To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Subjective cognitive difficulties (SCDs) are associated with factors commonly reported in older adults and former contact sport athletes, regardless of objective cognitive decline. We investigated the relative contribution of these factors to SCD in former National Football League (NFL)-players with and without a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Former NFL players (n = 907) aged ≥ 50 years (mean = 64.7 ± 8.9), with (n = 165) and without (n = 742) a diagnosis of MCI completed health questionnaires. Multivariable regression and dominance analyses determined the relative importance of SCD factors on SCD: 1) depression, 2) anxiety, 3) sleep disturbance, 4) pain interference, 5) ability to participate in social roles and activities, 6) stress-related events, 7) fatigue, 8) concussion history, and 9) education. SCD outcomes included Neuro-QoL Emotional-Behavioral Dyscontrol and the PROMIS Cognitive Function. Fisher’s z-transformation compared comorbid contributing factors to SCD across MCI and non-MCI groups.
Complete dominance of anxiety was established over most comorbid factors across the MCI and non-MCI groups. Fatigue also exhibited complete dominance over most comorbid factors, though its influence in the MCI group was less robust (general dominance). Average contributions to variance accounted for by comorbid factors to ratings of SCD across MCI and non-MCI groups did not statistically differ (Z-statistics <1.96, ps>.05).
Anxiety and fatigue are the most robust factors associated with SCD in former professional football players across various combinations of clinical presentations (different combinations of comorbid factors), regardless of documented cognitive impairment. Self-reported deficits may be less reliable in detecting objective impairment in the presence of these factors, with multidimensional assessment being ideal.
Years of sport participation (YoP) is conventionally used to estimate cumulative repetitive head impacts (RHI) experienced by contact sport athletes. The relationship of this measure to other estimates of head impact exposure and the potential associations of these measures with neurobehavioral functioning are unknown. We investigated the association between YoP and the Head Impact Exposure Estimate (HIEE), and whether associations between the two estimates of exposure and neurobehavioral functioning varied.
Former American football players (N = 58; age = 37.9 ± 1.5 years) completed in-person evaluations approximately 15 years following sport discontinuation. Assessments consisted of neuropsychological assessment and structured interviews of head impact history (i.e., HIEE). General linear models were fit to test the association between YoP and the HIEE, and their associations with neurobehavioral outcomes.
YoP was weakly correlated with the HIEE, p = .005, R2 = .13. Higher YoP was associated with worse performance on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, p = .004, R2 = .14, and Trail Making Test-B, p = .001, R2 = .18. The HIEE was associated with worse performance on the Delayed Recall trial of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, p = .020, R2 = .09, self-reported cognitive difficulties (Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function), p = .011, R2 = .10, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18), p = .018, R2 = .10, and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for Adults), p = .017, R2 = .10.
YoP was marginally associated with the HIEE, a comprehensive estimate of head impacts sustained over a career. Associations between each exposure estimate and neurobehavioral functioning outcomes differed. Findings have meaningful implications for efforts to accurately quantify the risk of adverse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes potentially associated with RHI.
Myxozoans are parasitic, microscopic cnidarians that have retained the phylum-characteristic stinging capsules called nematocysts. Free-living cnidarians, like jellyfish and corals, utilize nematocysts for feeding and defence, with discharge powered by osmotic energy. Myxozoans use nematocysts to anchor to their fish hosts in the first step of infection, however, the discharge mechanism is poorly understood. We used Myxobolus cerebralis, a pathogenic myxozoan parasite of salmonid fishes, and developed two assays to explore the nature of its nematocyst discharge. Using parasite actinospores, the infectious stage to fish, we stimulated discharge of the nematocysts with rainbow trout mucus in vitro, in solutions enriched with chloride salts of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Gd3+, and quantified discharge using microscopy. We then used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the in vivo effects of these treatments, plus Mg2+ and the common aquaculture disinfectant KMnO₄, on the ability of M. cerebralis actinospores to infect fish. We found that Mg2+ and Gd3+ reduced infection in vivo, whereas Na+ and K+ over-stimulated nematocyst discharge in vitro and reduced infection in vivo. These findings align with nematocyst discharge behaviour in free-living Cnidaria, and suggest phylum-wide commonalties, which could be exploited to develop novel approaches for controlling myxozoan diseases in aquaculture.
This study examined the relationship between patient performance on multiple memory measures and regional brain volumes using an FDA-cleared quantitative volumetric analysis program – Neuroreader™.
Ninety-two patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by a clinical neuropsychologist completed cognitive evaluations and underwent MR Neuroreader™ within 1 year of testing. Select brain regions were correlated with three widely used memory tests. Regression analyses were conducted to determine if using more than one memory measures would better predict hippocampal z-scores and to explore the added value of recognition memory to prediction models.
Memory performances were most strongly correlated with hippocampal volumes than other brain regions. After controlling for encoding/Immediate Recall standard scores, statistically significant correlations emerged between Delayed Recall and hippocampal volumes (rs ranging from .348 to .490). Regression analysis revealed that evaluating memory performance across multiple memory measures is a better predictor of hippocampal volume than individual memory performances. Recognition memory did not add further predictive utility to regression analyses.
This study provides support for use of MR Neuroreader™ hippocampal volumes as a clinically informative biomarker associated with memory performance, which is a critical diagnostic feature of MCI phenotype.
Lithium-ion batteries featuring electrodes of silicon nanoparticles, conductive carbon, and polymer binders were constructed with electrolyte containing 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate (1:1, w/w). Material binders used include polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF), polyacrylic acid (PAA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and a mixture of equal masses of CMC and PAA (CMCPAA). Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) was performed on the electrodes when fresh, cycled at reduced potential, and cycled one full time to study how substrate material binders affect the early formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Electrodes cycled 5, 10, and 20 times were also analyzed to discern what changes to the SEI occur after initial formation. We also present estimates of the SEI thickness by cycle count, indicating that PAA develops the thinnest SEI, followed by CMCPAA, CMC, and PVdF in order of increasing layer thickness.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between on-field, objective signs immediately following sport-related concussion and self-reported symptom endorsement within 1 day post injury. Methods: A retrospective case series of 237 concussed high school athletes was performed. On-field signs were evaluated immediately post injury. Self-reported symptoms (2 clusters) were collected within 1 day post injury. A two-step structural equation model and follow-up bivariate regression analyses of significant on-field signs and symptom clusters were performed. Results: Signs of immediate memory, β=0.20, p=.04, and postural instability, β=0.19, p < .01, significantly predicted a greater likelihood of endorsing the cognitive-migraine-fatigue symptom cluster within 1 day post injury. Regarding signs correlated with specific symptoms, immediate memory was associated with symptoms of trouble remembering, χ2=37.92, p < .001, odds ratio (OR)=3.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) [2.47, 6.13]), and concentration difficulties, χ2=10.84, p=.001, OR=2.13 (95% CI [1.37, 3.30]). Postural instability was associated with symptom endorsement of trouble remembering, χ2=12.08, p < .001, OR=1.76 (95% CI [1.29, 2.40]). Conclusions: Certain post-concussion on-field signs exhibited after injury were associated with specific symptom endorsement within 1 day post injury. Based on these associations, individualized education-based interventions and academic accommodations may help reduce unanticipated worry from parents, students, and teachers following a student-athlete’s sport-related concussion, especially in cases of delayed onset symptoms. (JINS, 2018, 24, 476–485)
To survive in Antarctica, early explorers of Antarctica's Heroic Age erected wooden buildings and brought in large quantities of supplies. The introduction of wood and other organic materials may have provided new nutrient sources for fungi that were indigenous to Antarctica or were brought in with the materials. From 30 samples taken from Discovery Hut, 156 filamentous fungi were isolated on selective media. Of these, 108 were screened for hydrolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose, of which 29 demonstrated activities. Endo-1, 4-β-glucanase activity was confirmed in the extracellular supernatant from seven isolates when grown at 4°C, and also when they were grown at 15°C. Cladosporium oxysporum and Geomyces sp. were shown to grow on a variety of synthetic cellulose substrates and to use cellulose as a nutrient source at temperate and cold temperatures. The research findings from the present study demonstrate that Antarctic filamentous fungi isolated from a variety of substrates (wood, straw, and food stuffs) are capable of cellulose degradation and can grow well at low temperatures.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.