that there is a Borel graph on a standard Borel space of Borel chromatic number three that admits a Borel homomorphism to every analytic graph on a standard Borel space of Borel chromatic number at least three. Moreover, we characterize the Borel graphs on standard Borel spaces of vertex-degree at most two with this property and show that the analogous result for digraphs fails.
Cold winter temperatures significantly affect the biological control effort against water hyacinth, Pontederia ( = Eichhornia) crassipes Mart. (Pontederiaceae), in more temperate regions around the world. The population dynamics of the planthopper Megamelus scutellaris Berg. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a newly released biological control agent of water hyacinth, were recorded on the Kubusi River in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) over 15 months to determine the population recovery post-winter. Megamelus scutellaris incurred a severe population decline at the onset of winter when the water hyacinth plants became frost damaged. The combined effect of a population bottleneck and low minimum winter temperatures (6.12°C) below the agent's lower developmental threshold (11.46°C) caused a post-winter lag in agent density increase. Subsequently, the maximum agent population density was only reached at the end of the following summer growing season which allowed the water hyacinth population to recover in the absence of any significant biological control immediately post-winter. Supplementary releases of agents from mass-reared cultures at the beginning of the growing season (spring) is suggested as a potential method of reducing the lag-period in field populations in colder areas where natural population recovery of agents is slower.