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The NKX2.5 gene is an important cardiac developmental transcription factor, and variants in this gene are most commonly associated with CHD. However, there is an increased need to recognise associations with conduction disease and potentially dangerous ventricular arrhythmias. There is an increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in patients with NKX2.5 variants, an association with relatively less attention in the literature.
We created a family pedigree and reconstructed familial relationships involving numerous relatives with CHD, conduction disease, and ventricular non-compaction following the sudden death of one family member. Two informative but distantly related family members had genetic testing to determine the cause of arrhythmias via arrhythmia/cardiomyopathy gene testing, and we identified obligate genetic-positive relatives based on family relationships and Mendelian inheritance pattern.
We identified a novel pathogenic variant in the NKX2.5 gene (c.437C > A; p. Ser146*), and segregation analysis allowed us to link family cardiac phenotypes including CHD, conduction disease, left ventricular non-compaction, and ventricular arrhythmias/sudden cardiac death.
We report a novel NKX2.5 gene variant linking a spectrum of familial heart disease, and we also encourage recognition of the association between NKX2.5 gene and potentially dangerous ventricular arrhythmias, which will inform clinical risk stratification, screening, and management.
The SCN5A gene is implicated in many arrhythmogenic and cardiomyopathic processes. We identified a novel SCN5A variant in a family with significant segregation in individuals affected with progressive sinus and atrioventricular nodal disease, atrial arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and early sudden cardiac arrest.
A patient pedigree was created following the clinical evaluation of three affected individuals, two monozygotic twins and a paternal half-brother, which lead to the evaluation of a paternal half-sister (four siblings with the same father and three mothers) all of whom experienced varying degrees of atrial arrhythmias, conduction disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy in addition to a paternal history of unexplained death in his 50s with similar autopsy findings. The index male underwent sequencing of 58 genes associated with cardiomyopathies. Sanger sequencing was used to provide data for bases with insufficient coverage and for bases in some known regions of genomic segmental duplications. All clinically significant and novel variants were confirmed by independent Sanger sequencing.
All relatives tested were shown to have the same SCN5A variant of unknown significance (p. Asp197His) and the monozygotic twins shared a co-occurring NEXN (p. Glu575*). Segregation analysis demonstrates likely pathogenic trait for the SCN5A variant with an additional possible role for the NEXN variant in combination.
There is compelling clinical evidence suggesting that the SCN5A variant p. Asp197His may be re-classified as likely pathogenic based on the segregation analysis of our family of interest. Molecular mechanism studies are pending.